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moners in the earlier stages—until, as Mr. Smith great cause for this general and intense apprehenO'Brien informed his Irish audience at Conciliation sion of Sir Robert Peel's merits! It is not merely Hall this week, it afforded opportunitt for a vote that he carried the two bills-other men share to turn the ministry out. In fact, opinion on the that honor. There seems to be even a paradoxical subject of Ireland has matured with a suddenness reference to past times when he abided by what unparalleled; but it was too late for Sir Robert were not merits. That is the key to the question : Peel to throw away the bill which his own col- the singular merit of the statesman, in the popular leagues had introduced. It is negatived by the eyes, is his unprecedented sacrifice to attain a good house : he now knows better what ground may be for his country : he sacrificed place, power, a show taken up in Irish pacification; and there is no of that outward " consistency” which is prized so “ inconsistency" in his declaring a better ground highly; he had the moral courage to brave all than that of coercion.
obloquy, and sacrifice to his new convictions a But that which has perhaps caused the greatest frank arowal of his own past errors in judgment : shock to sensitive souls is Sir Robert's tribute to in a word, he sacrificed the individual to the nation. the great anti-corn-law agitator. The merit of re- All is paid, with interest. pealing the corn-laws, he said, was due neither to No incident illustrates more forcibly the magnihimself nor to Lord John Russell, but solely to tude of what Sir Robert Peel has done for the “ Richard Cobden." Some people are puzzled as country, than the remarkable contrast between the to the motive of the avowal, and of course are last whig attempt to form a cabinet and the present ready enough to find a bad one. The motive completion of one. Then, all was embarrassment, appears to us not recondite. Sir Robert Peel's difficulty, impossibility: now, all is smoothness strength, throughout his late career, to its triumph- and facility. Then, the cry was, what will Lord ant close, has lain in his abiding by the plain John Russell do to carry corn-law repeal! how truth; and his purpose was to give that plain truth can he muster a cabinet ?-now, the corn-laws are a crowning avowal. There was, however, some out of the way, and the cabinet is formed. It was little exaggeration of phrase ; which Richard Cob- so much a matter of course that there was no den does not need. His merit lay in giving anima- anxiety about it--nothing beyond the commoneet tion to an abstract question of right-in organizing curiosity. a public opinion which had been created. But It was not expected that the Russell whig cabieven that organized public opinion, lacking the net would be more than a revival of the Melbourne elements of popular revolution, which it did, might one; and so, in its elements, it proves to be. have floundered on for years in ineffectual impor- This is the list. tunity had not Sir Robert Peel endowed it with
IN THE CABINET. the full power of the Executive. Richard Cobden
den Lord Chancellor, Lord Cottenham. would have carried the measure sooner or later: President of the Council, Marquis of Lansdowne. that it is carried in 1846 is due to Robert Peel.
Lord Privy Seal, Earl of Minto. And in awarding the " suum cuique," there are
Home Office, Sir George Grey. others who ought not to be forgotton-Charles
Colonial Office, Earl Grey. Villiers, whose motion was once a yearly scoff for short-sighted folks trusting in the majorities of the
Foreign Office, Viscount Palmerston.
First Lord of the Treasury, Lord John Russell. time being ; Wolryche Whitmore, the predecessor of Charles Villiers in times of still remoter hope ;
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Charles Wood. and Colonel Thompson, who first popularized the
Chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster, Lord
Campbell. science of the question, and supplied the instinc
Paymaster General, Mr. Macaulay. tive common sense of the public with logical argu
Woods and Forests, Viscount Morpeth. ments and epigrammatic illustrations. The corn
Postmaster General, Marquis of Clapricarde. law catechism was the ancestor of the Anti-Corn Law
Board of Trade, Earl of Clarendon. League. How necessary was the modern engine
Board of Control, Sir John Cam Hobhouse. of agitation, is proved by the fact, that the author
Chief Secretary for Ireland, Mr. Labouchere. of the catechism is not in parliament to complete
Admiralty, Earl of Aukland. his work; so little of real " public spirit" is there in the constituencies!
