« VorigeDoorgaan »
it may be inferred that they will soothe by words ment, the committee believe that the surplus revand niggle at minor remedies ; in England, their enue would by this time have been nearly brought policy is to be to supply omissions in Sir Robert up to the old level, and that the administration of Peel's tariff _“ no further harm."
the post-office would have been in much greater What is to be their foreign policy? Irritation, repute with the public. after the old fashion ? reciprocity, their old hag- Mr. Warburton, in proposing the health of gling? or imitation of Sir Robert Peel-setting “ Mr. Rowland Hill, the author of Penny Postthe erample in commercial freedom, and trusting to age," made some interesting statements that example, for its beneficial and peaceful! The public subscription had been a liberal one, results?
but it was a most inadequate expression of the What man is to lead them? Let us know that, admiration which Mr. Hill's services had excited because even from his character we may guess in the public mind. Sir Robert Peel's government whether they will strike out a new policy, vindi- had unwisely determined to dismiss Mr. Hill from cate their unearned position, and make their gor- his employment at the treasury in organizing the ernment worthy of the country. Will it be Lord new methods; but it must not be forgotten that Grey, prepared to act on large principles ? Lord among the subscribers to the testimonial was Sir Clarendon, preferring national to party interests? | Robert Peel himself. Mr. Warburton trusted that, Lord Morpeth, able to act on a sentiment and a under the present or some future government, Mr. faith? Lord Palmerston even, an active and effi- Hill would be installed in office, not in a subordincient statesman ? No; it seems that Lord John ate capacity, but in a commanding position, from Russell is to keep his old post. Is he a man to which he could superintend the details of postoutrun expectation ? Will he forget his self-ref- office administration. erences-his fear of being morally answerable for Mr. Rowland Hill made his speech of thanks contingencies-his punctilious dread of doing any- the medium of fresh instruction as well as of gratithing beneath “ the house of Bedford ” by vulgar fying retrospect. One of his prominent topics heartiness of liberalism-huis growing alarm lest was a generous recognition of the services of othhe should be convicted in any way of “playing ers; among whom he enumeratedsecond fiddle” to Sir Robert? We have no hos- Mr. Wallace, the indefatigable chairman of the tility to Lord John; we shall be pleased if he sur- parliamentary committee of 1833 ; Mr. Warburton, pass expectations founded on experience of the who drew up the report, the ablest document of past : but as it is, we augur little advancement for its kind ever issued ; Mr. Ashurst, the agent of the liberal party, because he is not liberal enough the London Mercantile Committee. In the house to lead that party; we anticipate litile success for of peers the cause found able advocates in Lord a ministry that must depend on progressive reform, Ashburton, Lord Brougham, Lord Radnor, and because he cannot unsay those things which be- the Duke of Richmond. An acknowledgment was trayed his doctrine of " finality." With all respect also due to Mr. Baring, late Chancellor of the for 1831, we have no wish to restore that year fif- Exchequer, for the manner in which he exercised teen stages after its legitimate position in the cal- the powers conferred by the act of parliament. endar.
Personally, Mr. Rowland Hill felt indebted to that The whigs claim credit for supporting Sir Rob- gentleman, for the confidence and friendship with ert Peel, and the Chronicle quotes a testimonial which he was honored during the two years he from the premier to that effect. No doubt, they acted under him. are investing as much support as they can, consist- | He contrasted the anomalies which existed ently with their party views, in the expectation under the old system with the results of the new. that it will be repaid in kind. Will their measures In considering these results, it should be borne in deserve support on other grounds; will they com- mind that the execution of the plan, in some of its pel it by the greatness and boldness of their de- essential parts, is still very incomplete. On the meanor ? That is what some of their best friends subject of revenue he made the following statedoubt, wishing that they were not put to trial just ment. The year 1837, which was adopted by the yet; and the timorous doubt evidently infects the parliamentary committee as the standard of comwhig leaders.-- Spectator, 20th June.
