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that my coldness proceeded from a laziness of tem- being entirely hypothetical, and depending more per, which must be overcome by redoubling my upon invention than experience ; every one conapplication. In this condition I remained for nine sulted his fancy in erecting schemes of virtue and months, very uneasy to myself, as you may well of happiness, without regarding human nature, imagine, but without growing any worse, which upon which every moral conclusion must depend. was a miracle. There was another particular, This, therefore, I resolved to make my principal which contributed, more than anything, to waste study, and the source from which I would derive my spirits and bring on me this distemper, which every truth in criticism as well as morality. I was, that having read many books of morality, believe it is a certain fact, that most of the philossuch as Cicero, Seneca, and Plutarch, and being ophers who have gone before us have been oversmit with their beautiful representations of virtue thrown by the greatness of their genius, and that and philosophy, I undertook the improvement of little more is required to make a man succeed in ay temper and will, along with my reason and this study, than to throw off all prejudices either understanding. I was continually fortifying my- for his own opinions or for those of others. At self with reflections against death, and poverty, least this is all I have to depend on for the truth and shame, and pain, and all the other calamities of my reasonings, which I have multiplied to such of life. These no doubt are exceeding useful, a degree, that within these three years, I find I when joined with an active life, because ihe occa- have scribbled many a quire of paper, in which sion being presented along with the reflection, there is nothing contained but my own inventions, works it into the soul, and inakes it take a deep This, with the reading most of the celebrated impression ; but in solitude they serve to litile books in Latin, French, and English, and acquirother purpose than to waste the spirits, the force ing the Italian, you may think a sufficient business of the mind meeting with no resistance, but wast- for one in perfect health, and so it would, had it ing itself in the air, like our arm when it misses its been done to any purpose ; but my disease was a aim. This, however, I did not learn but by expe- cruel encombrance on me. I found that I was not rience, and till I had already ruined my health, able to follow out any 'train of thought, by one though I was not sensible of it. . * . * continued stretch of view, but by repeated inter
“I now began to take some indulgence to my-ruptions, and by refreshing my eye from time to self; studied moderately, and only when I found time upon other objects. Yet with this inconvemy spirits at their highest pitch, leaving off before nience I have collected the rude materials for I was weary, and trilling away the rest of my many volumes ; but in reducing these to words, time in the best manner I could. In this way, I when one must bring the idea he comprehended in lived with satisfaction enough ; and on my return gross, nearer to him, so as to contemplate its to town next winter found my spirits very much minutest parts, and keep it steadily in his eye, 80 recruited, so that, though they sank under me in as to copy these parts in order—this I found the higher flights of genius, yet I was able to impracticable for me, nor were my spirits equal to make considerable progress in my former designs. so severe an employment. Here lay my greatest I was very regular in my diet and way of life from calamity. I had no hopes of delivering my opinthe beginning, and all that winter made it a con- ions with such elegance and neatness as to draw stant role to ride iwice, or thrice a week, and to me the attention of the world, and I would walk every day. For these reasons, I expected, rather live and die in obscurity than produce them when I returned to the country, and could renew maimed and imperfect. my exercise with less interruption, that I would “Such a miserable disappointment I scarce ever perfectly recover. But in this I was much mis- remember to have heard of. The small distance takea ; for next summer, about May, 1731, there betwixt me and perfect health makes me the more grew upon me a very ravenous appetite, and as uneasy in my present situation. It is a weakness quick a digestion, which I at first took for a good rather than a lowness of spirits which troubles me, symptom, and was very much surprised to find it and there seems to be as great a difference betwixt bring back a palpitation of heart, which I had felt my distemper and common vapors, as betwixt very little of before. This appetite, however, had vapors and madness. I have noticed in the wrian effect very unusual, which was to nourish me tings of the French mystics, and in those of our extremely; so that in six weeks' time, I passed fanatics here, that when they give a history of the from the one extreme to the other; and being situation