NOT IN THE CABINET. Sir Robert Peel fitly closed his speech with a Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, Earl of Besborough. message of peace--the Oregon question is seuiled. Commander-in-chief, Duke of Wellington. " Lucky minister!" Ay, lucky are they who Master-General of Ordnance, Marquis of Anglesey. take pains to be so. In this instance the luck Here we see the old familiar cards, only shifted. seems to have arisen from that judgment which Still there is change both in the adaptation of men shaped jast such a measure as could be offered and to particular offices and in the circumstances; and adopted without derogation from the honor of on the whole the change is for the better. either side.
In glancing down the list, the eye is first stopped Having laid down his power at the feet of the by the name of Sir George Grey as home secremajority, Sir Robert Peel left the house, leaning tary. Although not unknown for ability in official on the arm of Sir George Clerk; and, having been routine, and although Sir George made a marked recognized outside by a watching multitude-not a improvement in his style of speaking, (relieving mob he was escorted home to his private house the fluent level with smart personalties,) he has in triumph. There was a contrast to the minister's yet to show what powers he has to undertake this triumphal return: his two antagonists-not the very important office. Times are tranquil, but most illustrious but the most notorious-came they may not always be so; and the home secreaway at the same time: their heads bent down, tary cannot "exchange" at the prospect of dan. they seemed to shun recognition ; and they were ger, like a dandy officer. And even to support a seen to pass away amid the scowls of those who comparison in mere administrative ability, the sucdid know them-lucky to escape in silence. cessor of Sir James Graham has no light task.
When all is done, you ask, what is the ono “Foreiga office--Viscount Palmerston" : well, the fear of that sound has passed. The trouble-him credit for being; and we shall watch his new some dangerous questions in America are settled career with interest. He left office at a time of - just in time. Lord Palmerston, with capital commercial difficulty and impending revolt: he retact, improved the last opportunity to pay a pro- turns to it in time of prosperity, profound tranpitiatory visit to Paris, and assuaged old rancors quillity at home, and peace with all the world. in that quarter. Moreover, the lesson which was His old difficulties have vanished : Ireland has received at Christmas, when the same appointment grown to be one for the whigs as well as for their of foreign secretary destroyed a ministry in em- political rivals; but the great new difficulty is to bryo, no doubt taught the whig leaders that Lord keep pace with the immense progress achieved Palmerston's license must be settled beforehand ; , while he has been out of office. Surely, however, and it is to be presumed that a clear understanding he may count on a fair trial in that arduous enterhas been come to on that head. The fact that prise. Earl Grey, who protested before, has consented to The Anti-Corn Law League is dissolved; its sit in the cabinet now with the very clever Vis- council “suspended,” to be evoked at any attempt count, is some guarantee.
to revive the corn-laws. The league celebrates iis Of Lord Grey, in the colonial department, the own euthanasia with a golden chime, voting to its very highest expectations are formed. Should he retiring chairman a cool ten thousand! There is disappoint them, it will be a public misfortune ; as nothing to complain of in that politic munificence. the chances of party have put forward no second | The league has earned its money : there is just the statesman to supply the place which he is expected shadow of a chance that it may be wanted again, to fill.
to stop attempts at reviving the corn-laws; and it Mr. Charles Wood possesses aptitude for finance, is well to let it repose on its watch with the dorknowledge, and general ability; and good is au- mant vigor of an energetic life in it. The staff gured from his elevation to the Exchequer. of servants who retire on their fees will have quick
Lord Clarendon has earned a reputation in com- ears, should the suspended council need “ flapmercial diplomacy ; he has also the reputation of pers" to awaken it at the sound of danger. earnestness and soundness in view; the way for a Of course a ministerial crisis could not pass minister of commerce is now so well marked out without a manifesto from Mr. O'Connell: and acthat he can scarcely fail.
