they served him as painters, tur- their ancestors and Confucius: the ners, watchmakers, founders, ac- rest abhorred this practice as a comptants, astronomers, and mas. species of idolatry. The latter ters of the ordinance. In short, treated the former as pretended or they directed every thing at the half Christians, and these again court of Pekin. The Christian treated them as insolent confaith and its professors shared in temners of the laws of the empire. this extraordinary prosperity of The disorder was incurable, bethe Jesuits. The Emperor, to cause the last answer of the holy gratify his favourites, published Inquisition had left both parties in the year 1692 that celebrated at liberty to act as they thought edict, by which the Christian re- fit. The Dominicans, and their ligion was declared to be good associates, had not interest to proand salutary, and all his subjects cure a fresh decree, and the Jewere permitted to embrace it. At suits were too prudent to desire their request he sent an embassy one. The former, therefore, en, to the Pope, built them a mag- dured with regret an evil they nificent church within the walls of could not redress, and waited for his palace, and commanded all a favourable opportunity to revive his vicegerents and ministers to the contest they could not conact with tenderness towards the tinue. In the year 1684, fortune Christians. There was but one favoured them with such an opinstance in which he disappointed portunity. A society of clergy them: they Aattered themselves had been instituted at Paris in with the hopes of persuading him 1663, for the propagation of Chrisat last to be a Christian; and he tianity among the infidel nations.* greatly encouraged these hopes The members of this society proby attending closely to their in- vide for the education and instrucstruction, by praising their doc- tion of youth, in a house approtrine, and by his signal favours to priated to the purpose, in order them, their fellow-labourers, and for their mission as apostles of their followers. But he died with- Christ to those that have not yet out the pale of the church in the heard of the Gospel. The mem

As far as could be bers themselves accept this office, conjectured from his life and ac- if called to it by the head of the tions, he was of that persuasion, church, or by those who, under which among the Tartars is called him, have the care of the converthe faith of the great Genghiz- sion of the heathens. These miskam. This religion consists of sionaries are celebrated at Rome, some few tenets, which, excepting as zealous, faithful, and indefathe command of the Sabbath, bear tigable men, and frequently the great affinity to the ten command- bishops or legates of the Pope ments of Moses.

into the infidel countries But the Christian Church in chosen from their body. Some of China, in the midst of this visible them arrived in the year 1684 in prosperity, during the reign of China. The most distinguished Cam-hi, continued internally di- among these was Charles Maigrot, vided and torn. The Jesuits pur- a doctor of the Sorbonne, whom sued their own manner of convert- the Pope had dignified with the ing, and the other missionaries title of Apostolical Vicar, and were offended at it, and preached whom the Jesuits themselves cona very different Gospel. Hence fess to have been a man of great arose two congregations, which hated and despised each other. Congregatio Sacerdotum externarum mis

Gallia Christiana, tom. vii. p. 1039. The Jesuitical Christians honoured siopum.

year 1722.


piety and integrity. He became teachers, the use of the names afterwards Bishop of Conon. The Tien or Chang-Ti, and the wornew missionaries were barely ar- ship of Confucius, and their anrived in China, when the Domi- cestors, under pain of excomnicans and their associates, who munication. This might be truly had hitherto been forced to silence styled a piece of spiritual heroism; and submission, laid before them that a stranger, who wanted both their complaints against the Je- money and friends, and was neisuits and their couverts. They ther a bishop nor plenipotentiary were heard with attention and from the Pope, should dare to bid favour. But it was proper to at- defiance to men, who enjoyed all tack the Jesuits with caution. the intimacy of friendship from Maigrot and his brethren took the sovereign of the country, and several years to consider the mat- that he should venture this, withter in dispute; at length, after a out applying to bis principal at full examination, they joined the Rome, and by his own authority party against the Jesuits, and be- supersede a decree of the holy gun with declaring, that the Chi- Inquisition,

and that confirmed by nese words, Tien, and Chang-Ti, a Pope! Religious zeal makes were improper to denote the true no difficulty of surmounting ordiGod, whom Christians adore, nary rules; this seems to be his since they signify no more than only excuse. He was sensible the visible heaven; and in the next himself that his conduct would place, that no Christian could, require much apology. In the with a safe conscience, comply same year, therefore, in which he with the Chinese custom honour- published his injunction, he sent ing Confucius and their ancestors. it to Rome with a letter to the

