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hundreds going through the streets at dusk, United States steamer “Monocacy ” were in this, freezing weather, with nothing but sent to assist in subduing it, but they were nature's covering, with the addition of a informed in the most emphatic manner that thick coat of native soil, and a cloth thrown their assistance was entirely superfluous, and around their loins. After seeing a few of that they might return to their vessel. But these poor shivering wretches, crouching now look at an instance of Japanese enteralong by the side of buildings, in order, if prise. The fire took place on Thursday possible, to avoid the cutting wind, one can night; instead of sitting down to bemoan not but think that even Japan is not entirely their loss, or waiting a single day for matters free from misery. Even in death these poor to become settled, they start to work the creatures are not allowed their six feet of next morning, while the ashes of their old earth, but are thrown by hundreds into a pit, homes are still hot to rebuild the town. Not or more properly, cesspool.
a moment is lost, but men, women, and chilAfter many tedious delays, finding that dren, with tremendous energy, collect materials there was little chance of having any com for their new roof, and when I passed through pany, I concluded to make the trip to Yedo the place on the following Sunday, not only alone. I had been very kindly invited “to were there a large number of houses framed, make myself at home" at the Legation, and but dozens had roofs nearly completed. having procured through the United States Every thing had been cleaned out with the Consul a guard of Yaconins, I started out one exception of a few mud “godowns," into morning in February, mounted on a splendid which the owners had thrust their valuables, little pony, and followed in single file by the and the mud appeared to have withstood the two-sworded gentlemen. The dress of these fire very well. That was two weeks preYaconins is peculiar and unique. A pair of vious, and now the houses had risen on both huge pantaloons, or rather bags, a tight vest, sides of us in a most surprising manner; not and a coat made with immense sleeves. On palatial residences to be sure, but answering foot their head is generally uncovered, but to keep out wind and rain when riding they wear either a skull cap or a We were now on the Tacaido or main road neatly made straw hat. In rainy weather of the empire, a fine macadamized thoroughthey envelop themselves in a straw cloak, fare (ubiquitous McAdam) extending from which, from its peculiar construction, appears Yedo to the most southern part of the island. to shed water to a great extent. The swords We now began to meet large bodies of troops are not carried by the side as in European followed by coolies carrying baggage, and nations, but are thrust through a belt, “ fore officers who were being conveyed in baskets and aft," so as to be in a convenient position or cangoes. They were all in rapid motion,
and I subsequently discovered that they were After a ride of about three miles, prin some of the Tycoon's army en route for the cipally through the upper portion of Yoko- pass in the Hakoni mountains which they hama, we arrived at what remained of the were about to fortify. We rode on, keeping burnt town of Kanagawa. All along the to the left as is the custom here, when, as road the guard kept up a continual “ Hey, we turned a bend in the road, I noticed just hey, hey,” to clear the road, and the rapidity ahead of us an officer in a cango of rather with which the lower classes made way proved better material than the others, surrounded that they stood in some awe of the military by a guard who spread themselves across the gentlemen ; indeed, one or two individuals road, and putting on a forbidding expression, who did not keep at a sufficient distance appeared to have doubts about allowing us to from the horses, were gently taught better pass. I was beginning to think that dismanners by a sharp cut from a whip.
cretion is the better part of valor when one The town of Kanagawa extends, or rather of my Yaconins shouted “anata !” and rushextended for three miles along the bay of ing up, they turned my pony to one side, and Yedo directly opposite Yokohama, but one forming themselves into a hollow square, afternoon a fire broke out at the windward prepared to resist all aggression. In the end of it, and in a few hours it was a heap of meantime I had laid my band on my revolver, ashes. At night the view of the fire was a and was ready for all sorts of sanguinary beautiful one, the flames extending for a league along the shore, and lighting up the These Yaconins have to be careful of forentire bay and shipping. As soon as the eigners under their care, if only in self-defire was discovered, sixty men from the fence as their heads are made directly re
sponsible for any injury which the “tojans” gaping women and children who, although may receive. At our grand military display they have seen foreigners several times, appear the Tycoon's men drew in their horns, and to be able at each new exhibition to discover passed on their way in the most peaceable some new and interesting points in the manner, we doing likewise.
peculiar biped. We rode on without meeting with any Having delivered my note to the butler other obstruction, with the exception of the (which note looked to the uninitiated eye as continued petitions of beggars, who line the if a playful fly had run through a puddle of Tacaido for miles.