cordingly the member for Ireland has done his best The reäppointment of Sir John Hobhouse-to comply with the exigency. Nothing new was Jazy, negligent, and an abettor of the Afghan war expected, and nothing new was produced ; but, as -18 unpopular with the Indian public at home, usual, he issues a long schedule of grievances to and will be so in India ; it is too great a concession be redressed, first in voluminous minuteness, then to individual “ claims" upon party connections. in brief. There is evidently a growing fear lest
Lord Aukland also lost as well as won laurels the accession of the whigs should be detrimental in the East. Lord Ellenborough succeeded him to the interests of the organized repeal agitation, in India as vice-king, and now he succeeds Lord by decoying away adherents : to counteract that Ellenborough at the Admiralıy as first lord; so dreaded influence, Mr. Smith O'Brien and others there is party compensation at least.
are industriously engaged in talking down the sus Lord Besborough, when Lord Duncannon, was pected tempters; whose support even of this last well known to the public as a liberal but thorough- coercion bill is made a strong point against them. going whig; Irish affairs are well known to him ; The repeal leaders, exhausted in shows of patriotbut it is not so well known whether he has the ism, beginning to quarrel among themselves at the peculiar capacity for coping with the great “diffi-instigation of self-love, know that they can no culty" of the day.
longer afford to tamper with avowed whig alliances. The Duke of Wellington opened his mouth on Ireland, we say, is likely to be Lord John Russell's Monday, to do little more than utter a kind of gen. " difficulty." eral order announcing the retirement of the minis- The Oregon question is settled. The American try. Afterwards, at a private interview with Lord government have adopted, without altering a word, John Russell, he is said to have declared that the final proposition made by this government. henceforth his mouth is to be closed on political sub- That proposition was based on the modified Amerijects : he relapses into the mere military com- can offer, “the 49th parallel," said by intellimander. So he says ; but we look forward yet to gent people to be the last inch that the fierce some bits of his plain naïve good sense on suitable democracy would yield. But the British governoccasion.
ment made two qualifying proposals, which did Such is the cabinet: what is its premier ? Re- not interfere with the integrity of the American cently we feared that he was the same ponctilious position : the 49th parallel was taken, not to the cadet of " the house of Bedford ” who would have broad ocean, but to the salt waters only; the headed a crusade to preach the particular doctrines boundary to deflect southwards in the strait of San of Lord John, but would not soil his glove in any Juan de Fuca ; thus leaving to England the whole other quarrel. Some rumors, however, indicate of Vancouver's Island, with a command of the conversions on his part too. According to their entrance to the strait. Moreover, England reshowing, he has become alive to a true sense of serves a right of way up the Columbia river. the juncture, has looked a little beyond the whig Some doubt has been expressed as to the duration circle, and actually has invited to join his ministry of this right-whether it is to be perpetual, or the most popular young members of the late gov- only during the currency of the charter to the ernment-even the three named by the Spectator, Hudson's Bay Company. There is nothing to Lord Dalhousie, Lord Lincoln, and Mr. Sydney show for the limited interpretation. England will Herbert! The invitation failed of immediate keep the right so long as she thinks it useful and effect ; but the will may be taken for the deed. the two countries are not at war; in the latter We begin to suspect that Lord John is a more case, to lose it or to vindicate it vi et armis.-Specpromising student of living history than we gave talor, 4th July.
THE OREGON TREATY.
| Fort Langley, or the mouth of Fuca's river, it will The great difficulty of fixing a frontier line be
be ten times as short and as facile to carry goods tween the territories of Great Britain and the
to any part or parts of the Columbia north of the United States in the north-west of American has
| 49th degree as to transport them from the mouth at length been solved ; and so rejoiced must every lon bia will thus become a dead letter in a very
of 'ne Columbia. The free navigation of the Corational person in the two countries be at the mere fact of the solution, that few are inclined to criti
few years, even if there be no understanding as to
| its more formal abrogation. cise and carp upon the conditions. The difficulty was not so to fix the frontier line as would best
In a military point of view, and looking to a reconcile, and least militate against, the real inter
secure and permanent colony, the possession of the
whole of Vancouver's island answers every object ests of both countries, but to satisfy public opinion as to the dignity of the nations being equally con
| of Great Britain in that part of the world. Notsulted.
