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Abd-el-Kader ; but it may well be asked if the and that the lie was reported confidently on the French themselves are not in some measure to minister. In the chamber of deputies, on the 8th blame! Were they not the first to begin a war instant, the question of Algeria—for which thirof extermination? Does Abd-el-Kader do any- teen or fourteen speakers were inscribed at the thing gow but follow the example which he re- desk of the secretaries-was regularly and solceived from his Christian conquerors? It is im- emnly undertaken. The ininister of war opened possible not to recur on such an occasion to the it in an elaborate exposition, couleur de rose, for dreadful tragedy acted in the same country last, the present and the future, though differently tinged year. The conduct of Colonel Pelissier, who in the past. He argued that there could be no smothered the eight hundred wretched Arabs in limitation to the enterprise of conquest; results the caves of Dahra, was probably not more justi- sanctioned the system of war hitherto practised. fied by necessity than that of Abd-el-Kader is now. The Emir could not now fix himself anywhere ; he Indeed, it is possible that a stronger case of urgent could only appear in some place or other, and then necessity could be made out in favor of the Arab vanish. The tribes saw that he was a fugitive; chief than in that of the French colonel; for it ap- those of the west, who had emigrated, were returnpears Abd-el-Kader was under the necessity of ing submissively. “If," continued the minister, breaking up his deira, and, as he could not carry “ you intimate surprise that he still exists, I can his prisoners along with him, he was obliged either answer that it is very easy for an intelligent, dauntto destroy them or set them at liberty; whereas less chief, who has a part of the population on his Colonel Pelissier, who was pressed by no imme- side, to elude or outstrip all pursuit for a certain diate danger, could have forced the whole of his period. I took part, for six years, in our war in victims to surrender by two days' blockade. We, Spain with Mina, and in a province not larger however, can do nothing but condemn the conduct than one of our departments. Never were we of both parties ; but, as the French government able, with twenty or twenty-five thousand troops, hus, with the approbation of the nation, rewarded the best of Europe, I do not say to seize and hold Colonel Pelissier by advancing him to the rank of him, but even to overtake and fight him; and what general, we cannot see how they can now attach may seem more extraordinary, he had infantry much blame to the Emir, or consider the affair as alone, and constantly moved in the plains. Ere anything but the natural consequence of the sys- long Abd-el-Kader will cease to be a formidable tem of war in which they are engaged.”
enemy; he cannot finally prevail or escape.” A nondescript Paris paper, the Courrier Fran- A new deputy, a conservative, Mr. Abraham caise, of no ordinary shrewdness and candor in Dubois, entered, with abundant oratorical and most of its editorial columns, cited the strictures party preparation, into a vindication of the scheme of the London Globe, which fall heavily on the of the most comprehensive dominion and destrucFrench, and then said:
live hostilities. He essayed to exculpate entirely "It is painful to us to have to quote such a the stilling and combustion of the Arabs in the judgment, but is there not some truth in the re-grottoes. “When, at Austerlitz, Napoleon caused, marks of the English journalist? Are we not by a storm of bullets, the ice of the lake to give guilty of having over excited, by the abominable way, on which twelve thousand Russians were flyaffair of the grotto of the Dahra, the ferocious in- ing after defeat, all of whom were quickly drowned, stincts of our savage adversaries? Have not we, what voice, what philanthropic cry was then a civilized people, given to our barbarian adversa- raised? What history has taxed the conqueror of ries the example of barbarianism? We suffocated Austerlitz with barbarity? The French column an entire tribe, composed of one thousand individ- in Algeria could not leave the Arabs behind them uals, and, in return, three hundred of our prisoners in the grottoes; their rear would have been harare butchered. When will cease this odious sys-assed ; the sick and the laggards would have been tem, which produces such reprisals? When will cot off; thirty or forty of our soldiers might have the chiefs of our army of Africa comprehend that perished. For my part, however respectful and their mission is to subdue the population of that coun- sincere my sympathies with philanthropy, viewed try, and not to sweep it from the face of the earth? in the highest and broadest aspect, the love of We know that these systematic butcheries are human kind, the love of the greatest number, I deeply repugnant to our army. It is repugnant 10 still say, I frankly acknowledge that the lives of our soldiers to have to perform the functions of thirty or forty French soldiers will always be for executioners. This sanguinary system is the sys- me more precious than that of the enemies of tem of one man. Are we wrong, then, in demand-France, were they five hundred-were they even ing his recall? Are we wrong in demanding that Arabs." the coinmand of our army in Africa shall be taken This strain did not seem acceptable to the Chamfrom a man who is a dishonor to our civilization ? ber, though, yesterday afternoon, Mr. Mauguin, France has lost inen enough and millions enough of ihe opposition held this language: “Gentlein Africa by the fault of M. Bugeaud, without risk-men, an English sailor, when mutilated by Spaning there the loss of her reputation for generosity ish cruisers, exclaimed, I leave my soul to God, and humanity."
