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THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FLOGGING.--Amid the Travers, &c., for examples of internal disease, esstorm of indignant correspondence which has been pecially inflammation of the lungs, induced by extorted by the horror with which a recent fatal severe accidents or operations ; but, if this be true instance of this disgraceful practice has filled the in regard to the tissues in general, it is specially public mind, the following letter, addressed to the so in respect to the skin. The great fact is, that

Times, is so significant, that we feel called upon as exposure to a current of air, so a burn, and so a to assist its argument by bringing it under the no- flogging, may induce disease-lingering disease tice of our own readers. Such new and striking and death."-Atheneum. light is thrown by its propositions, and by the evidence of Mr. Erasmus Wilson given at the coro-

| The Copper Region. The stories whirh reach ner's inquest, on the barbarity of this revolting

lipo us from the copper region on Lake Superior, species of punishment, that there is every hope of

almost daily, startle our credulity; and were it not their, at length, compelling an abandonment of a na

ng an abandonment of that we have ourself seen some of these large usage which-like some others that have lingered mass

that have lingered masses of native copper, we should find it difficult amongst us in spite of all our boasted civilization to

to credit them, however well authenticated. A would be a reproach to a nation of savages.

gentleman from Zanesville, now on his way to Through the length and breadth of England, we

| Lake Superior, thus writes from Detroit, on the will venture to believe, that the disgusting details

| 28th of May, to the Zanesville Courier-"The ex. of this military execution have been read by no pl

plorations on Lake Superior prove that it is, beman without the throb of indignation and the blush you

Ich yond compare, the richest copper region in the of shame. If the use of torture be essential to the

world; and four or five veins have, thus far, been maintenance of discipline in the army, it were bet

discovered which contain silver in sufficient quan ter and more humane to release from the Tower

tities to render the mining highly profitable. some of those horrid instruments which have been

Some of the copper ores carry with ihem 10 per hung up there for the execration of ages, and reg

cent. of silver; which would make its commercial ulate the comparative dignities of colonel, and ser

value between 4,000 and 5,000 dollars per ton. geant, and private, by means of the thumb-screw :

The explorations during the past winter, I learn, “ It may seem very hard if I say that the effect

have been highly satisfactory. One day last week, of flogging is not fully appreciated even in my own,

a boat took down about 50,000 dollars' worth of the medical profession. But I have studied the

copper and silver ore belonging to the Pittsburgh subject, and I beg to send you a few medical hints

Company, destined for the Boston Market. The upon it. Every lash, like every other kind of lac

Boston and Lake Superior Company (Eagle River)

have struck a vein which is represented io be very eration or cutting, affects the power of the heart. A patient sometimes never rallies from the effect

rich in silver. The Copper Falls Company, you of a severe accident, (such was the case with Mr.

will recollect, oncovered a mass of native copper, Huskisson,) or a severe surgical operation. But

last winter, some 13 feet in length-wbich proved this is not all. The skin, which some persons

a very serious obstacle to the prosecution of their seem to think may be treated like an inorganic

work. The Eagle Harbor Company, on the adsubstance, has a special relation with the internal

joining location, have met with an obstacle still organs :-1. A current of air falling partially on 1.

more serious. They have come to a mass of the surface is sufficient, by its action on the skin,

"native copper, which serves as a brazen barrier to and the sympathy of this, through the ganglionic

: all further operations—at least for the present. system, with the internal organs, to induce inflam

They have drifted' longitudinally about 90 feet, mation of the lungs, or of the heart, or of the

without finding its length; they have sunk down membranes which cover these organs. 2. The

| about four feet in places without finding its depth, same event occurs from burns or scalds. 3. The

Its average thickness is about 18 inches! The same event occurs from flogging. It is not the ex

mass thus far uncovered is estimated at about 90 tent of the infliction merely which is to be consid

tons; and its commercial value, when raised and ered ; much depends on the peculiarity of the con

smelted, will exceed 25,000 dollars. This seems stitution. The healthy are less affected than the

almost incredible, and yet it is literally true. unhealthy, the sober than the drunken. But any

