together the horrid and disjointed masses of parri- | ordinary of II. M. suite delivered to Balzac a letcide, fratricide, incest, murder, seduction, suicide, ter written in the royal and imperial hand, to the fraud, covin, gambling, robbery, and rouerie of all following effect :sorts, of which the odious whole is compounded. ! " M. de Balzac le gentilhomme et M. de Balzac The Girardins and Cassagnacs, notwithstanding all l'écrivain peuvent prendre la post quand il leur their shrewdness and sharpness, are of that vulgar plaira." order of men who think that with money at com- The fault of Balzac is the incorrigible permamand they can do anything and obtain everything. nency, notwithstanding ten thousand humiliations Hence it is that the “ Presse” pays nearly 300 and exposures, of a most glowing, yet most despifrancs per day for feuilletons to Alexandre Dumas, cable vanity. The foolish fellow believes himself George Sand, De Balzac, Frederic Soulie, Theo-poet, historian, metaphysician, statesman, dandy of phile Gautier, and Jules Sandeau. But what will ihe first water, journalist, dramatic author, man of be the result in 1848? That each of these per- family, man of fortune, and, above all, charmant sonages will have made from 32,000 to 64,000 et beau garçon! Not content with being one of francs per annum for two or three years for writ- the cleverest observers and painters of manners of ing profitable trash of the color of the foulest mud a certain class or classes, he aspires to be as diploin Paris ; marked with the mark of the beast, and matic as Talleyrand and Metternich combined ; as furnished according to sample, as per order of poetic as De Beranger, Chateaubriand, and La Girardin, Cassagnac and Co. They will have had Martine; and as fashionable and foppish as the De little labor and much money, it is true ; but they Guiches, D'Orsays, Septeuils, and Canouvilles. will also have forever lowered their names and This universal pretension has destroyed the little fame ; and, what is worse, they will have lowered that remained of De Belzac's waning reputation ; literature and literary men for many a long day to and the man whose productions, a dozen years ago, come. To be the hack of booksellers is no doubt were read in every clime, is now fast sinking into to suffer unutterable bondage ; but to be the hack un pitied obscurity. of scheming political adventurers and chevaliers - The nations which envied thee erewhile d'industrie is the last and worst of human calami

Now laugh, (100 little 't is to smile,) ties. The literary men of France may well say,

They laugh, and would have pitied thee, (alas :) with our own Cowley

But that thy faults all pity do surpass.' “Come the eleventh plague rather than this should

To return, however, to the “ Presse.” For a short be; Come sink us rather in the sea,

time Girardin, the editor, was deputy of the Meuse.

At his election, his civil righis as a Frenchman Come rather pestilence, and reap us down,

were ungenerously and unjustly attempted to be Come God's sword rather than our own. In all the bonds we ever bore

called in question. For many years the influence We grieved, we sighed, we wept ; we never

of Count Molé was paramount at the “ Presse,”

and even still his opinions are visible in some artiblushed before."

cles; but at present this journal must he considered It is not only with existing literary celebrities as the organ of M. Guizot, and of his forty or that the “ Presse" plays these gainful pranks, but forty-five personal adherents, who think him the the death of men of eminence is speculated upon only possible minister. We have said that the during their lifetime, and an ostentatious post obit“ Presse" is an authority on commercial subjects. publication of the memoirs of Chateaubriand, and M. Blanqui writes much on these topics, and his the souvenirs of La Martine is promised so soon as name is sufficient to create a reputation. these illustrious authors shall have ceased to As to general intelligence, this paper is well breathe. That the feuilletonists of the " Presse" made up. There is not a fact of the least imporare all men and women of genius and talent can- tance, nor a promotion in the army, navy, the not be denied ; but one of them, with all his ge- clergy, the municipal body, &c., which is not pubnius and talent, is an arrant literary imposter and lished. There is not a scientific, mechanical, or quack. Only think of Honoré Balzac, who came commercial discovery, nor an important cause to Paris in 1820, a poor printer of Touraine, pleaded, nor a change in the value of merchandize sporting the “ gentilhomme d'ancienne souche," or commodities, of which it does not give an acand wearing a cane studded with precious stones, count. Yet it is neither a respectable, nor an worth £80, to which Mde. de Girardin has conse-honorable, nor a truth-speaking, nor a purely, nor crated a volume. The pretentious, aristocratical honestly conducted newspaper; and it has done airs of this very foolish man, but who as a writer more to degrade the press and literature, and to may be called a literary Rembrandt, or Albert corrupt and debase literary men, than any other Durer, so bourgeoise and Flemish is his style, sojournal, always excepting the “Globe," and the detailed and minute his finishing, were properly “ Epoque." treated, according to the Gazette of Augsburg, by The Globe," commenced in 1841 by Granier a monarch, for whom we have no love, but who, de Cassagnac, when that person quarrelled with for once in his life, was right. After the admira- his co-editor, Girardin, cannot be said to have ble and truthful book of M. de Custine had laid died, though it never had above 2000 abonnés. The bare the infamies and atrocities of the Russian Globe" fell to 1800 before it expanded into the system, the Czar expressed a desire that it should“ Epoque,” which arose from its ashes. Cassabe answered by a Frenchman. Balzac, on this gnac wrote under or conjointly with Girardin in hint, started for Petersburgh, and on his arrival the “ Presse," but now they are deadliest enemies, forwarded to his imperial majesty a note, of which and in their war of ribald personalities have disthe following is a copy :