of their souls, they mention a coldness before tall, lean, and raw-booed, became on a sud- and desertion of the spirit, which frequently den the most sturdy, robust, healthful-like fellow returns; and some of them, at the beginning, have you have seen, with a ruddy complexion and a been tormented with it many years. As this kind cheerful countenance. In excuse for my riding, of devotion depends entirely on the force of pagand care of my health, I always said that I was sion, and consequently of the animal spirits, I have afraid of consumption, which was readily believed often thought that their case and mine were pretty by my looks, but now everybody congratulated me parallel, and that their rapturous admirations upon my thorough recovery. . . . . . might discompose the fabric of the nerves and
" Thys I have given you a full account of the brain, as mach as profound reflections, and that condition of my body; and without staying to ask warmth or enthusiasm which is inseparable from pardon, as I ought to do, for so tedious a story, I them. shall explain to you how my mind stood all this “However this may be, I have not come out of time, which on every occasion, especially in this the cloud so well as they commonly tell us they distemper, have a very near connexion together. have done, or rather began to despair of ever Having now time and leisure to cool my inflamed recovering. To keep myself from being melanimagination, I began to consider seriously how I choly on so dismal a prospect, my only security should proceed in my philosophical inquiries. I was in peevish reflections on the vanity of the found that the moral philosophy transmitted to us world and of all human glory ; which, however by antiquity labored under the same inconvenience just sentiments they may be esteemed, I have that has been found in their natural philosophy, of jfound can never be sincere, except in those who
are possessed of them. Being sensible that all my said book, not exceeding one thousand copies philosophy would never make me contented in my thereof.' The author, in return, receives 501., present situation, I began to rouse up myself; and and twelve bound copies of the book. The trans being encouraged by instances of recovery from action is on the whole creditable to the discernworse degrees of this distemper, as well as by the ment and liberality of Mr. Noone. It may be assurances of my physicians, I began to think of questioned, whether, in this age, when knowledge something more effectual than I had hitherto tried. has spread so much wider, and money is so much I found, that as there are two things very bad for less valuable, it would be easy to find a bookseller, this distemper, study and idleness, so there are who, on the ground of its internal merits, would two things very good, business and diversion; and give 501. for an edition of a new metaphysical that my whole time was spent betwixt the bad, work, by an unknown and young author, born and with little or no share of the good. For this rea- brought up in a remote part of the empire. son I resolved to seek out a more active life; and These articles refer to the first and second of the though I could not quit my pretensions in learning three volumes of the Treatise of Human Na but with my last breath, to lay thein aside for some ture ;' and they were accordingly published in time, in order the more effectually to resume them. January, 1739. They include * Book I. Of the Upon examination, I found my choice confined to Understanding,' and Book II. Of the Pas two kinds of life, that of a travelling governor, and sions.'"-Vol. i., p. 65. that of a merchant. The first, besides that it is in Hume was twenty-seven-self-educated, or edusome respects an idle life, was, I found, unfit for cated by books alone; brought up in solitude: me ; and that because from a sedentary and re- reasoning much with himself; careless of the pretired way of living, from a bashful temper, and judices of others; full of courage ; confident of his from a narrow fortune, I had been little accustomed powers ; with the whole feelings of his nature to general companies, and had not confidence and concentrated in a passion for literary fame. He knowledge enough of the world to push my for felt no componctious visitings at the thought of tune, or to be serviceable in that way. I therefore abolishing a creed and establishing a paradox, but fixed my choice upon a merchant ; and having got received his fifty pobuds, and hoped to startle the recommendation to a considerable trader in Bristol, world and to become a man of mark. We do pot I am just now hastening thither, with a resolution say he wrote contrary to his opinions ; but to throw to forget myself, and everything that is past--to upon the world a book of crude unweighed philosengage myself, as far as is possible, in that coarse ophy, tampering in such perilous matter, is but of life-and in toss about the world, from one pole liitle less criminal. Hume lived to see something to the other, till I leave this distemper behind me. of this, and to regret his juvenile performance.