Nothing in the previous history of mining operaperson may, as the effect of any of the inflictions

tions can compare with this. The Ontanagon to which I have adverted, become diseased - 1

copper rock, weighing about two tons, was rediscased for life, or diseased unto death : and po map garded as one of the wonders of the world; and -no medical person can tell, à priori, who is to

yet, between that mass and this, the difference is suffer or who is to escape. Flogging is not to be

as great as between a mustard-seed shot and a cantreated of, then, as a thing skio-deep. Many a

pon ball. The company propose erecting a steam

engine for the purpose of sawing this immerse soldier whom it was only intended to flog has been slain, unknown even to the inflicter of the punish

mass into blocks, and thus raising it from the mine. ment; for, as I have said, the medical bearings of

I saw some of the fragments or rough strings,' the subject have not been duly investigated. It is

that were cut off from the exterior; and, with the somewhat singular that those persons who seem to

exception of an occasional admixture of spar, it bear a surgical operation best are precisely those

resembled more the product of the furnace than the whom it affects the most, and most dangerously.

mine."- Toronto Patriot. There are, besides, what we call idiosyncrasies, or The Turkish government has just ordered the pecaliarities, which, hesides the fact of ill-health establishment at Constantinople and Smyrna of a or bad habits, render an infliction which might body of firemen. This step is a victory over the generally be borne without risk most dangerous. docirine of fatalism of the Turks, which enjoina In the tendency to disease of the brain, in disease them to remain inactive when a fire breaks out. of the heart, flogging would be dangerous ; and In order, however, that the object of the governthis punishment has actually induced epilepsy and ment may be fully carried out, the new corps of tetanus (or locked jaw.) I may refer to the writ- firemen is to be composed of Armenians and Jews. ings of the late Mr. Rose and Sir C. Bell, of Mr.-Morning Chronicle.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 123.–19 SEPTEMBER, 1846.

From the North British Review. have disappeared from the stage of existing poli1. Memoirs of the Pretenders and their Adherents. I

tics. It still, however, exists to plague us. By John HENEAGE Jesse. 2 vols. London,

Though not as an active principle, capable of prac1815.

tical application, by the reëstablishment of the Stu2. Memoirs of the Jacobiles of 1715 and 1745. By

arts, it has been made the foundation of speculaMrs. THOMSON. 3 vols. London, 1845-6.

tive opinions, which tear up by the root the princi3. Memoir of Prince Charles Stuart, commonly

ples of constitutional government, and of a whining called ihe Young Pretender, with Notices of

sentimentality which misleads the judgment by the Rebellion in 1745. By Charles Louis

arousing the sensibilities of the heart. The calamKLOSE, Esq. 2 vols. London, 1845.

ities of the wars of ambition are effaced by a year

of peace; those of the wars of opinion, political or Twenty years ago, James Hogg published the religious, make a profounder impression, since lyrical poetry of the Jacobites, which was fast re- they touch at the core the principles on which sociceding from us, as each year carried off another ety is based. Accustomed, therefore, to the imand another of the stragglers who had been out in mortality of party-finding, not in the glens merely the '45. He did service to literature and the but in the crowded cities, the spirit of the coveworld, by fixing down forever so many exquisite nanters still animating their descendants, and the lyrics, which constitute the most enduring record principles of the puritans the principles of English of the feelings and the misfortunes of the extinct descent-it were strange if a great party like the party who composed them. With the natural lean- Jacobites, so resolute in their schemes, so generous ings of an editor to his subject, he found genius in in their sacrifices, so ardent in their devotion, had every poem, and looked ai Jacobitism in such a passed away without leaving on society an impresmanner, that the extinction of the Stuarts alone sion of their existence. prevented the authorities from asking an interview Be it from conviction, or from morbid sentimenwith the Shepherd, on the application of the trea- tality, or as a bookselling speculation, we have been son laws. But though the arm of the law was favored by Mrs. Thomson and Mr. Jesse with two paralyzed, the police of literature-the critics books filled with the most rampant Jacobitism. were in their prime. The Edinburgh Review This would be pleasant reading now, were it not pounced upon the unhappy author and his book, the germinating false principles, and the giving asand dragged before a court of whig jurisdiction the sistance to a party who wish to roll back the free compiler, who, by covert hints, and often by direct opinions of the revolution. The phantoms of hestatement, advocated the exploded doctrines of the reditary right and ecclesiastical supremacy, which exiled family, and thus blackened the memory of had long slept quietly in their graves, have astonthe whigs, who had done it all. Hogg is termed ished the world by the tale of their strange resoreverything but a man of sense; and the poetry it-rection. Under another name, every doctrine self is classed among the fugitive political squibs, against which our fathers protested, and for the which, like the ephemerides, should die on the day enforcement of which the Stuarts fell, has been of birth.