parison, gave a gross revenue of 2,340,0001., and a net revenue of 1,641,0001. He had estimated that
under the new system the same gross revenue From the Spectator. would be obtained, but that the net revenue would ROWLAND HILL.
be reduced by about 300,0001. Last year, the
gross revenue actually obtained was 1,902,0001., The formal presentation of the National Testi- or full four fifths of the estimated amount ; and the monial to Mr. Rowland Hill, the postage reformer, net revenue was 776,0001., or nearly three fifths Look place at a public dinner on 17th June. of the estimated amount. The return, however,
The gross amount of subscriptions was 15,7251. which showed this result had scarcely been issued 45. 8}d., and the expenses 2,3641. 55. 3}d.; leav- before it was followed by another, stating that the ing a net balance of 13,3601. 19s. 5d.
“ real net receipt of post-office revenue” is 47,5821. This amount would have been larger had not On which discrepancy Mr. Hill observed—“As I the maximum rate of subscription been restricted / am very desirous of avoiding all points of controto 101. 10s. Regret was expressed by some of versy on this happy occasion, I shall not notice the the subscribers that the execution of Mr. Hill's return further than to state that it is a repetition plan, instead of being intrusted to himself, had of the fallacy the attempt to establish which so been transferred to the post-office authorities, the notably failed three years ago, and that any calcuundisguised and constant opponents of that plan. lation of net revenue which shall accurately adjust Others expressed a hope that Mr. Hill may soon both sides of the account, by charging on the be afforded an opportunity of perfecting his plans; one hand a fair share of the packet-service, and by and in that hope the committee sympathize. Had giving credit on the other hand for the cost of disMr. Hill's services been retained by the govern- tributing newspapers, will show a net revenue larger even than that exhibited by the accounts monial; but had Sir Robert yielded to his entreatmade out in the ordinary manner. In short, the ies, and allowed him, at any pecuniary sacrifice. real net revenue, instead of being under 50,0001., to work out his plan- as he did offer to work it is above 800,0001.
without cost to the public-his gratitude would “ The number of chargeable letters delivered in have been unbounded. Still, even at that mothe United Kingdom, in 1838, was ascertained to ment of disappointment, he could say that he felt be about 75,000,000; the number in 1845 was no regret at having embarked in the great work of 271,000,000. And in January of the present post-office improvement. By the aid of Sir Thomas year, the latest period to which the returns apply, / Wilde, Mr. Baring, and some other friends, be ihe number was at the rate of 303,000,000 per was enabled to fulfil the only duty which remained, annum, or four times the number in 1838. The and that was to place the facts on record. The increase of letters necessary to sustain the gross | National Testimonial was then proposed ; and the revenue, I estimated at fivefold. This estimate progress it made was such that all anxiety on his was attacked at the time as much too low ; but it part as to pecuniary resources for the future was is now indisputable that the gross revenue will be soon at an end. Nearly the whole fund bas been made ap when the increase of letters amounts to safely and advantageously invested ; and this infour-and-a-half fold. In the London District Post, vestment, added to his own small property, is. (the old Twopenny Post,) the increase has been with his frugal babits, amply sufficient to relieve from thirteen millions in 1838 to thirty-one mil. his mind from anxiety with regard to a permanent lions in 1845, or much more than twofold. The provision for his family. gross revenue of this department is larger now than at any former period. This fact appears to be con
POST-OFFICE REFORM: THE NATIONAL TESTIclusive as against a general twopenny rate. As to the increase of letters generally, it may be stated
MONIAL thus—there are now as many letters delivered in The tribute paid to Mr. Rowland Hill this week the London District, that is to say within twelve might be made, and ought to be made, the fulcrum miles of the post-office in St. Martin's-le-Grand, as of a new effort to remodel our post-office system there were under the old system in the whole thoroughly. The penny postage-the money United Kingdom.” But this increase, vast as it is, orders--the increased frequency of mails-all these amounts to less for every man, woman, and child are important parts of Mr. Hill's system, but they in the United Kingdom, than a letter per month. are only parts of it. Their entire efficacy pre
He quoted the opinion of the chanceller of the supposes an extensive reconstruction of the interexchequer as expressed in his last budget speech, nal machinery of the office. Until this be effected, to show the good hopes of increased revenue which they are inadequately worked, and do not produce that gentleman entertains from the post-office. their full amount of benefit; the expectations of