" As I am come to London in my way to Bris- He was anxious that it should be forgotten, and tol, I have resolved, if possible to get your advice, complained of the injustice of judging him by its though I should take this absurd method of procur- contents (p. 98.) At the time, howerer, he was ing it. All the physicians I have consulted, only disappointed that it produced so liule seusithough very able, could never enter into my dis- tion. "It fell," he says, "still-born from the temper; because not being persons of great learn- press ;'' but yet he published an additional volume ing beyond their own profession, they were unac- three years afterwards, and was soon called upon quainted with these motions of the mind. Your for a second edition. It was an unreasonable photo fame pointed you out as the properest person to losopher who could hope for more success. resilve my doubts, and I was determined to have Upon this book, which contains the whole ( somebody's opinion, which I could rest upon in all sence of Harne's philosophy, announced with the the varieties of fears and hopes incident to so lin- rashoess of youth, and all the dogmatism with gering a distemper."-p. 31.
which he afterwards reproached others, we shall What the answer to this letter was, we do not not dwell. We think his biographer is mistaken learn, nor even whether it was ever sent. Hume in calling it * the solitary labor of one mind." I suon fed from Bristol and its ledgers. He had may be so as regards its elaboration and style : but recovered his health--and then spent three years Horne has himself told us of his previous reading. in France, acquiring the language, conversing and it would not be difficult to trace his system te with the Jesuits of La Flèche, studying the mira- its source in those studies. With regard to the cles of the Abbé Paris, and composing his " Trea- principles evolved in the ** Treatise," the book is tise of llunan Nature," " After passing three now found only on the shelf of the metaphysician vears very agreeably in that country, I came over and scholar; and we shall not, we hope, be misto London in 1737."
understood when we venture to regard it as a mpre His first transaction with a bookseller is charac- metaphysical exercitation, a speculation probable teristic. Among the MSS. to which Mr. Burton pot intended and certainly not at all calculated to has had access is one bearing the following uitle: affect human life or conduct. It is in truth 1
" Articles of agreement, made, concluded, and pretty, philosophical puzzle-a clever, dexterous agreed upon the 26th day of September, in the argumentation for what every one feels to be att veur of our Lord one thogsand seven hundred and true, and the completest proof of which could never Thirty-eight, and in the twelfth year of the reign alter the conduct upon any cognate or dependant of our sovereign lord King George the Second, - sobject. He essays to prove by an examination between David Hame of Lancaster Court of the of the inind that nothing is known, and in a cari. one part, and John Noone of Cheapside, London, ons circle to demonstrate that nothing has been of bookseller, of the other part."
can be demonstrated. Such an universal skepti** By this very precise document, it is provided cisin scarcely can merit serious discussion. How. that the said David Ilome shall and will permit ever dangerous for shallow dogmatists who took and suffer the said Joho Noone to have, hold, and the first propositions, and would not work out the enjoy, the sole property, benefit, and advantage necessary corollary, it is not very apt to mislead of priming and publishing the first edition of the sane thinkers, when the facts of revelation and the
doctrines of religion are placed on the same foun- / furnished other instances. “He was the second dation of belief with the knowledge we obtain from son of Henry Lord St. Clair. His elder brother, the highest human testimony or our own experi- being engaged in the rebellion of 1715, was atence, and with the conclusions of mathematical tainted by act of parliament. The father left the science. The idealist, when he has most success- family estates to General St. Clair, who with a fully argued that we have no proof of the exist generous devotion to the hereditary principle, conence of matter, does not the less trust his house on veyed them to his elder brother, on that gentleman the solid foundation of the earth. The wildest obtaining a pardon and a statutory removal of the Ilumeist did not really doubt that Cæsar once disabilities of the attainder."—(p. 210.) lived in Rome that the sun will rise to-morrow On his return from this expedition, of which he that the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the left an account or defence in MS., now printed, sum of the squares of the opposite sides. In all Hume returned for a time to Ninewells--ihe anthese matters man is satisfied to act upon the cient seat of his family—in Berwickshire; and his knowledge arising from testimony, experience, and biographer, seeing no traces of his occupation mathematical demonstration; and he need not there, fills the gap with a few scraps from his wonder or complain that he has no higher or memorandum book, both of prose and verse. A clearer knowledge of the truths of religion than “ character," which, not in his hand, but “corthe highest that his mind is capable of.