graced themselves, and degraded the press.* “M. de Balzac i'écrivain et M. de Balzac le gentilhomme sollicitent de sa majesté la faveur

*Girardin says that Cassagnac is an impudent Gascon,

ur who was struck at Toulouse, and flogged in the public d'une audience particulière."

street till he took refuge in a diligence; and Cassagnac On the following day, one of the gentlemen in replies that Girardin, siiting by his wife, the pretty and

Cassagnac was originally the editor of the jour-tries. Doherty, an Irishman, writes the French nal “ Politique et Littéraire de Toulouse," and language, if not with purity, at least with origintransferred his services from this provincial journal ality ; but when he touches on religious subjects, to the Parisian press. He is a writer of consider- be is " fou à liér.” Brisbane has established many able talent and incontestable sharpness, but prone Fourierist journals in America, and comes every to personalities and utterly unscrupulous. As to year to France, but does not write in the French Bohain, his associate, he is well known--oo well language. Meill, the German, is a tailor by trade, known in our own metropolis, as the editor of the and a Jew by religion. He is a self-educated man, " Courrier de l'Europe." The " Epoque" is an and writes French like Doherty, more originally immense journal, the size of a "Morning Chroni-|(so to speak) than correctly. He is a lively, active, cle," before that journal adopted a double sheot, turbulent man, who would play an important part and consists of ten separate departments ; 1. Jour- in any civil commotion. Journet is a working man, nal politique ; 2. Journal de l'armée et de la flotte ; who travels through France from end to end, pro3. Journal des cultes ; 4. Journal des Travaux claiming the doctrines of the sect. He is dressed publics ; 5. Journal administratif et commercial ; in a paletot à capuchon, and wears a long beard, 6. Journal de l'instruction publique ; 7. Journal like all good Fourierists. des sciences et médecine; 8. Journal du droit et Every Wednesday evening there is a soirée at des tribuneaux; 9. Journal commercial et agricole; the office of the Democratie Pacifique"-a soirée 10. Journal litteraire, (feuilleton.) The price half of men only-where the initiated talk and weary yearly is 227., and the price of advertisements is in themselves and others, and drink large tumblers of proportion to the number of abonnés-one centime eau sucrée and rum cobbler. Sometimes the soirfor every 1000 abonnés for the annonces omnibus ; ées are diversified by a wonder in the shape of a three centimes for every 1000 abonnés for book- musician, a traveller, a somnambulist, or a messellers and commercial advertisements; four cen- merist, who relieves the natural dulness of the times for railways, &c.

assembly. Several eminent avocats and hommes Cassagnac is the political editor of the Epoque." de lettres are members of this sect, and among He is devoted to Guizot. Desnoyers is the rédac- others, M. Hennequin, the son of unquestionably teur of the feuilleton, at a salary of 8000f. a year, the most learned advocate of France. We may be assisted by Eugene Guinot.