ink, and then proceeded on a drunken spree Every description of suffering humanity over the paper), the gates were thrown open, were here ; some poor creatures that it was and I entered the Legation grounds. My perfectly sickening to look at, gather on this bettoe had followed us on foot all the way, road from every part of the island, and hav- and now stood ready to take charge of the ing managed to set up a few sticks covered pony as soon as I dismounted. with straw to keep out a portion of the rain, These bettoes are a wonderful set of fel. they bow their heads to the ground to all lows. Generally small but nely formed, passers by, calling out in the most piteous they are dressed in winter in tights, with a tones, “Anata, tempo sinjo," “ Tempo sinjo.” loose covering thrown over their shoulders ; It must not be supposed that there is a large in summer they content themselves with amount of pauperism in Japan, for it strikes Dame Nature's covering, but in order to make me that the proportion is small, but it is the some slight improvement on the old lady's lame and deformed who collect from all parts work, they tattoo themselves in the most of the country on these few miles of road. grotesque and fanciful manner. On the run In the towns and cities but few beggars are they are indeed marvellous, being able to seen, I noticed that these creatures seldom hold their own with any horse. The one I ask in vain, nearly all the passers by having bad kept right after us all the way up, and a supply of “cash " which, though of small we went at no snail's pace, and appeared to value, is dealt out to all of them by the be as fresh as ever on arriving at the end of piece; but when it is remembered that a our journey. “ cash " is equal to but one sixteenth of a I found the Legation a fine, large house, cent, it will be seen that the beggars do not built in Japanese style on a single floor, and become rich from their spoils.
with paper doors and windows. Mine host At eleven o'clock, having partaken of a the butler, went straightway to work, and had cup of the weakest tea imaginable at the chow-chow" prepared for me at short ferry inn, we prepared to cross a stream notice, which I devoured with a relish. I about seventy five yards wide.
had sent for an interpreter, and shortly after Their method of preparing tea is peculiar. he arrived. He was dressed in European They serve one with an almost colorless in- clothes, and had discarded the sword for the fusion of the leaves, and although it may be more useful if not more ornamental pistol. extremely "delicate," the taste of tea is so I soon discovered that he was a good deal of infinitesimally homeopathic that I would as a traveller, having been to the United States soon drink the unadulterated hot water. with the Commissioners in 1867, and also to
The ferry boats are large scows, and as no England and France. He said that he found payment was required from us, I imagine English easy to learn, and he spoke very that they are provided at government ex- fluently, but that he could not succeed with pense. We spent about half an hour en- French, the pronunciation was “one too deavoring to persuade my pony that it was many for him.” Not supposing that he would his duty to embark, but he evidently had care to be seen in the streets with a foreigner, conscientious scruples, and we finally com- I asked him to direct the guard to take me promised matters by taking him up bodily, to the foreign Concession, and was surprised and depositing him in the scow.
at his saying that he would walk over there We now began to enter the limits of the with me if I liked. I was very glad to acgreat city, and the houses and population be- cept this offer, as my knowledge of the lancame thicker at every mile. We arrived at guage extends to about a dozen words, which last at the Legation at half past twelve, after I fling out on all occasions, “regardless of a ride of twenty-two miles. While we were cost ” and in a promiscuous manner, in hopes waiting at the gate for the appearance of the that I may strike something that will convey head man, I was surrounded by a crowd of my meaning. The result, however, is not
always satisfactory. We started out about joints ache considerably, and I was glad to half past one, accompanied by my invincible tumble in at an early hour. The Legation is guard.
situated next door to a large temple, and I Yedo, I believe, covers more ground than was awakened at midnight by the “boom any other city in the world, and a walk boom ” of the gong, and in my half sleepy through a portion of it gives one some idea state, grasped my pistol, imagining that someof its vast extent.
thing fearful was about to take place. The streets through which we passed were The next morning, after breakfast, I started lined on either side by Daimios' quarters. out for a ride around the castle, accompanied Each Daimio or Prince was compelled, until as usual by my invincible guard. On our recently, to spend six months of the year at way there we passed through the principal Yedo, and some of their establishments are part of the city, which, as far as buildings are quite grand. Averaging perhaps from ten to concerned, presents very little of interest. fifteen acres each, the ground is enclosed by A person having seen one town has seen all, a fine stone wall. Inside of this and entirely as there is very little variety. The same little surrounding the compound, are barracks, or paper houses, the same overwhelming populaquarters for the retinue, while in the centre tion blocking up the streets, and the same is the castle and other buildings. There are scrupulous cleanliness pervading every thing. about three hundred of these Daimios, so The castle is surrounded by three moats that their quarters alone take up a consider- about one hundred and fifty feet wide, with a able amount of room; in fact, all streets in wall and embankment inside of the first two. sight were lined with these enclosures. It is The castle itself is situated on quite a hill, on really funny to notice the age at which they an artificial island containing at a rough estiallow their small boys to wield swords. mate fifty acres. From the inner moat rises Hundreds of little fellows of nine or ten a finely sodded bank, about thirty feet high, years, strut along the streets with two swords on top of this is a high and substantal stone in their belts, and with the same dignified wall: furthermore deponent saith not, as expression that their immortal ancestors have neither love nor money could effect an enhanded down to them, and I have no doubt trance. The three moats are spanned by that they make as free use of their weapons, bridges built, as all their bridges are throughwhen excited, as their fathers. The poor out the country, in the most substantial dogs have to suffer the most from these
Never built on the level, but always weapons, as they are convenient objects to with a slight curve and with narrow plank, they test the edge of a sword. I saw poor beasts are models of strength and durability. Each with slices off their backs, and minus tails, moat is filled with countless numbers of wild and one large animal had just been divided fowl which no one is allowed to molest. We as we passed. Cut with one powerful stroke next ascended Tassojama, a temple hill situaof a sword directly in half, the poor thing ted near the centre of the city, from which a was just dying. It appears that all the upper splendid view can be obtained of houses in classes are permitted to carry weapons, the every direction, while behind us is the never merchants being the only exceptions.