He should not go into the question of deficien- the public are constantly suffering disappointment cies in post-office management. A long list of -business combinations frustrated, which would them, with the remedies, appears in the report of not have been attempted but for reliance upon the committee of 1843; and he was sorry to say them, or would have been attempted by some that the last three years had done but little to other means. reduce the number. He would mention one or Under all the disadvantages of haring been two instances of improvement. Two years ago, worked by inadequate machinery and hostile workthe post-office very reluctantly made an approach men, Mr. Hill's system, as far as it has been tried, towards the hourly deliveries in the London district, has been successful beyond what the most san which formed part of his original plan; and al- guine had reason to expect in so short a time. In though only three deliveries were added, instead 1838 the number of chargeable letters delivered in of six, the effect was immediately to advance the the United Kingdom was seventy-five millions ; in annual rate of increase in the London district post- 1845 it was two hundred and seventy-one millions letters from 1,800,000 to nearly 2,700,000, or 50 Mr. Hill estimated that the former gross revenue per cent. By the adoption of two other suggestions, would be sustained when the letters delivered had which at the time he proposed them were deemed increased fivefold: it is now obvious that it will be inpracticable, 11,0001. a year had been saved. He sustained as soon as their number becomes four was justified in assuming, that but for the interrup- and a half times what it was; and already it is about tion in the progress of the measure which took three and a half times the sum. Mr. Dillon stated place on the retirement of the late government, all that the correspondence of his firm had inereased his expectations would have been realized. Otber since the cheap postage was adopted to four times countries had participated in the advantage : re- its former amount, but that the private corresponductions in the rates of postage had taken place in dence of persons employed by them had increased Rossia, Prussia, Austria, Spain, and the United tenfold. Parties who enjoy opportunities of narStates of America, in consequence of the good rowly observing the habits of the poorer classes example set by the English parliament
state, that the communication by letter among He had been more fortunate than many other re- friends and families, has increased among them in formers; for he had seen his plan brought into prac- a still more encouraging ratio. The money orders, tice, imperfectly as it might be. There was, how too, have materially economized the circulating ever, one period of his course to which he could not medium in the case of extensive traders, who allude without pain. It was that when, with health receive large amounts in many small payments : impaired, after six years of incessant labor and and what is of far more consequence have done anxiety, he was dismissed from the Treasury, and much to facilitate the acquirement of habits of left to seek afresh the means of supporting his forethought and economy, and the maintenance of family. He had expressed his thanks on a former a kindly family feeling, among the poor. Morally occasion to Sir Robert Peol for the manner in and economically, the cheap postage has already which he had spoken of his labors ; he now placed society in this country in advance of what it thanked him for contributing to the national testi- was seven years ago ; and when the machinery is
made adeqnate to the task it has to perform, the the by, characteristic of the panegyrical school of effects cannot easily be exaggerated by hope. Nor criticism, more especially in reference to art. 5. are these advantages confined within the limits of " Woman's Mission and Woman's Position" is a our islands : to no inconsiderable extent they are severe but measured and feminine attack upon the already participated in by our dependencies ; and world on account of woman's position in society foreiga nations are rapidly following the exam- and the difficulty she has in supporting herself: ple. The inventive genius of Mr. Rowland Hill, but it is mere attack ; nothing practical is sugby a skilful combination of the natural postal sys- gested, still less any specific mode of remedy tem and the infant capabilities of steam locomotion pointed out, unless it be the following. by sea and land, has set the wits of men to sharp- " Either let the man in all the relations of life en each other, by converse, at an accelerated rate be held the natural guardian of the woman-conof speed ; and has materially strengthened the strained to fulfil that trust—responsible to society influence of pure and enlightened public opinion. for her well-being and her maintenance; or, if she