rected here and there by him," is suggested to be The criticism of Hume's “ İreatise" in the Re- his own, has the following touches :view called “ The History of the Works of the “1. A very good man, the constant purpose of Learned," is such a mixture of censure and sar- whose life is to do mischief.' casm, with a prognostication of future fame, that "2. Fancies he is disinterested because he subit has been thought to be the joint contribution of stitutes vanity in place of all other passions. two authors. The anecdote of Hume's violent “ 4. Licentious in his pen, cautious in his words, rage on occasion of it, and his attacking the un- still more so in his actions. lucky publisher sword in hand, was not printed till “7. Exempt from vulgar prejudices, full of his after his death (" London Rev.," v., p. 200.) Mr.own. Burton disbelieves it, and has brought sufficient "13. An enthusiast without religion, a philosoreasons for his discredit of so improbable a story. I pher who despairs to attain truth."'-(p. 226.) -(p. 111.)
If this, with other parts of the same exercise, The “ Essays, Moral and Political,” were pub- could really be established as at any time Hume's lished in 1742. “ The work,” says Hume, "was estimate of himself, it would indeed be very curifavorably received, and soon made me entirely for- ous—and no doubt the article about vanity tallies get my former disappointment. I continued with well with an anecdote quoted in our last number iny mother and brother in the country, and in from the “Lives of the Lindsays ;" but we confess that time recovered the knowledge of the Greek that we cannot but think, if intended for a characlanguage, which I had too much neglected in my ter of him, it is the work of another; if drawn by early youth.” He soon, hi, wever, removed to himself, it is his estimate of another. The verscs Edinburgh, and among his first appearances is an we may pass by, with still more unconcern. Most cndeavor to obtain the professorship of moral phi- of them are apocryphal, and none of them worth losophy in that university, about Christmas in fathering. 1744. His friends had some influence with the In 1748 he was again secretary with General town council, who by a strange arrangement are St. Clair, in the mission of espionage to Vienna the patrons, (how would the “ heads of houses" and Turin. He writes to Oswald :like to sit under the direction and patronage of the “I have got an invitation from General St. Clair, mayor and aldermen of Oxford ?) but the bailies to attend him in his new employment at the court bethought them of the "avisamentum” of the of Turin, which I hope will prove an agreeable, if Presbytery of Elinburgh, and in April, 1745, ap- not a profitable jaunt for me. I shall have an opporpointed another to the vacant chair of Ethics. tunity of seeing courts and camps; and if I can
Passing over Hume's attendance on Lord Annan- afterwards be so happy as to attain leisure and dale, an unhappy nobleman who, among more other opportunities, this knowledge may even turn serious frenzies, had a rage for literature and fan- to account to me, as a man of letters, which, I cied a literary “keeper”-a chapter in the philos- confess, has always been the sole object of my opher's life which we think has been unnecessarily ambition. I have long had an intention, in my dwelt upon-and turning with some slight disgust riper years, of composing some history; and I from the bickerings of interested connections and question not but some greater experience in the Hume's pertinacious claim of 751, instead of 371. operations of the field, and the intrigues of the 10s, which he pressed first by the influence of his cabinet, will be requisite, in order to enable me 10 friends, and then, by threats of law ;-we come to speak with judgment upon these subjects. But, an event that had much influence on his future life. notwithstanding of these flattering ideas of futulo 1746 (ann. ætat. 35) he was invited to act as rity, as well as the present charms of variety, I secretary to General St. Clair, who was going in must confess that I left home with infinite regret, command of an expedition intended for Canada, where I had treasured up stores of study and plans but ultimately sent to seek adventures" on the of thinking for many years. I am sure I shall not coast of France, and which resulted in the unhappy he so happy as I should have been had I prosecuted and ill-managed attempt at Quiberon Bay. “ Such these. But, in certain situations, a man dares not a romantic adventure and such a hurry I have not follow his own judgment or refuse such offers as heard of before. The office is very genteel-ten these."'