This declaration was the rup. Pope, and an humble petition, ture which occasioned that long that judgment might be passed at and bitter animosity between the Rome, whether he had done well Jesuits their fellow-labourers in or ill. In his letter to the Pope China, transmitted through many he complained strongly of the Jechanges to the present time. Mai. suits, and assured his Holiness grot. used every argument and that it would draw tears from his remonstrance to bring the Jesuits eyes to see the mischief and over to his opinion. But it was abominations introduced into the a vain expectation, that a body of church in China by these ecclemen would be flexible, who pos- siastics. These papers and comsess the heart of the greatest mo- plaints were seconded very powernarch on earth, enjoy affluence, fully, in the year 1696, by the diguity, and respect, and are be- personal appearance and applicasides, in their own opinion, so tion of Charmot, a fellow-lamuch more wise and meritorious bourer of his. He earnestly solithan other men. They persisted cited the Pope, and the Court of in their conduct, and threw out Inquisition, for a due examination menaces of the Emperor's and the and judicial decision of the affair, Pope's displeasure. Maigrot was and was vigorously assisted in his so little disheartened at this, that solicitation by the enemies of the it rather animated him. He com- Jesuits, that is, by a very conmenced the war, and ventured to siderable number of persons of become the aggressor in the year rank and abilities in all parts and 1693. A manifesto of his was countries of the Romish commupublished, in which, by virtue of nion. The matter was delayed his apostolical office, he inter- for some years at Rome, doubtless dicted, to all Christians and their because ihe Jesuits employed all


their friends and interest to pre. rich and poor,


upon vent an inquiry. At last Pope oath their monarch's testimony, Innocent the Twelfth, who then Never' was an accusation' opposed filled the chair, was prevailed by more specious and respectable with, and appointed in the year evidence. There was now 1699 a Committee of the most room to hinder the affair from learned and principal members of taking its course.

After six years the holy office, maturely to ex- had been spent in consulting and amine and adjust this dispute. deliberating, judgment was at But he died in 1700, before the length pronounced. On the 20th Committee had time to make any of November, in the year 1704, progress in it.

the holy office decreed, “ That His successor, Clement the the two Chinese words Tien and Eleventh, immediately upon his Chang-Ti should no longer be promotion to the Papal See, or- applied to God, but that instead dered them to proceed. He was of them the word Tien-Chu, which more favourably inclined to the signifies Lord of Heaven, should society of the Jesuits than his pre- be introduced ; that the tables upon decessor. And had he followed which was written in Chinese lethis inclination, he would have ters King-Tien, or the Honour of saved them their anxiety about Heaven, should be removed from the event, by dissolving the Com- the Christian churches; that Chrismittee. But the Pope is not al. tians should by no means assist at ways at liberty to indulge his own those sacrifices, which are offered humour. The affair was become in spring and autumn, at the time too important to be laid aside. of the equinox, to Confucius and The church of Rome was alarm- their ancestors; that they should ed, and all Europe waited im- likewise absent themselves from patiently to see on which side the those houses and temples, which victory would be conferred. Both are built in honour of Confucius, parties employed the ablest hands in order to pay to that philosopher to set forth their cause in public the worship due to him from the writings. The Society at Paris, literati of the empire; that they to which Maigrot, Charmot, and should thenceforward upon no acthe other combatants of that party count pay that worship, which is belonged, warmly espoused the paid by the Chinese to their ancause of their members, and print- çestors, where or in what manner ed a strong address to the Pope, soever it be offered; and in the in which they represented the Je- last place, that those tablets of suits in China as deceivers and their forefathers, upon which was corrupters of the faith : these, on written, in Chinese letters, The the other hand, delivered a paper, Seat of the Soul or Spirit of N. which commanded attention and should be removed from the houses respect, and seemed alone more of all Christians.” powerful than all the writing and These severe injunctions were complaints of their adversaries. softened by some little indulThe great Emperor Cam-hi sent a gences. The new converts were testimony under his own hand, that permitted to appear along with the customs rejected by Maigrot their relations in the halls of their were mere political ceremonies, forefathers, and to be spectators upon which the peace and welfare of the ceremonies there performed, of the empire in some measure but without partaking in them in depended. And a thousand Chi- the least. The Inquisition judged, nese, believers as well as unbe- this might be done to avoid hatred lievers, learned and unlearned, and bitterness, especially after a previous declaration that they archs, and had not the least juris. were Christians, and disapproved diction in the city, or territory, of the custom they were to attend. from which his title was borThey were farther indulged in rowed. He embarked on the 5th hanging up the tables of their an- of August, 1703, and landed at cestors in their houses, without Pondicherry, on the coast of Coany other inscription but the name romandel, on the 6th of November of the deceased, and a declaration in the same year. Here he staid affixed, containing the Christian till the 11th of July in the next faith concerning departed souls. year, and arrived in China in And they were allowed to retain 1705. The Jesuits received him such of the ancient funeral rites · with all the marks of honour as were free from superstition which a legate of the Pope could and all appearance of it, provided expect from the subjects of his they were first instructed by the master. They even exceeded their bisliops and other principal di- duty: they procured him access vines, which of those ceremonies to the great at court, and an might be deemed innocent. These audience of the Emperor, permittrivial indulgences were insuf- ted the most honourable of their ficient to soften the resentment of converts to attend him in his pubthe Jesuits at the unexpected lic entries, and prevailed with the decree.