There is yet vast room for extension. Much be liable to be thrust from the sanctuary of home remains to be effected towards the economizing of to provide for herself through the exercise of such the post-office-"not,” as Mr. Hill remarked on faculties as God has given her, let her at least Wednesday evening, “by reducing the salaries or have fair play ; let it not be avowed, in the same increasing the labors of the men ; but by simplify- breath, that protection is necessary to her and ing the mechanism of the office." This having that it is refused to her; and while we send her been accomplished, the unnecessary procrastination forth into the desert, and bind the burden on her of deliveries which still prevails may be prevented ; back, and put the staff into her handlet not her the systein made to embrace every part of the em- steps be beset, her limbs fettered, and her eyes pire ; and restrictions as to weight in a great blindfolded.” measure done away with. But to accomplish 6. “On the relative Social Position of Mothers these objects, the conducting of the experiment and Governesses,” in a practical point of view is must be intrusted to one who sees clearly what he the ablest paper of the whole; searching and senaims at, and whose heart is in the business. That sible both in its particular advice and its general Mr. Hill possesses the talent of routine adminis- suggestions, and although going deeply into the tration combined with his inventive genius, has subject, yet having nothing too remote for common been placed beyond dispute by the success with use. which he acted as chairman of the London and These essays are characterized by a refined and Brighton Railway. That his heart is in the cause discriminating intellect, enriched, not spoiled, by of post-office reform, was obvious from his en- German studies; and a style inclined to the diftreaties to Sir Robert Peel, to be allowed, at any fuse, and sometimes falling from reflection into pecuniary sacrifice to himself, to work out his own reverie, but never degenerating into mere verbiage. plan.-Spectator, 20th June.
| The judgments are generally just, though with a
conventional inclination 10 the favorable, which From the Spectator.
personal knowledge or mixing much in “ society' MRS. JAMESON'S MEMOIRS AND ESSAYS. *
generally produces. It is partly this circumstance
not operating in so remote a subject, partly the This agreeable volume contains six papers. 1. greatness of the subject itself, that render the "The House of Titian :" a miscellaneous article, paper on Titian the most interesting in the book. which certainly tells the legal story of the great | The brief comparison between Titian and Raphacl painter's domicile, and describes a pilgrimage nade is a piece of delicate criticism : the description of to it by Mrs. Jameson, but which also diverges the principles of coloring as displayed at Venice into a great many other subjects connected with by Nature herself, and transferred by Titian to his art, more especially in relation to the Venetian canvass, is entitled to the praise of true invention, school of coloring, and to nature as observed in and as a contribution or help to the important “art the atmosphere and concomitants of Venice. 2. of sceing nature :” the reinarks on modern imitaA sketch of the public career and character of tion of ancient styles, especially by the modern Adelaide Kemble : which is a fair critical estimate, German schools, are distinguished by a profounder in a large and genial spirit, of the youngest of the because a still larger truth. We take a few exKemble family; but, being written to accompany tracts from these topics. “a series of drawings executed for the Marquis
. of Titchfield, representing Miss Kemble in all ihe
PERFECTION IN ART. characters in which she appeared," it is perhaps “I know that there are critics who look upon a fully favorable picture, as if Mrs. Jameson had | Raphael as having secularized and Titian as having borrowed something from the flattering limning of sensualized art: I know it has become a fashion to the pictorial art. 3. “ The Xanthian marbles :" prefer an old Florentine or Umbrian Madonna to a not very strikiny account of the antiquities brought Raphael's Galatea ; and an old German, hard-visfrom Asia Minor by Sir Charles Fellows: the gen- aged, wooden-limbed Saint, to Titian's Venus. eral falling into common-place references to the Under one point of view, I quite agree with the departed greatness of the country, the particular critics alluded to. Such preference commands our exhibiting too much of the catalogue." 4. Is a approbation and our sympathy, if we look to the brief notice of the life of the American painter height of the aim proposed, rather than to the comWashington Allston, with a criticism on his genius pleteness of the performance, as such. But here I and a list of his works. It is pleasantly written, am not considering art with reference to its aims and informing ; but has this defect-it leaves us or its associations, religious or classic; nor with with the general impression of a great genius,
reference to individual tastes, whether they lean without acquainting us with his exact school, or to piety or poetry, to the real or the ideal ; nor as his grade in reference to other artists; a fault, by the reflection of any prevailing mode of belief or
existence; but simply as art-as the Muta Poesis, * Republished by Wiley & Putnam. I the interpreter between Nature and Man; giving back to us her forms with the utmost truth of imi-1 Our last published particulars relating to the tation, and at the same time clothing them with a South American Expedition of Count Castelnau, high significance derived from the human purpose left that enterprising traveller and his companings and the human intellect.