and my revenge to my country.' No time was In his speech of yesterday afternoon Mr. Guizot lost for vengeance: war followed a war proobserved : “ I have seen, I think, in the newspa- foundly politic and judicious, if you look to its repers somewhere, that one of our generals in mote results. Well, in our case, here, it is not Africa had asked for forces (10 attack the deira) one soul-one revenge-we have to deal with; which were refused him. That is not true. We three hundred souls have been bequeathed to God examined, I repeat, whether it were not possible -three hundred revenges are bequeathed to the to deliver the unfortunate prisoners by force." country." The memory of the ears of Captain The Courrier this morning mentions that Mr. Guizot Jenkins had no better effect on the Chamber. Mr. saw the statement in its page; that General La- Abraham Dubois was rebuked by his sucessor in moriciere had asked four hundred horse to enable the tribune ; the latter cited as an instance of kinhim to make the attempt ; this could be proved, dred obduracy the language of a recent dissertation or inquiry. "By what silsis do we discover able to dispense with daily homan exertion : withthat a particolar race is doomed to destruction by out real gorernment, there was nothing good ; Ala decree of Providence?" The author's theory geria was the weightiest of French concerns; yet is, that there is a constant substitution of races, it was surrendered to chance. The ministerial with consunt improvement. All the inferior were press in Paris assailed Bugeaud and his plans; the disappearing before the superior; the Mexicans, inarshal's press in Algeria retaliated on the cabiCaraibs, Rid Skins ; so the Arabs and Moors, net; personal interests had on both sides supreme like the American Indians, had their sentence of and constant sway. He could not help inferring gradual supplantation and extinction; this was the that Marshal Bugeaud was kept abroad to save the True harmony and progress of the rational creation. ministry from the mischief he might do them at Real philanthropy would teach the extermination home; hence the panegyrics in the chambers, and of savage or irreclaimable races; the stagnant the fanciful pictures of Algerian prosperity exhib waters must be drawe off the marsh, to introduce ited by the head of the war department. the living and the productive.
M. de Givré, a inaster of his subject, illustrating Mr. de Tocqueville followed with a comprehen- the rapacity and improvidence of the civil adminis sive and able discourse in favor of colonization and tration in Algeria, related these circumstances. civil government, and against the Bugeaud dicta-There existed a great number of religious (Mosturship, and devastation. This strikes me as, on lem) foundations with considerable endowments the whole, his best parliamentary effort. It seems of domain ; the proceeds of which, by the express the most poignant, practical, and complete ; abound-direction of the donors, were to be applied to works ing in material facts and cogent in all forms of rea- of piery or charity. The French authorities took souing. He especially exposed the arbitrary and possession and diverted the whole to their personal anarchical character of the domestic government expenses. This was shocking enough to Arab reof the entire territory, the ignorance of the home ligious sentiment. Later, all the property of the administration respecting the real transactions foundations--the whole of the establishments-was there, and the constant discordance between the confiscated, and roundly, unceremoniously merged Algerian authorities and functionaries, civil and in the French public domain. The natives, whemilitary, and the cabinet and the department of ther friendly or hostile, were alike the prey of all war in Paris. During the five years Marshal Bu- sorts of knavery, design, and spoliation, in which the geaud had passed in Algeria, he spent only two in public functionaries and agenis shared. A mighty the capital, Algiers : in his absence, confusion, African Company was organized in Paris, and expeculation, oppression reigned without obstacle or pected to contract for Algeria, by means of infiestint. The marshal wanted no civil administra, ence in the chambers and ministerial bureaus. It tion, no merely civil settlements; he acted accord- was a scheme of jobbing and rapie. Mr. de Giing to his own views, indifferent to those of the vré deemed the main question entirely maritime ministry or chambers. It was computed that the and Mediterranean; he rejoiced in the enlargeEuropean colonists were a hundred Thousand. In ment and defences of the port of Algiers ; ia the fact, there was no agricultural population. Of the event of a war with Great Britain he would not few villages erected, half the inhabitants were