thought to have paid too much attention to the The theatres are under the supervision of Hippo- reveries of these enthusiasts, but the professors of lite Lucas, formerly of the “ Siècle." The rédac- these doctrines may play a most important part in teur en chef receives 12,000f. a year; and the France before the end of 1850. feuilleton is paid at 150f. or 51. 5s. per day. The As the “Epoque" rose out of the ashes of the circulation of the “i Epoque" fluctuates considera-"Globe," so did the “ Esprit Public" out of the bly; but we believe it has never exceeded 3000. ashes of the “Commerce.'• The * Commerce,"

* La Democratie Pacifique" is a journal pub- some years ago, was the property of our friend lished at forty francs a year, which is not sold, but Mauguin, who purchased it, it is believed, at the given away. It is the organ of the communists, request, if not with the money, of the ex-king of and is conducted by the disciples of Charles Fouri- Spain. It was then a journal avowedly in the er, of whose life and theories we should wish to interest of the Bonaparte family; but after the have given some account, but we have already insane attempt of Prince Louis, at Boulogne, in exceeded the space allotted to us. The doctrines July or August, 1840, this cause seemed hopeless, proclaimed are not unlike those of Robert Owen. and the abonnés of the “ Commerce" rapidly deThe founder and principal editor of this journal is clined. The pecuniary embarrassments of MaoVictor Considerant, an élève of the Polytechnic guin induced him to part with the property to a School, and an ex-officer of engineers. He is proprietary imbued with Napoleonic ideas. 'Subassisted in his labors by Dr. Pellarin, author of a sequently, M. Guillemot, who had managed the life of Fourier; by La Vernaud, a native of the “Capitole," the avowed organ of Prince Louis, Mauritius ; De Permont; Victor Daly, an archi- became the editor. It then passed into the hands tect, of Irish origin; Hugh Doherty, a writing of the eloquent and philosophic De Tocqueville, master; Brisbane, an American ; Meill, a German ; deputy for La Manche, and author of the very able and a John Journet, a working man. The "Demo work, “ De la Democratie en Amerique. li reprecratie" is, as the reader will see, a universal cos- sented the jeune gauche in opposition to the gauche mopolitan journal. There are editors of all coun

Thiers. Not proving successful, however, it fell

into the hands of M. Lesseps, who had formerly clever Delphine Gay, was struck at the opera before

been secretary to M. Mauguin. M. Lesseps in a 3000 persons. Girardin says that Bohain, 'Solar, and middle-aged Basque, smart, self-willed, and with Cassagnae, the proprietors of the "Epoque," sent about some talent as a writer, but the "Commerce" did loads of prospectuses of their journal to the subscribers

not, under his auspices, improve. of other papers by itinerant commis voyageurs : Cassa

In fact, it was gnac replies, that the electors of Bourganauf preferred

a la journal which had obtained a bad name, and, as Vidocq, the police spy, to Emile de Girardin, and twits we before observed, it requires the pen of an angel the latter with the affair of the coal-mine of St. Berain, to write such a journal up. On the 1st August, and asks who pocketed the money. Girardin says, that 1845, the paper was put up to auction at 100,000 Cassagnac ordered gaiters of a particular cut for the colporteurs of his journal, to excite attention, for which

francs, but could find no purchasers. It was ulugaiters he afterwards refused to pay : Cassagnac rejoins,

mately sold at 6000 francs, or 2401., with a burden that Girardin went on a hot July day to his bedchamber of debt of 100,00

bedchamber of debt of 400,000 francs, or 16,0001. of our twenty eight francs, or 11. 2s. 6d. yearly. Its no attempt was made to imitate them in England, capital social is fixed at 500,000 francs. As the till our able and facetious conteniporary,“ Punch," “Esprit Public" has been barely six months in entered the field. There are also a number of existence, it is difficult to pronounce on its chances small theatrical journals, but on these it is not of vitality, and no easy matter to obtain an accu- needful to dwell. rate account of its bonâ-fide circulation. We be- ! No account of the French press can aspire to lieve it to be very small-in fact, of the infiniment the praise of fidelity or correctness without makpetit,

Trancs, 0 took off his sweltering shirt, and thinking clean linen money. Out of the debris of the “Commerce" comfortable, clothed himself in one of his (Cassagnac's) a rose the "Esprit Public," of which Lesseps is best chemises. Lest our readers should think we invent lihet or exaggerate, we refer them to the “ Globe," (now the

the acknowledged editor. It is the cheapest daily Epoque,") of the 12th August, 1845. Such are the

journal in Paris, being published at a cost of "faquins de bas étage," the Peachums and Lockits of the press, who strut and fret their hour now on the great! The "Commerce," we believe, still lingers on, but stage of literature.

so much " in extremio that it may be said to be dead.