at Chuquisaca. A further report just addressed by “If, for instance, we are to consider painting as him to the minister of public instruction, and dated purely religious, we must go back to the infancy at the end of January last, gives the following deof modern art, when the expression of sentiment tails of their further progress : -"From that towa was all in all, and the expression of life in action (Chuquisaca) we proceeded to Potosi, famed for its nothing-when, reversing the aim of Greek art, silver mines—so rich once, so fallen now. For the limbs and form were defective, while charac five-and-twenty leagues from thence, our road lay ter, as it is shown in physiognomy, was delicately through the most difficult passes of the Andes ; infelt and truly rendered. And if, on the other habited only by the gigantic condor. The road hand, we are to consider art merely as perfect im- afterwards improves; and, once on the great Boliitation, we must go to the Dutchmen of the seven- vian table-land, is perfectly flat as far as La Pazteenth century. Art is only perfection when it though traversing a barren region, where the nare fills us with the idea of perfection-when we are faction of the air, occasioned by the great elevation, not called on to supply deficiencies, or to set limits causes the painful sensation known under the name to our demands; and this lifting up of the heart of sarrache. These vast tracts of table-land abound and soul, this fulness of satisfaction and delight, we in large herds of lamas and merinosthe latter find in the works of Raphael and Titian."
wild. Passing by Oruro, we reached La Paz
where the ambulant government of Bolivia was es· VENETIAN HAIR.
tablished. The anniversary of the battle of logari "Every one must remember in the Venetian was being here celebrated. On arriving at the pictures, not only the peculiar luxuriance, but the shores of Lake Titicaca, we saw the celebrated peculiar color of the hair, of every golden tint, ruins of the ancient palace of the Incas of Tiaguanfrom a rich full shade of auburn to a sort of yel- aco. One of the gateways is an admirable piece low flaxen hue-or rather, not flaxen, but like raw of workmanship, and we made various drawings of silk, such as we have seen the peasants in Lom- it. We entered Peru by the bridge of Desaguadebardy carrying over their arms, or on their heads, ro. Having reached Pano amidst violent and inin great, shining, twisted heaps. I have some- cessant storms of snow and hail, I deemed it advisatimes heard it asked with wonder, whether those ble to relinquish for the moment our intended route pale golden masses of hair, the true biondina'to Cuzco ; preferring to proceed along the coast to tint, could have been always natural ! On the Lima, with the intention of returning to Cazco contrary, it was oftener artificial--the color, not after the rainy season. I therefore took the directhe hair. In the days of the elder Palma and Gi- tion of Arequipa—whence I proceeded to Lima. orgione, yellow hair was the fashion, and the paler When we shall have taken the rest we so much the tint the more admired. The women had a need, we will turn our steps towards Cuzco : whence method of discharging the natural color by first we will endeavor to rejoin the Amazon river, washing their tresses in some chemical preparation, by embarking on the Apurimac. This will take and then exposing them to the sun. I have seen us across the whole length of the Pampa del Saca corious old Venetian print, perhaps satirical, ramento-and presents many dangers. "I take the which represents this process. A lady is seated liberty of sending you a list of the different objects on the roof or balcony of her house, wearing a sort forwarded for the Museum of Natural History." of broad-brimmed hat without a crown: the long We may add, here, that the committee appointed, hair is drawn over these wide brims, and spread by the Academy of Sciences, to examine into the out in the sunshine, while the face is completely results obtained by the Abyssinian expedition of M. shaded. How they contrived to escape a brain Rocher d'Héricourt, has reported them to be of sever or a coup de soleil is a wonder: and truly, of great interest, and recommended their publication. all the mulufarious freaks of fashion and vanity, I I recommend further that that gentleman's real, know none more strange than this-unless it be knowledge, and skill in the use of his astronomithe contrivance of the women of Antigua, to obtain cal, magnetical, and meteorological instruments, a new natural complexion. I have been speaking shall be employed in some new and distant expedi. here of the people ; but any one who has looked tion.-Atheneum. up at a Venetian lady standing on her balcony, in the evening light, or peeping out from the window of her gondola, must be struck at once with the
The great congress of temperance societies resemblance in color and countenance to the pic. which we, some time since, announced, is now tures he has just seen in churches and galleries."