fear for the African coast ; steam and the multiplidead, the other half in extreme wretchedness. cation of secondary foreign navies in the Mediter. About the one hundred thousand soldiers, " with ranean would place France in equal circumstances. their wants and passions," you found, of course, "If England should go to Algiers, why, we can go all sorts of adventurers, traffickers, and settlers. to London ; there is now a bridge between Calais These made no settlement-proved nothing. He and Dover; we can command two hundred and (Mr. de T.) felt shame for his country when he fifty leagues of African coast. The British mainread the publications of the Swiss colonization so- tain their consul-geveral at Algiers, and without cieties, warning their people against emigration to your crequatur; he is a diplomatic as well as a Algeria, where they would find only misery or commercial functionary ; you are not recognized; death. "Go rather to the wildest parts of North in the British official almanacs the old denominaAmerica, to the almost barbarous communities of tion of the Barbary Powers is retained. Algeria the south." For the truth of these statements he is not designated under the head · France,' as are could vouch from personal observation; he ap- the dependencies of all the other powers under pealed to the like knowledge and candor of several that of each. We understand, and we must be deputies, recent observers of the same scenes. prepared. Algeria is our only field : Asia is diThe idea of a juxtaposition of European settlers vided between England and Russia ; Amer.ca shuts and Arab tribes under the common sway and legis. us out; you may protest, but you cannot prevail : lition of France, was utterly chimerical; the more conquest in Europe is out of the question. Provi they became acquainted with the aborigines or pa-dence has allotted to us Africa on the Mediterratives the clearer this truth. The race was distinct nean." from all on whom the British and the Dutch had One of the manliest and strongest addresses and were acting in the east; a hundred thousand I have in memory is that of M. de Tracy, son of prorfect troops as pioneers of European civilization the celebrated political metaphysician. He land
in unprecedented case-might seem a decisive bare, in all its deformity and hopelessness, ibe advantage; but for that even, the essential inde- Algerian enterprise. He had been connected, #fructible traits of the Arab would prove more than from the outset, with the question in the chamber a match. In France, a certain pamber of rich and and the committees. After him, and Lamartine, pwerful families regarded Algeria as the Bastile the next day, every Frenchman might have ex
as viewed by the noblesse and court before the claimed, "Now we have only to examine how we resolution; they contrived to get their intractable can extricate ourselves from this awful serape." or dissolute young men sent to Algeria with public M. de Tracy would not admit the sort of fatalny functions. He desired a special de purtment or which some pleaded--as the British do for the ex. ministry for that region : there was no institution | tension of their empire in India--that necessitated whatever, with such inherent efficacy, as to be acquiescence in the constantly progressive sacrifices in Algeria. Napoleon paraded destiny, and, there-l at least one hundred thousand of our soldiers ; fore, certitude of success in his decrees of conquest ; twenty thousand youth are annually wrested for it he would plant his eagles on the rock of Cadiz and from their families, of whom six thousand die on the towers of Lisbon: three years afterwards the an average. The minister of finance confessed peninsula was evacuated by ihe French. Perso- lately, here, that the war has cost, besides, more rerance was the text and the argument of the goy- than a thousand millions of francs. Of your one ernment and the zealots in the affair of Algeria, hundred thousand of Europeans not seven Thousand At first Gen. Clausel pledged himself to subject the cultivate the soil, and about two thirds of these whole regency and maintain peace with twelve merely raise vegetables and fruit near the gates of thousand men; two years afterwards Gen. Bugeaud the towns. All the European population, army would be satisfied with forly thousand. In 1841, included, subsists by imports from the contineni. when the effective force in Algeria was notoriously The iinportation of grain has constantly and greaiseventy thousand, only thirty-eight thousand was ly increased. To raise wheat and cattle is imposthe cipher of the budget, he (M. de Tracy) remon- sible in competition with the prices of wbat is sirated, and observed : “ Do not be frightened at brought from the Black Sea, and Spain and Italy. the truth : ere long you will reach a