Jing mention of the “Revue des Deux Mondes," “La Réforme" is a journal of extreme opinions, one of the best conducted periodicals in the world, appearing every day. It pays considerable atten- and of as much authority in France as the “Edin. lion to provincial questions, and to matters con- burgh Review” or “ Quarterly Review” in their nected with electoral reform. Godefroy Cavai- very best days—in the days of Sidney Smith, Jeffgnac was, till his death, the editor ; but it is now rey, McIntosh, Horner, and Canning, Walter chiefly sustained by the pens of Guinard Arago, Scott, Southey, and Gifford. This periodical was and Etienne Arago. It is understood that Ledru established by Count Molé, and the first literary Rollin, the advocate and rich deputy for Sarthe, men in France write in its pages. The proprietor pays the expenses. Dupoty—the unfortunate Du- of this review is the patentee of the Theatre Franpoiy, formerly editor of the “ Journal du Peuple,"çais. Within the last three or four years, the and who, under the ininistry of Thiers, was tried - Revue des Deux Mondes” has assumed a politiand sentenced to five years' imprisonment as a cal character. The “ Political Chronicle," which regicide, because a letter was found open in the excites much attention, was, a couple of years letter-box of the paper of which he was editor, ad-ago, written by a very over-rated, and eminently dressed to him by a man said to be implicated in servile Genoese, named Rossi, now envoy of the conspiracy of Quenisset-wrote, and, it is said, France at the court of Rome. A personal favorite still writes in the « Réforme."

of Louis Philippe, and a friend and formerly broThe “ Univers" is a daily paper quite in the in ther professor of Guizot, this very ordinary person terests of the Jesuits. The editor is M. Jules has risen, without commanding talent of any kind, Goudon, author of a pamphlet on the recent reli- to some of the highest employments in the state. gious movement; and M. Louis Veuillet, author The “ Revue de Legislation et de Jurispruof “ Rome Moderne."

dence" has been eleven years established, and is The “ Nation" is a three-day paper, which ap- also a well-conducted miscellany. It is published pears every Tuesday, Thursday, and Sunday, at a under the direction of Troplong, Giraud, and cost of twenty-five francs the year. The pro- Edouard Laboulaye, members of the Instirute; gramme of this paper is as follows:

Faustin Helié, chef du Bureau des Affaires Crim

inelles; Ortolan, professor at the Faculty of Law; SOUVERAINETÉ NATIONALE.

and Wolowski, professor of Legislation, IndustriORDRE, LIBERTÉ, GLOIRE.

elle au Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. Le loi se fait par le consentement du peuple. It were no easy task to fix with precision the En fait et en droit, les Français ne peuvent être number of journals at present existing in Parisma imposés que de leur consentement,

capital in which newspaper births and deaths are L'impôt doit être voté par ceux qui le paient.

equally sudden and unexpected, and in which the Tout contribuable est électeur, tout électeur est journal of to-day may be dead to-morrow, and the eligible.

journal of to-morrow may jump, uno flatu, into a The “ Nation," therefore, proclaims electoral re- prosperous manhood—but the following resumé form in the largest and widest sense-for all, in a approximates nearly to the truth :word, who pay taxes—i. e., eight millions of There are daily journals of admitted repute.. 21 Frenchmen ; but, knowing that M. de Genoude, Sma of the “Gazette de France,” is the editor of this

Journals not daily, (such as weekly, monthly, journal, we confess we look on the programme

&c.) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 with more than suspicion. M. the Abbé de Ge- Journals' Religious and Moral, of which twelve noude, however, makes every effort to push the

are Protestant, . . . : : . . paper, as he also does to push the sale of his trans-Jon

. . 24 ans. Journals of Legislation and of Jurisprudence, . 38 sation of the Bible, in twenty-two volumes ! But

- of Political Economy and Administration, 3 though the “ Nation," like the “ Figaro" of Bo

- of History, Statistics, and Travels, . : 12 hain, of 1841, is to be sold in the shop of every

of Literature, . . . . . . . . . 44 grocer and baker of Paris and the banlieu, yet it

of Fine Arts, Painting, and Music, .. 9 has been found that this forced sale does not an

- of Theatres and Theatrical Matters, . . swer the expectations of the projectors.