withstanding the pertinacious struggle of the two Last year the pretensions of the two countries
countries for the mouth of the Columbia, it is more seemed quite irreconcilable. Successive English
than probable that, now it has decidedly fallen to
the United States, they will not be inclined to governments had peremptorily refused to entertain
expend much labor on it, but that, on the contrary, the idea, or even consider the preference, of any frontier north of the Columbia. "The trade of the
the Admiralty Inlet and the southern shore of great fur company had for years floated down and
Fuca's Straits will attract them. In this case up that river, on the bank of which were its main
these straits will become the most active centre, establishments, with ramifications and forts and
and the presence of both nations in it will mutually stations extending north and south. On the other
aid each other's prosperity by the supply of mutual hand, the Americans, feeling themselves entitled
wants. It is remarkable that the Hudson's Bay to at least half the region, insisted that bounding
Company has already preferred using Admiralty
mg Inlet to the Columbia river, and that a portage of them by the southern bank of the Columbia gave
ninety miles had been established from the inlet to them not only less than half the territory and the
the Cowlisse river, so to avoid the difficulties of coast, but of the coast or the harbor literally gave
the bar at the mouth of the Columbia. In the them nothing. Mr. Polk and his public thought that the best
division of the north-western region of America means of forcing British opinion, and, consequently,
the British have preserved the same great advanthe British ministry down to a more feasible and
tages which they possess on the north-eastern fair compromise was to bluster, to put forth ex
coast, viz., the possession of the great coal-fields, treme and extravagant pretensions, and plainly
so indispensable to their navigation. All know the
unrivalled advantages of Nova Scotia, in this point to war as an alternative. We are sorry to say this has had the desired effect. Our tory
respect, to all the neighboring American states. chiefs put on a bold aspect, but took care at the
And, according to Mr. Duon's account, the vicin
heity of Fort M'Loughlin, within our Oregon limits, same time to inquire, was the object in dispute
not abounds in coal fields, which are not mere matter worth fighting for? The Hudson's Bay Company had the monopoly of the disputed territory. It
of speculation, but have been worked and tried by was asked, what was their tenure worth? The
the agents of the Hudson's Bay Company.
It seems, that the final conclusion of the Oregon company replied, that in ten years they would have
treaty will enable England to come forward as killed every head of game and skinned every beaver
mediatrix between the United States and Mexico. in the region, and that for other purposes they
Our accepting that treaty at such a moment proves cared not for it. To go to war for land so estimated, and for a ten years' monopoly of some score
how far England is from wishing to take advantage of skins, seemed unwise, and the territory up to
of a moment of embarrassment to hurt or press the the 49th degree and the Straits of Fuca was offered
United States. There will, therefore, be a strong to be given up. The only regret is, that this was not
| party in Washington for accepting our mediation. done long since, and that these concessions were
Indeed, there is a good prospect of a far better
understanding on all points between this country not made to the pacific and courteous Mr. Webster,
er, and the United States than has presented itself instead of to the blustering Mr. Polk. Another difficult question was the free navigation
for many years.-Examiner, 4th July. of the river Columbia, which the American president declared could never be permanently yielded,
THE ANTI-CORN-LAW LEAGUE. and which the British government had always insisted on as due to the Hudson's Bay Company, as It is now nearly four years ago since we comwell as to the dignity of this country. This diffi- mented upon “ the great fact” of our epoch. From culty has been adroitly got rid of by stipulating the that time up to the present, its development has free navigation of the river for the Hudson's Bay been more than commensurate with our expectaCompany, and those trading with it. Such stipu- tions. Its fruits have anticipated the period of lation will no doubt be of use as long as the com- our predictions. Its destiny is—to all visible and pany keep up their establishments at Fort Vancou- conjectural purposes-completed. And now, in the ver, and as long as they hunt the regions east and moment of triumph-at the arme of its power-the west of the upper part of that river. But all this Anti-corn-law League subsides into a voluntary tract they confess would of itself have been ex- repose which, but for some sudden and unexpected hausted in ten years, and now, of course, will be strategy of its assailants, will merge into a volunabandoned sooner. As soon as the Hudson's Bay | tary extinction. agents shall have ceased to collect furs and to dis- Íhe history of this