made the subject of elaborate eulogy. Thus the Times are changed, indeed, when the doctrines departed great are robbed of their reward, and senwhich Scott could just insinuate, and for mildly as- tiinental historians and tractarian polemics destroy, serting which Hogg endured martyrdom, have been by distinctions and exceptions, all political moraliurged in four octavo volumes with an earnestnessly and all constitutional freedom. that could not be surpassed, though the restoration Yet the three works which have just appeared of the Stuarts were yet attainable. We had on the history of Jacobitism are an agreeable accesthought that Jacobitism had died away, even amid sion to our literature. They give the history of the scenes which cradled it into youth, and saw the the empire subsequent to the revolution ; they brief triumphs of its maturity. In the mixed and do it, too, in the form the most engaging and invariegated shades of modern party, we had ima- structive. Memoirs increase the interest, by indigined that the search would be in vain for the prin-vidualizing the narrative, and centring the attenciples of our Jacobite fathers. Their gallant tion on a single object. Painting men in dishabille achievements and their heroic deaths came to us -exhibiting them in their retirement-associating through the cold medium of history, or in the us with the history of their private life, in those plaintive melody of Jacobite song. Time was moments when nature speaks--these writings credoing its usual duty of reducing heroes to ordinary ate an interest always superior to that of history, proportions, and the romance of the '45 ran the which hampers itself but little with details, and elerisk of an eclipse. Even the long list of terrible vates its heroes upon a pedestal. We see the past proscriptions which swept over a ruined party, ex- more fully than was ever wished by the men whose tinguishing ancient families, and changing the very doings constitute public history-we can unravel names of the districts that for ages had belonged to the secret motives and outrageous pretensions of an them, had been forgotten, under the benign civili- age divided from ours by a hundred years, and as zation which has followed the consolidation of the each rotten reputation is dug up from the ruins of throne of the house of Brunswick.

this moral Herculaneum, we find many an illusion The end of Jacobitism appeared to be approach- vanishing as to character and actions. ing, from very want of an object for which to live. We do not mean to say that the important period After a flickering life, kept up by the genius of of fifty-seven years, from the revolution to the last Scott, it hastened to its exit, and ought ere this to rebellion, has found historians full in all things, in

CXXIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. X. 34

the three writers who have published the Memoirs him, when treating of the antique history of anof the Jacobites. They have confined themselves other land. He brings to his task all a foreigner's only to one party, whose history, however, must impartiality, with few of a foreigner's prejudices. always be interesting to Scotland and to Scotsmen. Had he referred more to his authority, and told the Commencing with the statesmen of the days of sources of his knowledge, we would have had James the Second, we have a continued biographi- greater confidence in his narrative, aod given a cal narrative to the death of the last of the chiefs more implicit respect to his speculative opinions. of the '45. In regard to the mode in which this These in general are just, liberal, and philosophic: has been accomplished, we have-barring the Ja- and while the romance of history is not lost by procobite leaning-much to praise, and but little tosaic dulness, the writer never rides the pegasus of condemn.