- of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, . There are in Paris a number of papers specially

of Medicine, . . . . . . . . . devoted to law, the fine arts, &c., but it cannot be

of Military and Naval Art, . . . expected that we should enter at any length into

of Agriculture and Rural Economy, . the literary history and circulation of these peri

of Commerce and Industry, . ... odicals. The “ Journal des Tribunaux” and the

- of Public Instruction, ... “ Courrier des Tribunaux" are both conducted by

of Women, Girls, and Children, advocates, and have a very large circulation.

of Fashions, . . . . . . . There are also a number of small satirical papers,

- of Picturesque Sites, Landscapes, &c. , 4 conducted with infinite talent, wit, and esprit-as

of Advertisements, Charivari," the “ Corsaire,”

. the “ Figaro," the

. . . . . . 17 the “ Corsaire Satan." Articles have occasionally

343 appeared in the “ Figaro” and “Charivari” worthy of Voltaire, Beaumarchais, or Champfort ; but This astonishing number comprises Paris only, although these journals have existed, almost at for the departmental press, ten years ago, counted our door, for a period of more than twenty years, 258 journals, which the statists thus divided :


Political and Administrative journals, . . . 153 proprietors are respected, flattered, and feared, beLiterary Miscellanies, . .

cause they have a two-edged weapon at command, Newspapers solely devoted to Local News, . 101 and swordsmen prepared to use it at their bidding.

- The writers are, for the most part, neither re

spected nor flattered-however they may be occaProvincial journals have, since 1836, considera-sionally feared-because there is not one among bly increased. Two or three departments which them worth even £1000 a year, for they chiefly were then without broad sheets have now obtained live" au jour le jour.” Everybody has heard of thein, and we should probably not err in stating Mr. John Walter and of Sir John Easthope—both that the provincial journals of France now amount are rich and prosperous men—one is, and the other in round numbers to 280.

was, an M. P.; but who has ever heard, within The Chevalier F. de Tapies has calculated that the last five years, of the editor of the " Times" in 1835, there were 82,208 - broad sheets" print- or“ Chronicle," or of the names of the writers in ed. This number, multiplied by 1500, the medium these papers? Yet the editors of the “Times" circulation, would give a result of 120,000,000 of and “Chronicle” must be, undoubtedly, men of printed papers, and as it is no extravagant supposi talent and information, and some of the writers are tion that each newspaper has at least five readers among the ablest men in England. Who, howe at home and abroad, we conclude that there must ever, knows them as writers? In England, a be 600,000,000 of readers of French newspapers newspaper is powerful first, and chiefly, as a sucin and out of Europe. The same ingenious statist cessful commercial establishment, having large to whom he have before referred, calculates that capital at command, which capital enables it to the matter of 20 volumes, in 8vo., is daily pub- obtain correct, copious and early intelligence; and lished in Paris, by the journals, and that the secondly, by its articles, or, in other words, by the French press produces, in the year, 2,500,000 literary ability of its writers. A daily paper in pages. Not content with these particulars, he England may be powerful, and of great circulafurther informs us that 500,000 reams of paper are tion, when most indifferently written, but a daily destroyed every twelve months by the pens and ink paper may be written with the eloquence of Burke of the gentlemen of the press, and he goes on to and Macaulay combined, and fail from lack of add, (for which many of our readers will think readers, unless it have a great capital to sustain it; that he ought at once to be sent to Coventry) in other words, is enabled to obtain correct, copithat if all these sheets were folded together, so as ous, or exclusive intelligence. 10 form an immense riband-these are his very Mr. Edward Baldwin, the proprietor of the words—this filet of sustian and feuilleton would " Morning Herald," acting on this view of the thrice go round the broad circumference of the matter, is said to expend £10,000 a year for the habitable globe.