failing background to Japanese views, snowA walk of four miles brought us to the clad Fusyama. new hotel for foreigners. The Concession is The Government, being in constant expecat present merely an open lot, no houses tation of an attack on the city, were exceedhaving been commenced. The hotel is a ingly anxious to get rid of all foreigners, and fine, large building, nearly completed, of two as the officers at the English Legation were stories, with large rooms and halls, and, requested to retire to Yokohama, I found it situated directly on the water, commands a necessary to start on my return immediately fine view of the bay of Yedo. On the way after "tiffen," arriving in Yokohama about back, I had the honor of being hooted at, five o'clock. When we arrived at the cusand called by epithets which, if translated, I tom-house, I informed my guard that it imagine would have been any thing but pleas was “all right,” and wished them good ant, and I thanked my stars for once that I day, but the fellows would not leave me did not comprehend their villainous jargon. until they had delivered me with no bones When I arrived at the Legation, I was rather broken at the palatial residence from which I fagged out. Twenty-two miles' ride and eight started, when they took their leave in a bomiles' walk I found sufficient to make my coming manner.
NAPOLEON PAINTED BY HIMSELF.
PROBABLY, the truth of the familiar say- that they were raising a monument to the ing, that a reputation cannot be assailed by glory of the founder of the Bonaparte dynasty. any other mau so successfully as by its owner:
No pamphleteer, however hostile, could have in other words, that a manę when he fairly produced a work half so damaging to the
reputation of the imperial hero; no libeller, sets abont it, can “write himself down ”
however unscrupulous, would have dared to faster and more effectually than any other
invent some of the letters which have thus man can do the work for him—was never
been given to the world in the blindness of more signally shown than in the recent public political idolatry. But it was long before the cation of “Napoleon's Correspondence” by effect on the public outside the imperialist order of Louis Napoleon.
atmosphere could be appeciated, and, in the The object of the latter personage was, of
meantime, fifteen volumes had been published. course, the glorification, generally, of 'mon
The work was expensive and quite beyond the oncle;” though he may have thought that
reach of popular readers; it was long and
filled up in a great measure with administro the rays of the halo thus evoked would ex
tive and military matters which deterred indotend to and include the great captain's suc- lent minds accustomed to the light food of cessor in office. At any rate, the faith of the small chronicles and lively causeries. News. nephew in the impeccability of the uncle was papers and reviews were afraid to tread on exemplary, touching and supreme.
- as is
such dangerous ground, and withheld their effectually made obvious by the fact, not only criticism ; in a word, the correspondence, all of his ordering the publication, but of bis things considered, was little read and still less directing the members of the Commission spoken' of. Now and the a political writer,
bolder than the rest, would quote some startwho superintended the publishing, to “make
ling passage to show the evils of uncontrolled no alteration, suppression or modification of
power and the dangers of excessive centralizathe texts."
tion, but without daring to add a commentary. The thirteen originally appointed Com- So the work proceeded rapidly and noiselessly, missioners pursued their task with great dili- watched and appreciated only by a select few. gence. In the space of six years—from It was half completed before its most zealous 1858 to 1864—they published no less than promoters had found out that their pious fifteen large, closely printed octavo volumes.
efforts had resulted in the most complete and They performed their task, also, with great
irrefragable collection of accusing testimony fidelity—indeed, with too much fidelity; for, against himself.
that any one man was ever made to furnish in 1864, the master of ceremonies found it necessary to supersede them by a new Com
Among the strange things connected with mission of six members, of whom Prince Napoleon's career, one of the most strange is Napoleon was the chief; who were instructed the fact that, after a legion of authors have to publish only what the Emperor himself endeavored to set the world right as to the would have made public, had he lived long character of the first Emperor of the French, enough to be his own publisher.