imagination, to excite a "thrilling" interest, by a Both Mr. Jesse and Mrs. Thorson have the burst of forced and metaphorical conceits. merit of adding, from unpublished papers, some- Mrs. Thomson's work is one which has agreeathing new to what is already known. That which bly disappointed us. It is a genuine book, a litle is old they have placed in an intelligible garb, and too pompous and ambitious in its style for memoirs, dragged considerable information from the obscuri- yet written with an earnest honesty of feeling, that ty of volumes which the world had forgotten. But, goes far to palliate its errors of opinion. We bewhile Mr. Jesse displays great industry, he has lit- gan to read it, in a spirit of hopeless resignation, tle discrimination. All that has been written on determined honestly to discharge the task of only the subject he has given us-truth, falsehood, ex-judging it on trial. We anticipated that it would aggeration, nonsense-compiled, with great fideli- have been a production of the same school, as that ty, from every source accessible to investigation of all the lady writers on Scottish history-feeble and industry. With the indifference of a practised in statement, erroneous in its facts, sickly in its writer, he is not ambitious of originality. Provided thought, but above and beyond all, with an intolthe book is made, it matters not to whom belongs erable mouthing of the most maudlin sentiment. the merit of the writing; and accordingly, every We have found it, however, a book, with regard to third page is a quotation of the interesting passages facts, carefully compiled-drawn not merely from in all the pamphlets, histories, and memoirs which the ready sources patent to all, but from the seerehave enlightened the world on the history of Jaco-cy of ancient cabinets, in which was entonbed a bitism. By using his scissors rather than his head, large collection of interesting correspondence, now, Mr. Jesse has furnished us with a better book than for the first time, made known to the world. We a stricter attention to originality, or a higher intel- see that this lady has spent a large portion of her lectual activity, would, in all probability, have time in the study of books containing the history given us. It is only to be regretted, that in the of the events of which she treats; she cites them preference bestowed on his quotations, he has not as one who loves them and knows them well ; she labored at all times for the honor of his sagacity, borrows from them a crowd of piquant passages and has inserted much to increase the volume and interesting anecdotes, drawn principally from rather than the interest. In regard to what is ori- forgotten sources. Freshness and animation reign ginal, we might have had a more distinct narrative throughout; and in the passages most Jacobitical of those minutie that illustrate personal character, in their tendency, the good nature, good spirit, and national manners, and the feelings and opinions of agreeable writing silence rebuke. She has never the time. Much of the general speculation-in allowed what she terms "a leaning for the upfor"high Cambyses vein—not very consistent or pro- tunate cause of the Stuarts" to pervert the imparfound, might, with advantage, have been supplant- tiality of history. Neither do we meet with any ed by a few of those numerous anecdotes which cruel outrages upon logic, or any perversion of escaped the industry of Forbes, Scott, and Cham- those great principles on which rests the column 'bers, and which, though still circulating in society, of British freedom, erected with such painful effort, are fast dropping into oblivion. The Jacobitism of and guarded with such unsleeping zea). the volumes is, moreover, evidently not native The work has evidently been revised by persons here, and to the manner born. It has, with him, capable of saving the writer from mistakes. When only the appearance of being the medium for fine we find a lady versant in the technical jargon of writing, like those old airs that musicians take, in the Scottish law, and rivalling Bailie Macwbeeble order to produce upon them a thousand new varia- himself in the correct description of " fee and lifetions.

rent," and of all the mysteries of " dispositions of Yet, after all, Mr. Jesse's book is interesting lands, heritages, tenements, annual renis, together and instructive. The greater part is occupied with with the goods, jewels, gear, utensils, horses. the history of Prince Charles. There is also a full sheep, cattle, nolt, corn, and others pertaining and sketch of the life of the old Chevalier, the father belonging to," &c., &c., (vol. ii., p. 301, and vol. of the prince, more complete and accurate than any ii., p. 180-6,) we are scarcely in error in supposother we know of in the English language. Add to ing that some modern bailie has given the aid of these the Memoirs of the Countess of Albany, the his inspiration to the history. There are, howerwife of Prince Charles-of the Cardinal York, his er, some errors in regard to localities that might brother, the last and best of the Stuart line since have been avoided, by a judicious employment of the days of James the First-of the gallant old any bailie who, (according to Mrs. Malaprop.) by Balmerino-of the Earls of Kilmarnock and Cro-being "instructed in geometry, might know some martie-of Lord George Murray, and the celebrated thing of the contagious countries." Thus we have Flora M'Donald.