confederacy has been most tribute stores in those regions south of the 49th curious. Of itself it is a political phenomenon, the parallel, the navigation of the Columbia will no full interest of which will be more fully realized longer be either wanted or used by them. Aby the historian or the philosopher of future days glance at the map will in a moment show that from than in our own time. But it will be more interesting in its consequences, even at a distant day, I lese powerful over individual intellects, but more than in the immediate and fiscal objects on the at- mighty to move popular passions, were doing their tainment of which its energies were concentrated, work in Covent Garden. The year 1844 witnessed and with the possession of which its ambition is similar operations and similar fruits to 1843-lecsatisfied. It would be unreasonable to suppose tures, discussions, and public meetings. The subthat an organization so perfect and so successful as scriptions had increased to £ 100,000. And then this should not hereafter be followed by others in-began the last movement, that of the registration. spired by the same hopes, resting on similar sym- But the effect of this was anticipated. The forces pathies, and conducted by men of a like character. which were thus slowly but surely accumulating The prospect of such new creations—whether or- were spared the struggle to which they looked fortained for good or for evil-gives additional im- ward, and were led to the desired victory by the portance to that which has been the first of them chieftain whom they were enlisted io ' fight in time, in fortune, and popularity.
against. The progress of the league is without its paral. Such is the outline of a history fraught with lel in history. The summary of it-now familiar many reflections and potent example. The abolito the world—as sketched by its chairman at the tion of the corn law is of itself a great achieverecent meeting in Manchester, is this :- In the ment. Whoever had done this—whatever minisyear 1838 a small body of gentlemen connected ter or whatever party-would have done an act of with manufactures and commerce met in Manchesgreat importance, and, we firmly believe, of general ter.-Amongst them were a few members of Par- good. But the mere abolition of duties on corn liament friendly to free trade, but not persons of does not limit the magnitude of the exertions or large political, or, indeed, any other than mercan- the example of the league. The league is the first tile interest. They were reinforced by some seedling of the reform bill. For the first time an manufacturers in the neighborhood. The first association essentially popular in its origin, and all sum of money which they subscribed amounted but exceptionally popular in its composition, lias only to £3,000. This was afterwards increased dictated its own terms to a proud aristocracy and to £6,000. Delegates from the young association an ancient monarchy. Heretofore it has been a visited London to watch the proceedings of par- section of two leading parties that has made or reliament. Agitators travelled, and pamphlets were tarded our great revolutions. The whig peers and distributed, all over England. No means were proprietors made the revolution of 1688. The tory neglected by which the doctrines of free trade peers and landowners retarded the revolution of could be brought home to the understandings and 1833. But the revolution of 1846 is due to the sympathies of the people. But the legislature and people. It is the first systematic embodiment of the ministry still remained hostile to them. The the people's will and the people's intelligence. year 1811 ended in glooin, uncertainty, and dis- Cobden, the leader and champion of the movement, iress. Trade was stagnant, employment inter- Wilson, Fox, Bright, are all men of the people, rupted; the pressure of severe destitution was fol- unconnected with influential families, and unassolowed by the natural rebound of disaffection and ciated with historic names. This is an omen of turbulence. Violent partisans of one side tried to promise to the strength of the people ; and, if the turn this crisis to the advantage of the leaguers ; experiment founded on their accordant wishes partisans equally violent on the other side sought realize all that has been predicted of it, then it will 10 twist it to their prejudice. But men of modern likewise be a guaranty of their prudence, their politics and judicious minds saw that the time was justice, and their moderation. arriving when it would be necessary to adjust the We have said that the consequences of this new balance between the demands of a formidable agi- development will be traced by future writers and tation and a powerful aristocracy by a peaceful watched by future statesmen. The league falls and opportune compromise. We ourselves warned into a repose which may precede either an expectthe minister of the consequences which must ensue ed dissolution or an unexpected revival. But the from a pertinacious rejection of moderate counsels. spirit which has animated it will not sleep. The Those consequences have ensued. At that time, powers which it has aroused will not relapse into