and, in their varied efforts, have represented On the subject of this change of editorship, him in all the phases intermediate between a the Edinburgh Review, in a masterly and—as demon and a deity ; leaving the real question, far as it goes--an exhaustive article, of which like the authorship of Junius, in such a conwe make free use as we write, remarks : fused state that its solution seemed to be
If any surprise was felt by the public, it hopeless; the hero of all these “Lives" was caused, not by the measure itself, but by should himself have dispelled the fog of unthe fact of its having been so long delayed. certainty, and, with his own hand, have Had the situation of the French press been rendered a decision of the disputed point in different, had there existed in France any of
such indisputable terms that dissent, on the those sure and prompt means for testing public part of any intelligent man who will read opinion which free countries afford, there can be little doubt that the knowledge of the ime
what is written, is simply impossible. pression produced by the publication of this
Hitherto, any man, according to his prejucorrespondence would have quickly dispelled dices or his convictions, might adopt or reject the delusions of those who flattered themselves any of Napoleon's " characters," as found in
the pages of the Emperor's self-constituted voice is still diametrically divided between biographers, on the ground that “that is the censure and praise. What many men regard English view of the case ; or,
" the Prus
as despicable in Napoleon, others hold to be sian; or,
“the French ;” and so on. As a proof of his greatness. For example, a if any one was necessarily less or more cor portion of the readers of this correspondence rect than any other because its origin was will concur with the Commissioners when known. As if an anonymous Life of Napo- they say—in that inflated style which none leon might be more credible because its origin but Frenchmen ever attainwas unknown. But now, we have a record
What most surprises one in this corre which is no man's “ view ;” which is neither
spondence, is the impression it gives of the history nor biography as produced by a third universal and powerful mind which embraced person, but is a posthumous confession of the every thing; and which could, with equal hero himself. It is a photograpb, taken from facility, rise to the most sublime conceptions the living subject; and, whether flattering or and descend to the most trifling details. Now damning, it is mathematically accurate in every
soaring above the world, Napoleon marks out line and feature. The most abject and de
the limits of new states; and, anon, he con
centrates his solicitude on the humblest hamlet voted of Napoleon's worshippers must admit
of his Empire. that this picture is correct; or, that the god of their idolatry misrepresents himself: for it For our own part, we find nothing “suris his own handiwork.
prising” in all that; and, as the CommissionThe period of time included in the fifteen ers claim for the object of their panegyric volumes of the first Commission, is about six little less than supernatural qualities, it is teen years—from the latter part of October, superfluous for them to be surprised at bis 1793, to the end of August, 1809; that is, capacity for details. But that is only a parfrom Napoleon's twenty-fourth to his fortieth tial statement of this matter of detail. Not year. As one may say, from bis majority to only did Napoleon mark out new states and his maturity-from the commencement of supervise hamlets; but, as the reviewer behis public life to the highest flight of his im- fore us says, perial power.
At the very zenith of bis power, with one The contents of these fifteen volumes of
half of Europe under his rule and the other “Correspondence” are not, however, merely half in arms against him, he concocted little letters. Proclamations; messages to the
police plots, planned scurrilous pamphlets for Directory on public affairs, civil as well as literary hirelings, suggested caricatures which military ; bulletins ; a variety of official docu he thought might be telling against bis enements, not necessarily written by Napoleon, mies, found time for the ordering of fêtes and
monuments, read reports on the chitchat of the though bearing his signature and issued by
salons of Paris, and, with great pride in his his authority; these, and a mass of miscella
superior vigilance, himself denounced their nies of less importance, help to fill the books; intrigues to his mortified Minister of Police. but of letters there are enough. Enough of This activity might have been admired bad such as Napoleon "would not have made it been successful; but, unfortunately, the public, had he lived long enough to be his pamphlet, the caricature, and the monument own publisher," to substantiate what his
designed by the imperial meddler were gener. adversaries have alleged against him; and
ally bad. In spite of his police and counteralso enough on matters purely military to
police, his empire was so insecure that—as
was shown by the momentary success of the justify the intensified praise of even Thiers
Malet conspiracy-its very existence was at the himself. This latter result was, indeed, bardly mercy of a bandful of resolute men. Neither needed. The world has long been divided literature nor art, neither trade nor agriculon the question of Napoleon's character; but ture, tbrove under his unvarying and stilling there is little diversity of opinion as to his
solicitude. In France, all was done by the military genius.
Government; and all, or almost all, was ill
done. The various estimates of his character, apart from his qualities as a soldier, owe their All this certainly shows a capacity for deexistence, mainly, to the credulity or incre- tail, but there is nothing in it to command dulity of men as to the facts of his career; respect—and surely nothing to warrant pane on which subject, the testimony of bistorians gyric. It indicates littleness, not greatness, is hopelessly conflicting. But it is remark of character. At the same time, it indicates able that on some points about which the mere littleness ; it involves no moral derelicwitnesses agree as to the facts, the public tion, properly so called. But as the investir