the village of Logierait, near Dunkeld, transmuted Mr. Klose's book is one with greater pretensions into Logaret, (vol. i., p. 87.) The house of Stewto originality, and is confined exclusively to the art of Gairntolly, is changed into "the house of history of the young chevalier, with a prefatory Stewart of Grandutly," (vol. i., p. 155,) which sketch of the character of the Stuart reigns. Mr. might be confounded with Stewart of Grandtully Klose, though a foreigner, has fallen into a few of a different family. The river Earn becomes the blunders which might have been excusable in Eru, (vol. i., p. 181,) and the Trosachs are trans

muted into Trosaêhs, (vol. ii., p. 156.) Many peal of the act of settlement was ever imminent, other blunders of the same kind some typographi- and it was by the doings there that the Stuarts had cal and others editorial - we do not mean to dwell ever a chance of a second restoration upon in regard to a work which possesses so many On this subject all our three historians are either recommendations.

erroneous or mute ; and we regret to add, that Mrs. Mrs. Thomson, by not giving a history of Prince Thomson is the greatest offender of the three. We Charles, has ample space for separate memoirs of are surprised that she has omitted a history of the the subordinates. Her first volume contains an Jacobite intrigues in the days of William, and of admirable biography of the Earl of Mar, in which the policy of that sagacious manarch. Of the still we are carried back to the old parliament of Scot- more interesting events of the reign of Anne, little land, and enlightened as to all the details of the is told, and that erroneously. Parties are confoundrise, progress, and suppression of the rebellion of ed; and the crimes of the tories are mercilessly laid the '15. We have also a memoir of the young upon the whigs. Yet unless there be a correct and Earl of Derwentwater, who closed his short career, even minute account of the intrigues at court, the amid universal sympathy, on the scaffold ; of the first rebellion, in its origin, is absolutely unintelligiMaster of Sinclair, whose opposition to Mar and ble; and the second, in its apparent imprudence, graphic history of the insurrection, have saved his criminal and dishonest. The first was the result of memory from the oblivion that his insignificance passion, a start of phrensy, on the part of the bafotherwise would have ensured him ; and, finally, fled intriguers of the last ministry of Anne. The of Cameron of Lochiel, the most patriotic, disinter- second, where the cloak required to be made after ested, and bravest Jacobite of them all. The sec-it began to rain--where an insurrection was raised ood volume commences with the biography of the without a regiment organized, can only be redeemEarl of Nithsdale, who was saved from the scaffold ed from being a crime, as great in morals as in law, by the heroic intrepidity of his wife; of Viscount by the state of parties at '45. To tell that Charles Kenmure, and the Marquis of Tullibardine ; of Sir raised his standard at Glenfinals--gained the battles John Maclean, an illustrious obscure, of whom the of Preston and of Falkirk-was routed at Colloden world has heard little and cares less, and of whom -hunted in the Hebrides, and finally escaped, is to all that is necessary to be said, may be summed up tell us half the story, upon which no judgment can by saying, that he was one of the officers of Cla- | be pronounced on the character and conduct of the verhouse, and was out in the '15. The latter half chevalier. The same difficulty surrounds us here, of the volume is, however, occupied with two that fetters the judgment in regard to the history of names, with which Scotland once rang from side to Mary. Compassion for misfortune perverts the side-Rob Roy and Fraser of Lovat. The former, truth of history. It represents the victims of their though at the battle of Sheriffmuir, could scarcely own excesses as abandoned to party fury, instead be enrolled among the Jacobites. At the same of being condemned by all the majesty of national time, we like to read his history, though it might justice. Thus the men who wanted an excuse to have been told with somewhat less of the tone of a begin the tragedy of their country, appear as marsermon on human frailty. Of the life of Lovat, we tyrs by the heroism of their death. Our only recan only say that it gives a good but rather stilted source is in what Mr. Klose alone has attempted. and grandiloquent portrait of that extraordinary Before we can strike the balance of good and evil being, who, with all the vices of human nature, in the history of the Stuarts, we must recall the could simulate virtue so admirably, that he some story of their expulsion--the succession of abuses times convinced himself that it was real. Of this -of obstinate and enormous error-of fatal folly, incomparable rascal, we meet with a new incident by which a family, delivered to all the elements of somewhat peculiar. It appears that, besides being decay, marched rapidly to its ruin. We had a an outlaw, prison-breaker, and perpetrator of every long experience of its incapacity. By that light crime, including rape, perjury, assassination, arson, we are enabled to reduce to its level, a romantic treason, he was guilty of rather successful hypoc- story, which, by exhibitions of courage and generrisy. He took holy orders when he found time osity, would otherwise ennoble human infirmity, hanging on his hands in France, joined the Jesuits, dignify the nature of vice, and make ambition virand attracted vast crowds to the evangelical ser- tue. mons of the Curé of St. Omer! Of the third vol. The two prominent characters in the volumes ume, we need only mention, that it contains a very under consideration, are the old chevalier, the son of full memoir of Lord George Murray-of Flora James the Second, and Prince Charles himself. M'Donald-of the Earl of Kilmarnock-of the They are interesting contrasts ; the gloomy, deDuke of Perth, and of Charles Radcliffe, brother sponding, unambitious father--the sanguine, gay, of the Earl of Derwentwater.