es and calleries , holding in the Swedish capital. One hundred and
thirty-two national and foreign associations are VENETIAN ATMOSPHERE.
there represented ; and the king, as president of "I am acquainted with an English artist who, the Stockholm society, with his queen, was pres being struck by the vivid vints of some stuffs which ent at the opening meeting.--Atheneum. he saw worn by the women, and which appeared to him precisely the same as those he admired in
We may again remind our readers that the fourTitian and Paul Veronese, purchased some pieces
teenth session of the scientific congress of France of the same fabric, and brought them to England:
will be held, at Marseilles, on the 1st of Septem but he soon found that for his purpose he ought to
ber next; and the managing committee desire to have brought the Venetian atmosphere with him.
attract the attention of foreign scientific men to the When anpacked in London, the reds seemed as
programme of their proceedings, which they have dingy, and the yellows as dirty, and the blues as
just published.--Athendum, smoky, as our own."
From the Quarterly Review. which he has completely mastered, and is indeed a
Flavius Vegetius Renatus for so was named the The Horse's Foot, and how to keep it sound; with Roman soldier and gentleman who, some 1500 Illustrations. By WILLIAM Miles, Esq. Exe
years ago, wrote the first amateur treatise on ter, 1846.
veterinary art. Our author combines a clear head
| with a kind heart and a vein of quiet humor; he A LIVELY French artist, wishing to exhibit
handles with equal dexterity hammer and scalpel, English character, drew a Milor and Miladi during their honeymoon : they have ridden out together;
| pen and pencil, paint-brush and engraver's tools : she is thrown, her horse having stumbled, to
working and writing with a firm hand, his lanwhose nose his master applies her smelling-botile,
guage is so plain that those even who ride, may while the victim of the faux pas lies fainting by
| read and understand. As there is no charlatanerie
in his system, there is no technical jargon in his herself. Passing these natural consequences of our selling wives like mares at Smithfield, Mr.
explanations : nay, he publishes so purely for the
| " information of the uninformed,” that his treatise Miles considers bad farriery as an important item
may be safely laid on any dragoon mess-lable. in indifferent husbandry. “ For the want of a nail, the shoe was lost; for the want of a shoe, the
Alihough scarlet is not our color, yet pleasant is a rider was lost :' and how this is to be prevented
gentle canter on breezy elastic downs, and salutary
the constitutional jog in shady lanes, where gooseis shown in his book, which all good men, married or bachelors, who love sound horse-flesh, should
quill and Albemarle-street are forgotten, and we
owe to the horrors of a sudden stumble the compurchase.