-(p. 236.) shillings a day, perquisites, and no expenses.''- He wrote a journal of his tour, in letters to his (p. 208.) The general upon whom Hume attended brother, which are chiefly remarkable for the abis not known for any feals of arms, but has a dis- sence of all taste for the beauty of nature or pleastinction of a different kind, and one of which Scot-ure in the associations of romance. The Rhine land, with all its caution and alleged coldness, has I was to him no more than any other river. “I think,” he says, “it is as broad as from the foot, which he was mightily pleased-very laborious of your house to the opposite banks of the river." endeavors at drollery, most dull joking they are! A castle in ruins--Drachenfels or Rolandseck- (pp. 308, 317.) In 1751 be published the * Inquiry was not worthy even of notice; a Gothic church concerniog the Principles of Morals," which Mr. was a barbarisin; and he has left a letter descrip- Burton styles ** the full development of his utiles tive of Coligne, in which the cathedral is not rian system ;” and which, says Home, “ in my named. To be sure, he kissed (figuratively) the own opinion (who ought not to judge on that sub native earth of Virgil at Mantua ; but Virgil was ject) is of all my writings, historical, philosophi part of bis creed. He is delighted by no charms cal, or literary, incomparably the best. It came of scenery, excited by no recollections older than unnoticed and unobserved into the world." the battle of Dettingen; and yet he travelled We wish Mr. Burton had used another word up the Rhine and down the Danube ; through than Utilitarian for Home's ethical system. It Styria, Carinthia, and the Tyrol; by the Laco di smacks too strong of the school which seeks to Garda to Mantua ; through Lombardy to Turin. prove its originality by deforming our language. But from Dan to Beersheba he found all barren. The “ Inquiry" is anything but a complete system
On his return to Britain in 1749, his mother was --but it is a very pleasing book. We are not so dead; but be continued to live at Ninewells will often roused to question the author's positions, his brother's marriage, two years later, when he perhaps because there is less to prove, and it is turned in his mind various plans for an independent more animated in style than his earlier work. I establishment, counting the cost with his accus- is not in its main doctrine new, though the mode tomed caution. He was now forty. His happy, of treatment gives it that appearance ; it would be cheerful nature, and his manly spirit of independ- indeed a reproach to philosophy to admit, that now ence are brought out strikingly in the following for the first time it taught that all the kind affecletter (Jane, 1751) to the same friend to whom he tions and feelings, all the benevolent acts, all the confided his carliest dreams of pastoral happiness better parts of our nature, are useful to society. and philosophy.
If Hume could complain that the " Inquiry " "I might perhaps pretend, as well as others, to can.e unnoticed into the world, it was not so with complain of fortune ; but I do not, and should the next production of his brain, his “ Political condemn myself as unreasonable if I did. While Discourses," "the only work of mine that was interest remains as at present, I have 501. a year, successful on the first publication. It was well a hundred pounds worth of books, great store of received abroad and at home." or these Essays lineps and hne clothes, and pear 1001. in my pocket; Lord Brougham has said, that “they combine along with order, frugality, a strong spirit of inde- almost every excellence which can belong to such pendency, good health, a contented humor, and an a performance :" they exhibit certainly clear reaunahating love of study. In these circumstances soning, learning, happy choice of subjects, eleI must esteem myself one of the happy and for- gance, precision, and vigor of language : nor can tunate ; and so far from being willing to draw my the writer's originality be denied, or that here we ticket over again in the lottery of hfe, there are very have the introduction of a new and widely influenSow prizes with which I would make an exchange.tial system of politics and political economy. After some deliberation, I am resolved to settle in They were successful in Britain, and immediately Edinburgh, and hope I shall be able with these and repeatedly translated into French ; and indeed revenues to say with Horace
acquired in that country for themselves and for
their author much more popularity than he enjoyed Est bona librorum et provisae frugis in annum
at home. Copia.