however, apprehensions were derided, and predic- perpetual stupor. A great experiment has been tions sneered at. The annual motions contin-made. The middle classes of England have ued to be made in parliament, and to be made | learned the value and efficacy of an organized without avail. In 1813 the Free Trade Hall was union. Hereafter, when the minister lags behind opened in Manchester, and the subscription of the the demands of the people, or the parliament is year announced to be £40,000. Then the meet- stubborn in resisting them, the momentous contest ing of the growing association was transferred from of 1846 will infuse hopefulness and determination its parent city to London. Covent Garden opened into the minds of the offended remonstrants, its doors to an unwonted audience and unusual land will teach them that there is something performers. For the first time in our country's his stronger than class interests or parliamentary tory, the presumed representatives of Puritanism parties. were heard haranguing at 10 o'clock at night on For our own part, we confess that we have no the boards of the national drama. Mr. Leader desire to see the necessity of such a revival, or the jostled Mr. Fox; Mr. Fox elbowed Mr. Bright; repetition of such an experiment. We have a preand Mr. Bright fraternized with Lord Radnor. judice in favor of the forms and mechanism preMen of fashion talked democracy; men of rank scribed by our constitution. They may be tedious threatened a revolution. These gatherings gained they may be intricate-but they are safe. The in attraction, in popularity, and finally in influence. present revolution has been consummaled without Whilst Mr. Cobden was bearing the brunt of the any loss, without any risk. No blood has been battle in the house of commons, and by his strong shed. The funds have not fallen. Nothing has sense and logical faculty unconsciously convincing been endangered but the ministry by which it was the prime minister by whom he was opposed, supported. It has been a peaceful crisis—a pacific: Messrs. Fox and Bright, by the aid of weapons / conquest. But for all this we know who are thevictors, and we recognize the means which made France the strict observance of constitutional forms them so; and these we would eschew for the fu- which the practice and precedents of a century ture. We know, indeed, that he who was the have made possible in England, will probably be life and soul of the present agitation was driven found adhering more closely to such a policy as a into this course by no vanity, no love of praise, no constitutional minister ought to pursue. . From the ambition, but simply by an earnest purpose and a majority obtained by the French ministers in the business-like desire to effect a practical remedy of late division in the Chamber of Deputies, it does not a positive evil; but we do not know that there follow that they will be equally strong after the were not others who took it up, not from any ab- elections. When we consider, however, how sorbing devotion to free trade, but from interest, much of Guizot's strength is attributable to his ambition, and love of excitement. In all great success in creating an impression that he is a safe popular movements there will be two classes of minister, the great influence exercised by the exmen-the one anxious to make the agitation sub- ecutive in the elections by the centralization of apservient to the cause they advocate, the other only pointments, the pacific policy of the king, and the studious of making the cause subservient to the growing importance of the industrial interests, it is agitation. As popular movements increase, this scarcely conceivable that the conservative party, latter class will increase also. England will be the party of the peace minister, can be materially filled by provincial associations and roving rhetori- weakened.- Spectator. cians. Every new grievance will give birth to al new society, and every society will diffuse its Pope Gregory the Sixteenth departed this life on countless pamphlets and its unprincipled lecturers. Monday the 1st of June. He had long labored
This will be an evil. But it will not be the only under a chronic affection in the legs, in consequence one. Two greater evils can be conceived to be not of his habit of remaining during the greater part improbable. The one is, that of collision between of the day seated at his desk; and it is reported. the people out of doors and the parliament within ; that the more immediate cause of death was a surthe other, that of a capitulation signed by a minis-gical operation performed on one of his legs, which ter in the eleventh hour, at the expense of a party produced violent inflammation, and terminated falong deluded into confidence, and the sacrifice of tally in a few days. principles long professed with obstinacy. The one The Journal des Débats gives the following parwould be tantamount to a civil war, the other, to a ticulars of his late Holiness :destruction of public faith. May many years “ Mauro Capellari was born at Belluno, on the elapse before England witnesses either of these 18th September, 1765. A Camaldolite monk, great calamities ! - Times, 4th July.