fort of “ Miles on the Horse's Foot." The author, after serving his country in the Life Guards, was wounded and taken prisoner by
This portion of the quadruped, because it outHymen. Such is the fortune of war, from which
wardly seems to be one solid block, thicker than a
tandem-driver's head, and made, therefore, to be neither Mars nor Majors are exempt. His occu
battered without mercy on roads as hard, contains pation was not however gone, when, like Othello, I he bade farewell to plumed troops : buried in
: a mechanism inside that is no less exquisite than
those mainsprings of grace which are enclosed in happy retirement, near the cathedral of Exeter, he
the Cinderella slipper of Taglioni. retained his love for neighing steeds, as Virgil's
The horny case is lined with thin plates, that cavalry officers when ghosts in Elysium kept up
are at once elastic and devoid of sensation ; thus their stable-duty
concussion is broken, and blows are not felt. By " Quæ cura nitentes
this admirable combination of solidity and elasPascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos.”
ticity, the given and most difficult mechanical prob
lem, to wit, the moving a heavy body with great Here our Miles emeritus, possessing a good stud velocity, is solved. The exterior defensive casing of his own, and enjoying the confidence of his is called the “ crust” in England, and the “wall” equestrian friends, never wanted four-footed sub- in France, where men are unrivalled in making jects to practise on : not content with theory, he phrases, fortifications, and poffs. This crust is did not mould his sabre into a ploughshare or inickest at the fronts of the fore-feet, where the metaphor, but forged it into horseshoes himself, first and greatest shocks are received ; and is thinafter the fashion of Mr. Borrow on the great nest-for Nature does nothing in vain-at the northern road, or Portia's Neapolitan prince, who heels, where expansion, not resistance, is required. could " not only talk of his horse, but shoe him The ground-surface of the foot is composed of the himself;" and his highness did well, for actual sensitive sole, which is endued with a power of experiment alone conduces to sound conclusion and descent and ascent, according to the pressure on it safe calceolation, which latter, like cookery in the from above, and of the frog, a spongy but less diplomat, constitutes the essence of the Hippiatrist finely organized substance, which swells at the
-Heaven save the mark-as the ferrier, the iron-back part ; bulby and well defined in the unshod working farrier of yore, is called in new-fangled colt, “it is converted," says Mr. Miles, “ by the nomenclature. In vain may professors forge pon- mischievous interference of artmi.e., repeated bad derous phraseology, eupodology, hippopathology, shoeing-into a mere apology for a frog." He &c., &c., until ostlers speak Greek ; to make descants on the varieties with the gusto of a horseshoes of iron is the sum of the modern veteri- French epicure. The subject is important : how nary craft; all the rest is leather and prunella. I indeed can a horse be expected to jump if his frog The shoe is their difficulty and the horse's weal or be inactive? This obvious reflection induced Mr. woe. The ancients never nailed to the feet of ani- Coleman of the “ College'' to devise a “ patent mals those coverings which they well knew the artificial frog," and a “ patent grasshopper shoe,” use of as occasional protections ; and, we believe, with which hunters were to clear six-barred gates ; fixtures made of unyielding metal were first fast- but both inventions unfortunately broke down, ened to the expanding hoof of English horses by amid grins broader than those provoked by the William the Conqueror, whose death, a manifest professor's rhyming namesake. judgment, was caused by the stumble of his foot- The exact use of the frog, an open question wounded steed. The name De Ferrers was among professional authors, is left so by our amaassumed by his master of horseshoes, whose noble leur: who shall decide when horse-doctors disdescendant, free from the false shame of Hippi- agree? All, however, are of accord that its funcatrists, still proudly charges his supporter with a tions are most important, although none can tell horseshoe-argent, ihe canting badge of this chival- what they are. The name frog is a corruption resque ancestor.
from frush-i. e. the fourche (furca) of the French, Mr. Miles, rightly considering the foot to be the for which the German equivalent is gabel, not frosh, important organ of a quadruped destined to go, and their bonâ fide frog; the ancient term reddair had the shoe the thing which either makes or mars the also reference to the fork-like form of the swalfoot, has limited his investigations (for the present low's tail; our unmeaning frog, and its disease, only, we trust) to these two prominent points, the running-thrush, (frush,) when translated into