An unsuccessful attempt of Hume to obtain the Besides other reasons which determine me to this moral philosophy chair in the University of Glasresolution, I would not go too far away from my gow-where Edmund Burke is said also to have sister, who thinks she will soon follow me; and in been a defeated candidate--and a successful strugthat case, we shall probably take up house either gle for the office of librarian to the Faculty of in Edinburgh, or the neighborhood. And as she Advocates in Edinburgh, are both crowded into (my sister) can join 301. a year to my stock, and this eventful year of Hume's life. His triumph as brings an equal love of order and frugality, we to the librarianship produced a letter to his fneod doubt not to make our revepoes answer. Dr. Dr. Clephane, which we wish we had room to Clephane, who has taken op house, is so kind as give enure, for it affords curious glances into the to offer me a room in it; and two friends in Edin- then state of opinion and feeling in the northern burgh have made me the same offer. But having metropolis. nothing to ask or solieit at London, I would not "Nothing since the rebellion has ever so much remove to so expensive a place: and am resolved engaged the attention of this town, except Provost to keep clear of all obligations and dependencies, Stewart's trial ; and there scarce is a man whose even on those I love the most.
friendship or acquaintance I would desire, who has “In fulfilment of the design thos announced, he not given ine undoubted proofs of his concern and tells us in his own life,' .In 1751, I removed regard. from the country to the town, the true scene for a * What is more extraordinary, the cry of reliman of letters.'"-Vol. i., p. 342.
gion could not hinder the ladies from being violently While he was abroad, in 1748, there had issued my partisans, and I owe my succe-s in a great from the Landon press Home's "Inquiry concern- measure to their solicitations. One has broke off ing laman Understanding," a re-cooked dish of all commerce with her lover, because he voted the old ** Treatise of Human Nature,"_with the against me! and W. Lockhart, in a speech to the addition of his ** Essay on Miracles" (which, in the faculty, said that there was no walking the streets, opinion of Mr. Burton, would have been less offen- nor even enjoying one's own fireside, on account sive with a different title :) and during his resi- of their importunate zeal. The town ways, that dence at Ninewells he had amused himself with even his bed was not safe for him, though his wife composing a few personal and political squibs with was cousin-german to my antagonist. ..
"The whole body of cadies* brought flambeaux, and bit my nails, I return to the narration of parand made illuminations to mark their pleasure at liamentary factions, or court intrigues, or civil by success; and next morning I had the drums wars, and bid you heartily adieu."-p. 377. and town music at my door, to express their joy, This is the first intimation of his great underas they said, of my being made a great man. taking ; but before adverting further to it we wilThey could not imagine that so great a fray could lingly turn to glance at Hume's correspondents, be raised about so mere a trifle.
and the society among which he was now living. * About a fortnight before, I had published a Hume's early friends (several of whom were, Discourse of the Protestant Succession, wherein I we believe, his relations) the St. Clairs, Baron had very liberally abused both whigs and tories : Mure, Oswald, Lord Glasgow, all of them men of yet I enjoyed the favor of both parties.
great intelligence-Sir Gilbert Elliot, whose letters "Such, dear Doctor, is the triumph of your confirm all our previous impressions of his admirfriend ; yet, amidst all this greatness and glory, able sense and accomplishment—were of such even thouglı master of 30,000 volumes, and pos- rank and connections as would have secured his sessing the smiles of a hundred fair ones, in this admission to the highest circles of the metropolis very pinnacle of human grandeur and felicity, I of Scotland, so far as his fortune enabled him to cast a favorable regard on you, and earnestly de- live in them. One of his intimates, and, as we sire your friendship and good-will : a little flattery, have understood, a very frequent correspondent, too, from su eminent a hand, would be very accep-was Patrick Lord Elibank-commonly known as table to me. You know you are somewhat in my " the clever Lord :" but of letters to that remarkadebt in that particular. The present I made you ble person the R.S.E. collection has afforded no of my Inquiry was calculated both as a mark of valuable specimen-and we see but one from his my regard, and as a snare to catch a little incense lordship to Hume-a noticeable blank. His milfrom you. Why do you put me to the necessity itary expedition had thrown him into the intimacy of giving it to myself!"-p. 371.