hundred thou- / Yon depend entirely on foreign supplies and the sand." The next day the journals denounced him catile of the Arabs, which you now obtain chiefiy as a visionary alarmnist. At the present time the by pillage. Two generals, who have served inany forc3 exceeded his prediction, not including the ten years in Algeria, have issued pamphlets, in which thousand native combatants in French pay. He ihey admit or proclaim thai, in the event of a would predict equally a war with Morocco. That maritime war, you must renounce your whole would be an inevitable incident of the neighbor- game-your sacrifices will have been all in vain. I hood, and the Mahometan sympathies and common do not hesitate 10 term your enterprise barbarous ; interests. The treaty of Tangiers was gladly con- it can succeed by extermination alone ; and it is cluded, because to invade Morocco would have baleful for France, whose arinies it decimates, required another hundred thousand men. The whose treasury it ruins, whose external might and French grotto atrocity was cited by the Druses influence it paralyzes." when they butchered the Maronites : wheresoever, This is but a meagre abstract of Desjobert's in the world, the Moslems were free to act, they array of figures and considerations. I must pass would endeavor to avenge that affair. “I must to the oration of Lamartine-nearly three hours (he exclaimed) protest, with all my soul and in the delivery-and a masterpiece of rhetoric, breath, against the odious theories by which it has reasoning, and manly frankness." You may exbeen attempted, in this tribune, to justify the Dahra tort a bill of indemnity, a bill of silence you shail executions by fire and smoke. To my early youth not have for your abominations and fallaciesI embraced the military career: 1 followed it with never." The first orators of England, the Burkes, gladness and pride; I quiried it with regret ; but I Foxes, and Sheridans, branded the crimes, extor. would not have remained in it a single day, a sin- tions, and ravages of the Clives and the lastings ; gle instant, if any one had proved to me that it im- her Indian empire became the larger and saler. posed duties as horrible as those acts."
The world, or Europe at leasi, is in a crisis ; A number of voices in the chamber cheered this France must be ready to meet any one of or all thrilling passage. Algeria, he proceeded, was the the four great powers ; Europe distrusts France modern Minotaur that devoured, every year, the and remembers bitterly the excesses of the Revofinest part of the French youth and the most pre-lution and the Empire ; there is now a latent coalicious part of French treasures. He maintained lion against you more formidable than that of Pilthat, for fifteen years, there had not been a cabinet niz; if you did not think so why your ramparts of which the majority did not think as he did in the and fortresses about your capital? If you have whole inatter. Far was the cause of the persistency; faith in peace, then you contradict and coinbal, the ministry feared above, and feared the chambers; with them, the Revolution of July. Do not unthe chambers, the electoral colleges, and so on. derstand me as wishing war; France has shed Finally the press frightened ministers, chambers, enough of blood ; has reaped enough of bloodand voters. Mr. Ferdinand Barrot, who lately ob- stained laurels ; let us not revert to the Imperial tained a large grant in Algeria, then argued that era ; notwithstanding the glory won by Napoleon the conquest was one of civilization over barbarism. for the nation, would that we could extirpale his That several hundred square leagues were secure ; memory from the too war-loving hearts of my that the Arabs were manageable ; that both civil countrymen! . You harp on chance and fatality and military colonies could be made to prosper, :und Providence keeping the incognito for you; though he must confess that the settlements he in- you would commit yourselves to inystic anguries specied were in a dismal plight. Bodies of emi- and popular instincts; Providence means, on the grants had repaired to the region with formal contrary, that enlightened and reflecting mindsgrants of land from the department of war; when he wisdom of true stalesmen and the circumspecarrived no one would tell them the location, or tion of true patriots, should correct and overrule what to do. A letter to him said: “We are here, vulgar illusions and blind propensities. Charles X. in Algeria, now six months ; about a hundred fam- and his councils never designed more than the exilies in all: the authorities cannot or will not give tinction of Algerine piracy and the establishment lis possession of the grants. Most of us are perish- of French influence and naval supremacy in the ing in hovels and hospitals.".