Emperor to distinguish him by Clement the Eleventh had two various favours from all other amyears before this, in 1702, ap- bassadors. But this respect lasted pointed a legate, with almost un- only whilst they had hopes that limited powers, to visit the new he would at least have found out congregations of Papistical Chris- a medium betwixt them and their tians in Asia, particularly the adversaries. The moment be deIndian and Chinese, and by whole- clared against them, a terrible some laws and regulations to ac- storm arose against him. Tournou commodate the differences between was of that party in the church of them. * The person fixed upon Rome who are called the Rigids, was Charles Thomas de Tournon, and therefore naturally an enemy of an ancient and noble family in to the Jesuits and their doctrine, Lorraine, a divine who, by his which is more lax and moderate. piety and probity, had acquired It might be easily foreseen, that the general esteem and affection of one of this character would not the court at Rome. The Pope him- favour them, and their manner of self, to convey the higher autho- converting: he signified as much rity to his office, consecrated him soon after his arrival, but for some Patriarch of Antioch. † It is com- time kept his zeal within certain mon at Rome to create patriarchs, bounds. Whilst he was prudent, archbishops, and bishops, as mere they continued obliging and rely titular, as theatrical emperors spectful. But his prudence failed and kings; I mean, that they only him as soon as he had an account represent certain patriarchs, arch- from Europe of the judgment of bishops, and bishops. Tournon the Inquisition against the Jesuits. was one of these nominal patri- In the year 1707, he published a

strict ordinance in the name of the See his Commission and further ac- Pope, agreeably to the decree of counts of him in P. Norbert's Memoires the holy office, and under pain of Historiques sur les Missions des Indes excommunication prohibited all Orientales, tom. i. p. 111.

that was prohibited in that decree. + Du Halde is much mistaken in call. ing him Patriarch of India ; but this is This so embittered the Jesuits, not his only mistake.

that they determined he should feel the whole weight of their re- fore, immediately, published a sentment. They and their parti- strict mandate, by which all Rozans first appealed from him to mish ecclesiastics in China were the Pope, and thereby evaded the forbid, under severe penalties, to censure of disobedience. Next teach any thing contrary to the they represented his procedure to laws of the empire, and to the the Emperor, as a violation of his ancient traditions of the Chinese. prerogative. Indeed, it is hard to Most of them obeyed. The few acquit him of a crime like this. who paid greater regard to the Cam-hi, as was related before, Patriarch's injunction were imhad sent a writing under his own prisoned, treated with great sehand to Rome to disculpate the verity, and banished the empire. Jesuits, and attest, that the Chi- Tournon himself was ordered imnese meant by the word Tien, not mediately to quit the country, or heaven, but that infinite Spirit, to be punished as a traitor. He who dwells in heaven, and go- did not wait for a repetition of verns the universe; and that the this order, but hastened to Macao, ceremonies permitted by the Jesuits there to embark, and avoid the were not religious, but political, fury of the Emperor, or rather of and ancient customs of the empire. the Jesuits. But whilst he was And here a stranger, a legate of an preparing for his departure, it was European bishop, boldly and pub- recollected at the court of Pekin, licly opposes the Emperor, and that if he was suffered to return in his own dominions, without his to Rome, he would certainly make knowledge, makes a law to pro- heavy complaints of his persehibit the subjects from practices cutors. A fresh order was issued enjoined by the laws of the em

to secure his person and detain pire. No sovereign prince would him a prisoner at Macao, till the suffer a conduct like this to pass return of two Jesuits, whom the with_impunity. It is doubtless Emperor despatched to Rome. that Tournon, pious as his meaning The unfortunate Tournon was, far transgressed the bounds forced to change his character of of prudence and respect. He was, an apostolical legate and lawin truth, not qualified to discharge giver for that of a state-prisoner, reputably and usefully the great and to pass four years in great and important commission he was trouble and anxiety, under a entrusted with.

His good dis- strong guard, in the house of the position was under the influence Bishop of Macao. His enemies of a narrow spirit and weak un- the Jesuits were his keepers, and derstandingof which his writings, they doubtless were not negligent letters, and injunctions, printed by of their charge. It is possible Norbert and others, furnish abun- that their adyersaries have con. dant proof: they contain dry and siderably aggravated his distresses insipid thoughts, so swelled, in- and indignities in prison. They deed, by pompous expression, that did not probably so far forget the the careless and injudicious reader prudence essential to their order, can hardly distinguish their flat.

as to treat a legate of the Pope ness and impotence. Cam-hi was like a common malefactor. And exceedingly provoked, when the they could never have been parJesuits informed him, that the doned at Rome, bad they been European, to whom he bad been entirely unmindful of their duty so gracious, had presumed to with- to the Pope and him. But thus stand him and his edict, and to much is certain, that whatever know more of the religion of his little respect they may have shewn country than himself. He there- him, was mixed with various in


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