overland Indian mail, while it is clear that the It remains for us now, before we conclude, to tenth of this cannot be paid by him for leading make a very few remarks on the character of the articles, if these latter be estimated at their proper French journals and journalists, as contrasted with value. In France, ten or twelve years ago, a the press of England.

daily newspaper depended altogether—and in a The different rank held in their respective coun- great degree it still depends, though not by any tries, by the French and English journalists, has means to the same extent as formerly-on the been matter of comment and remark, not inerely goodness of its writing. In France, good writers to enlightened men, but even to the observer the are indispensable to good newspapers ; in England, least instructed and most superficial.

though highly desirable, they are not absolutely in“Jo England,” says Mr. H. L. Bulwer," writ. dispensable. It is impossible to establish a daily ing in 1836, “ a paper has immense consideration, newspaper in England without an immense capibut the editor, however respectable, liule. You tal ; but, heretofore, a daily newspaper might be rarely hear him spoken of-in few cases is he established in France without any very consideraknown, unless petied on some accidental occasion ble capital, and may, to a certain extent, still be by public abuse into notoriety. As for newspaper established, if there be superior talent engaged in writers, they are generally held below surmise. I the “ rédaction.” In England, on the contrary, We do not think it worth while even to guess who the money and the management are the main they are."

springs of success in this field of enterprise. In This was perfectly true ten or twelve years ago, France, generally speaking, ihe talent and the pobut it is true now to just the same extent. In litical opinion are the real motive forces ; whereas England now, as then, in consequence of the money and management, though also necessary, newspaper stamp tax, of the system of govern- are yet subsidiary to talent and political opinion. ment and the state of property, it requires an im

In France, talent commands money ; in England, mense capital to establish a newspaper, and a still money commands talent. Hence newspaper wiigreater capital to start a competitor to an estab-ters are somebodies in France and nobodies in Englished favorite journal. These are the circum- land. stances which in this money-getting-money-wor_The recent laws directed against the press in shipping country render the firm-ihe establish-France, bave, however, rendered the establishment-the company--the fraternity of tradesmen ment of newspapers much more expensive and difbound together by the strong links of sordid self- ficult than formerly. To secure the payment of interest and able by their dividends to keep their the highest fine, the security, or cautionment, for carriages, horses, livery servants, &c., peradven- a journal has been raised to 100,000 francs, or ture to become senators and persons of some £4000, and the responsible editor must be propriesmall title these are the circumstances, we say, tor of one third of that sum. In a country where which render the powerful, and the editors, capital is so limited, the necessity of paying £4000 writers, and contributors, the very reverse. The operates very unfavorably to enterprise in journal