of several other persons of a different class, but Another letter to the same person (January, with whom the philosopher assimilated with per1753) has the following charming picture of a fect ease, and continued to live on terms of even cheerful and contented mind :
greater familiarity than with the civilians of his "I shall exult and triumph to you a liule, that early correspondence. Abercrombie, Edmonstone, I have now at last-being turned of forty, to my and Erskine were all soldiers of good birth, and own honor, to that of learning, and to that of the of sufficient standing in their profession to secure present age-arrived at the dignity of being a their position in the best society. householder. About seven months ago I got a Another correspondent with whom he seems to house of my own, and completed a regular family; have become acquainted in the Quiberon expediconsisting of a head, viz., myself, and two inferior tion, was Dr. John Clephane, to whom some of members, a maid and a cat. My sister has since the most entertaining letters in this work are adjoined me, and keeps me company. With frugal- dressed. Clephane was, like Hume himself, a ity I can reach, I find, cleanliness, warmth, light, Scotchman of family but no fortune, who had pleaty, and contentment. What would you have turned an unusually good education to account, inore? Independence? I have it in a supreme first as a travelling tutor to several young English degree. Honor? that is not altogether wanting. noblemen, and latterly as a practising physician in Grace? that will come in time. A wife ? that is London. He was a very accomplished person, none of the indispensable requisites of life. the friend and adviser of Dr. Mead in forming his Books! that is one of them; and I have more collections of ancient and foreign art. But he than I can use. In short, I cannot find any bless never neglected his profession, and bid fair to rise ing of consequence which I am not possessed of, high in it if he had not been prevailed upon to acin a greater or less degree ; and without any great cept of a medical appointment in the expeditions effort of philosophy, I may be easy and satisfied. against the coast of France in 1758, where he
" As there is no happiness without occupation, died. Fortunately he had the habit of preserving I have begun a work which will employ me several his papers; and it is from a mass of varied correyears, and which yields me much satisfaction. spondence with Italian virtuosi and eminent per'Tis a History of Britain, from the Union of the sons of Paris, that these letters of Hume are Crowns to the present time. I have already fin- selected. ished the reign of King James. My friends Hatter Though the town of Edinburgh was so different, me (by this I mean that they don't flatter me) that the composition and tone of its society, in the I have succeeded. You know that there is no post middle of last century, was not unlike what it is of honor in the English Parnassus more vacant known to be at the present day. There was the than that of history. Style, judgment, impartial- same body of the country squirearchy, with howity, care-everything is wanting to our historians ; ever a much larger sprinkling of the nobility, who and even Rapio, during this latter period, is ex- had not then got inured to London life. There tremely deficient. I make my work very concise, were the same literary lawyers and scientific docafter the manner of the ancients. It divides into tors. There was perhaps more claret drunk, certhree very moderate volumes : the one to end with tainly more drunk in clubs and taverns--for the the death of Charles the First; the second at the general narrowness of domestic accommodation as Revolotion : the third at the Accession, for I dare well as of fortune prescribed a very moderate income no gearer the present times. The work will dulgence of social domestic intercourse. The laneither please the Duke of Bedford nor James dies were not, perhaps, in general so well educated Fraser : but I hope it will please you and posterity. as their great-grand-daughters; but there was Κτήμα εις αεί.
much easy, unexpensive, and yet refined society “So, dear Doctor, after having mended my pen, up those high" common stairs," in the closes,
and “wynds," where a modern lawyer's fine lady A privileged body of street porters-amusingly de would find it impossible to breathe. scribed in " Humphry Clinker."
One element there was which is now, we be