light-hearted, and enthusiastic son. Both were enThe most defective passages in these three books gaged in unsuccessful rebellions, and have thus afare the history of party. While nothing is left to forded us an opportunity of comparing their capacities be desired in regard to the history of persons, we - both were the victims of domineering necessities, have little or nothing of the doings of those great enabling us to contrast their powers of endurance, parties that divided ihe empire. While we have a and their philosophy. Where, against hope, the faithfal narrative of the antics of the pappets, we son struggled so nobly, and with his ragged mounare told nothing of the people who pulled the taineers advanced within three days' march of Lonstrings. The mode in which the whigs and tories don, we are often driven to suppositions as to the of the days of William and Anne conducted them- fate of the empire had Charles been the leader in selves, relative to the exiled princes, constitute by the '15; a better account would, at least, have been far the most interesting chapter in the history of transmitted to posterity as to the conduct of the Jacobitism. They exhibit a series of intrigues war; force of character would have obtained its acwithout example in profligacy, unparalleled in customed preëminence, and the penalties of treason blanders. The battles of the cabinet and the sen- would not have been incurred without a provocation ate rise in interest above Sheriffinuir or Colloden. equal to the punishment. It was in the cabinet alone that the danger of a re-l of the causes of the first rebellion we shy after

wards have something to say. The immediate reverse, with all its dread apparatus of punishagent who took the management which produced ment, had not yet made prudent. Scott has well the ruin, was one of those restless men unfit for a sketched the scene in Waverley, though he has leader, and unwilling to be a subordinate. The placed it at a later date. Never was there a gathEarl of Mar was one of the adventurers of the pe- ering in Scotland for such an object, which disriod, whose estates had suffered a quick process of played a greater array of ancient names. The decay under the forfeitures of the civil wars. He hunting was changed into a council of war, opened had entered life with a determination to retrieve his by the Earl with a long harangue, apologetic of position, if it were possible, by honor--if not, by his past tergiversation, and energetic with the any means consistent with safety. It embarrasses promise of future resolution. Assurances of a historians now to ascertain the causes of that exten- general rising in England, and of aid from France, sive influence exercised by this intriguer in the mingled with appeals to those national feelings so north. Ambitious mediocrity, insatiable vanity, a powerful with such an audience, carried away at sublime genius in a coterie, an assumption of skill ihe last all the suggestions of prudence; and the in all things, were his principal characteristics, whole assembly committed themselves by an oath while selfishness and expediency were his princi- of fealty to the Stuarts. ples of action. After some rather dishonorable The cause, at this juncture, had much of the irinming, he had allied himself with the tory party, elements of success. A party unbroken in spirit and partook of their disgrace. Like Oxford and by defeat ; resolute, active, united ; an unpopular Bolingbroke, he made an attempt to ingratiate him- foreigner on the throne, estranging the affections self with the German sovereign, and forwarded to of the ancient nobility of England by crowding him a letter, which, for fulsome adulation, was too his court with the obscure officials of his petty strong even for the German appetite of George the principality, wriggling themselves into the governFirst—" I beg leave by this to kiss your majesty's ment of a nation of whose very language they hand, and congratulate your happy accession to the were ignorant, and stilling themselves into greatthrone.” The vile columnies of slanderers had as- ness, by measures which compromised the security persed his character, he said ; wicked insinuations of their master and the peace of Europe ;-diswere made against his loyalty. His own services content universal ; the tory chiefs constituting the to his country, his share in promoting the union of ministry of Anne pursued with forfeiture, and the crowns, and the consequent imposition upon threatened with death; the absence of any statesScotland of the act of settlement which the Scot-man of capacity to direct with energy the defence tish parliament had never passed his exertions in of government; the abundant supply of funds in baffling intrigues adverse to the Hanoverian succes- the hands of Mar; these were advantages which sion in the days of Anne, with lavish promises of in abler hands would have sent the Hanoverian his determination to secure it now, were topics on Elector to learn the philosophy of patience in his which he dilated only a few months prior to the cele- hereditary dominions. brated hunting match at Bræmar, at which he un- But no Claverhouse with ruthless energy, no furled the flag of the Stuarts. (Mrs Thomson, i., Montrose with his rapid movements was there, to p. 51.)