ism, and may be considered almost as a prohibi* The Monarchy of the Middle Classes, 1836. tion, when it is remembered that this money is at the mercy of a government whose judges may increased war expenditure in Algeria, and disaster terdict the publication of the paper after two judi- and disgrace have been the result. The press of cial condemnations. But notwithstanding the France called for hostilities with England, at a sinister influence of this law, and the efforts used time when every sine man in England and France by the government to corrupt public writers, these wished for peace, and when hundreds of thousands combined causes do not operate to raise the rich of pounds of English capital had been, on the proprietor of a journal above the pour but able faith of the subsistence of friendly relations, in vesiwriter, as in England. The main cause of this ed by Englishmen in French railroad speculations. lies in the social habitudes and institutions of The press of France, with one or two exceptions, France, which are more favorable to talent, and has for fifteen years remained silent on electoral far less favorable to the power and influence of reform, at a time when the electors are only a few mere wealth than the social system of England. hundred thousand among a population of thirtyMinisters in France seek to bribe and debauch four millions. These are a few of many grave and writers in newspapers, and too often succeed— serious errors, not to say crimes and misdemeao--ministers in England, if there be a favor lo con- ors, which must be laid to its charge. A long ser, or a good thing to bestow, conser it on the time-a very long time-must elapse, ere the proprietors of journals, not on the writers of them. French press regains the ascendancy which it posIn England, the proprietor of such a paper is made sessed, and properly possessed, before the Revolua deputy lientenant, the proprietor of such another tion of 1830. is created a baronet, the proprietor of a third is ap- The press of England, with all its faults, is free pointed a local magistrate. In France, it is the from these grave errors: and the daily press of writers, and not the proprietors, who are reward- England, and indeed, the whole press, daily and ed; and the Bertins are no exception to this rule, weekly, with one infamous exception, is free from for they were far more celebrated as writers than the odious personality which has marked the as proprietors. Fievée, Etienne, Keratry, and Che- literary rivalship and encounter of Girardin and valier, with many others, were made councillors Cassagnac. The press of England is free, too, of state, while at least twenty other writers were with one or two exceptions, we believe, from the made prefects, sub-prefects, maître des requêtes, charge of personal corruption. No one would sell &c. The number of newspaper writers who have praises, as M. Constant Hilbey says M. Viollet sold taken a still higher flight over the heads of proprie- them, at so much the line, in the Patrie,” in “La tors, and attained ministerial “ portfeuilles, or France," and in “Le Droit." It is true, Viollet rethe peerage, is by no means inconsiderable. ceived nothing for himself from the hands of the Chateaubriand, Salvandy, Guizot, Thiers, Duchât- poor tailor, but he had, says Hilbey, a remise or el de Rémusat, Villemain, Cousin, and many percentage on each insertion. There is no respectothers, may be numbered. Thus is a homage able journal in England which would sell a whole paid to talent, both by government and people in feuilleton to this sarne Hibley for 150 francs, as he France, which in England is reserved for wealth or avers the “ Droit" did, in page 31 of his pamphtitle. The late Mr. Thomas Barnes, of the let. “ Times," though not a man of genius, like Hilbey flies at much higher and “ nobler quarChateaubriand, nor a man of such varied attain- ry," than the “ Droit." He avers in all the perments as M. Guizot, was yet far superior, both as manency of print, and with all the convenient cera scholar and a writer, to all the other French tainty of time and place, necessary in an English newspaper writers who attained the rank of min-indictment, that one De Moléon, who lives at 26, ister. But Mr. Barnes was born in a wealth-wor- Rue de la Paix, offered to have his book reviewed shipping and aristocratic land; never was an M. in the feuilleton of the “ Débats” for 460 francsP.-never was a privy councillor-never was a an offer which the tailor refused, inasmuch as he minister in a country which has had a Knatchbull, could have the thing done by an ecrivain fort cona Lincoln, and an Ellenborough in the cabinet, and nu; trop connu même !-(does he mean the famous an Addington, a Goderich, and a Peel, for prime J. J. of the “ Feuilleton ?'') for 500 francs. ministers.

This statement has been published for months, We do not deny, with all these facts before our and has never been, that we are aware of, contraeyes, that the influence of the press in France has dicted by the “ Débats." If any man had said diminished, and is daily diminishing; but this is such a thing of our “ Times," how the calumniaowing, in a great degree, to the abuse of its power tor would have been handled next day in Sterling and the prostitution of its office. The greater por- Saxon. The aspiring tailor also gives, at page 53 tion of the French press raised no warning voice of his pamphlet, a list of the sums paid to the against the embastillement of Paris, whilst all the “ Siècle," " Courrier Français," “ Commerce," journals, excepting two, were in favor of a scheme “ National,” and “France," and we do not bewhich, without being formidable to the stranger, lieve that his statement has been impugned by any may, in the end, prove the grave of French liberty one of these journals. and the tomb of free discussion. The press of But with all its grievous errors and imperfecFrance, too, cried for war, when all the best in- lions, and occasional corruption, both political and terests of the nation demanded peace. The press personal, the newspaper press of France has obof France cried for glory and conquest, when rail- tained, and must ever maintain, unless it shall ways stood still, and the internal communication of most grossly degrade itself, and wilfully continue the country was disgraceful to the age in which we to pervert its functions, a large place and a high live. The press of France called for an increase position in the literature of the country. The inof sailing ships, and for an increased steam navy, strument by which, as De Tocqueville says, the when the greater number of the communal and same thought can be presented to a hundred thouvicinal roads of France were impracticable, and sand minds at the same moment, is a noble instruwhile her luxurious capital remained unsupplied ment, and should not be trifled with, or misused, with water. The press of France called for an in- or perverted. A grave responsibility weighs, in

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