Capellari had rendered himself celebrated in his
order by his ecclesiastical science and his deep GUIZOT AND THIERS.
knowledge of the ancient and modern languages of
the east. A reputation of doctrine and of regaThe French Chambers are much employed in larity which had spread beyond the cloister, and preparation for the general election, which is ex- the general regard entertained for his character, pected to take place about the beginning of Au- had secured to the humble monk, long before he gust. The ministerial strength has been tried, was summoned to the Sacred College, a considerand not found wanting. The great speeches of ation equal to that of the princes of the church. In Guizot and Thiers were electioneering speeches- March, 1825, Leo the Twelfth raised him to the announcements of the grounds on which the rivals dignity of a cardinal; and soon after, he was placed are preparing to appeal to the constituencies at the head of the vast and important administrathroughout France." As orators, Guizot and tion of the Propaganda, for which, by his African Thiers are not unequal, though very dissimilar : and Asiatic erudition, he was especially suited ; widely different, both are effective. As statesmen, and the talents he displayed in it confirmed his they perhaps approach more closely than would at great reputation for capacity. In the conclave of first sight appear ; both are literary men still more 1828, Mauro Capellari was one of the cardinals than men of action. This feature, however, is most favored by public opinion, and most violently most obvious in Thiers : in him the brilliant and opposed, in the conclave, by what is called the the love of the brilliant predominate, and impart Austrian party. In the conclave of 1831, Cardinal an unreal character to his programmes of policy; Pacca, who was supported by that party, the leader he speaks for effect, and says what he thinks will of which was Cardinal Albani, had obtained nineproduce an effect at the moment; hence his speech teen votes at the ballot before last, and Cardinal of this year often contradicts that of last year. Capellari twenty-six; but at the last ballot six or Affecting the reputation of a dexterous intriguer seven votes escaped Cardinal Albani's influence, and daring performer of coups d'état, he is ambi- and Cardinal Capellari obtained the majority. He tious of being that of which he is only filted to be had been elected Pope on the 2d of February, 1831 ; the historian or panegyrist. Men admire, but dis- and ascended the pontifical throne under the name trust him. With less of brilliancy and more of of Gregory the Sixteenth." sentiment, a just estimate of his own powers has Cardinal de la Tour d'Auvergne is to proceed made Guizot take a very different line: he is at forth with to Rome, to attend the conclave of the pains to be consistent and plausible; though the Sacred College, which is to assemble immediately, littérateur predominates over the statesman in him to elect a new pope. At the election of popes, equally as in Thiers, he knows better how to act three powers-namely, Austria, France, and Spain the statesman's rôle. There is on the whole, too, -have each the privilege of annulling the first more of sincerity in Guizot than in Thiers. It is election, should the choice of the Sacred College the cue of the latter at present to be the leader of be disagreeable to them. Cardinal de la Tour a constitutional party : but he is not the man to d'Auvergne will exercise this power in the name allow forms to stand in the way of his ambition. of the French government. It is understood that Guizot, on the contrary, too clear-sighted to at- Spain will act in concert with France on this occatempt in the young constitutional government of sion.