give life to a party who only wanted a leader. Not contented with this, he exerted his great in- | Now when they had all the materiel of war, they fluence with the Scottish chiefs, to procure an ad-wanted the gallant youth, who, in the '45, often dress of congratulation to the new monarch on his reduced to his last guinea, was obliged to carve his accession This address was signed by heads of way to a throne with three thousand mountaineers the clans, who subsequently became parties in his armed with scythes. But the supple courier rebellion. But it was all to no purpose The could neither command the respect of his followers German elector, in ascending the throne of a great by his wisdom, or inspire them with confidence in empire, was only a German elector still. His his military skill, which he began to acquire when views were early bounded by the confines of his circumstances elevated him to command. Throughpetty principality, and he could never realize an es-out all Scotland, however, to the north of the timate of the nation whom necessity had compelled Forth, the fame of rebellion spread with amazing to call him to be their chief. England was too big speed, and the incompetent commander found himfor him ; and his politics were based upon the nar- self at the head of a well supplied army of ten row prejudices of his education. To the throne he thousand men. carried all the petty resentments of a schoolboy, / Had Charles Edward been so equipped in ihe and, in their gratification, forgot the prudence be-/'45, the retreat from Derby might have been coming a monarch whose power rested upon the changed into a victorious march on London. But quicksands of a disputed succession. To have se- the leaders of the rising in '15, knew better how cured the attachment of Mar, would have only cost to write gloomy letters of anticipated disaster, the easy gift of some bauble honor, or lucrative ap-than to gain victories or animate soldiers with their pointment. To have done so, would have been to prospect. Every scheme was discussed with the extinguish in its origin any chance of immediate verbosity of diplomatists negotiating a treaty; and, insurrection.

in general, the tide had passed before they had All hopes of honorable or dishonorable ambition resolved to unloose their moorings. The impatient being thus cut off-all excuses for allegiance be- Highlanders, instead of an immediate onslaught, ing crushed by threats of impeachment and at- were turned for a long period into Perth, to sow, tainder for past misconduct-all the hereditary in inglorious inactivity, the seeds of vexation and feelings of his family to the Stuart race, being disappointment. The capacity of Mar for the strengthened by all manner of insults to himself; leadership, may be judged of by two extracts from -disappointed ambition-baffled hopes-safety- his letters—the one exhibiting the trifling society false honor-all concurred to one object; and the he resorted to, in the midst of a rebellion, and the famous Bræmar hunting-match was held. Here, other the childish impertinence he indulged in, the Earl invited all the chiefs of influence whom when charged with such momentous responsibilihereditary principles had made Jacobite, and whom ties.

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