Mediterranean. The first general who set his M. Desjobert, an old, unwearied, unflinching foot in Algeria issued a proclamation to the Arabs, enemy to all Algerian plans and illusions, reöpened in which he assured them that the French came, the debate, on the 10th instant, with what Lamar- not to occupy their soil, to drive them away; not tine called his implacable figures. The govern- to conquer them ; but to deliver them from their ment (he began) never has told the truth about Turkish tyrants and protect and defend them. Africa-never. M. Thiers deceived us like his Marshal Valle was too moderate in his views of predecessors and successors. Algeria has deroured warfare and conquest; too much of a founder and a statesman ; he was recalled to afford scope to dignity; the famous note of 8th October ; all the the aspirations and energies of a Bugeaud, and the self-denial and submission to the stake in Algeria ; conseqnence was an accumulation of difficulties or rather this iinmense risk, afford the governand impossibilities baffling all the heads and with- ment a pretext for whatever genuflexion. Mr. ering all the hearts of the chambers. The Arabs Guizot claimed the privilege of reply. The oppowere impermeable to European civilization ; they sition journals were angry with Lamartine for his could never be seated by the side of European opinions and disclosures ; the ministerial naturally communities in one body, politic and social ; the sided with Mr. Guizot. The former admired some fusion of the races--a fine phrase-happened to be passages and sallies of Lamartine's speech , they beyond human ability; he knew the Arabs well: would allow no weight or general excellence to the he could understand the reply of a Sheik, to wliom whole. All logic, sense, and success was discovthe fusion was propounded : “ There is a race be-ered in Mr. Guizot's survey of the subject by his tween us, if you were to put your head and mine votaries. It strikes me that the minister was feein the same boiling pot, they would separate from ble and empirical. He stated that he could cite one another." When Bugeaud won the victory from the history of the wars on natives in India of Isly, what did he conquer? The Moorish sands and America, anecdotes, mishaps, and cruelties on which he fought. The mortality of the French akin to those which Mr. Lamartine had culled from troops was not chiefly by arms; but by fatigue, the French documents. The general cast of the fever, climate, pestilence; it was a war of lurury, war in Algeria was one of moderation, humanity, speculation, prospect; therefore the less prodigal self-restraini! To be sure, there might be some should they be of their thousands of lives and energy of defence-some roughness in dealing with their billions of francs, for so had the computation a people who massacred French prisoners in their ripened, su would it expand, to judge from the hands ; inore violent means were necessary in conpast. The more the Arabs were instructed, tending with semi-barbarous foes than in civilized sharpened, advanced, by their contact or collision warfare. The case of Algeria had become this: with the Christians, the stronger their will and if you now abandon that region, it is not the capacity to resist and expel the intruders. The Turks or Arabs who would regain it; some other Christian missionaries had never converted Islam- European power must have dominion. That conism; the Turks, with fifteen thousand troops, sideration was quite sufficient to decide him; Alcould keep the Arabs io a sort of subjection ; all geria must be kept, ruled, and turned to account. estimates ut number might be defied in the French Marshal Valle was, indeed, an honorable and capaattempt. In instructions given in 1837 by the ble coinmander ; but it seemed to the government comunission of the French government to generals in 1840, as the condition of the enterprise then going to investigate the African question on the loomed, that Marshal Bugeaud suited it better. spot, you mark this paragraph: "As to the ex-The latter had proved a little restive and refractermination of the natives-as to the complete tory; so was Marshal Torenne with Louis XIV. driving back (refoulement) of the population, you The essential object was to achieve a complete will have to examine whether this mode of pacifi- effective domination in Algeria. Assimilation and cation may be at any time practicable." Lamar- fusion of races was in sooth a philanthropic dream; tine proceeded to demonstrate by official and but the Arabs might be brought to the relation and other authentic reports that this was the system state in which the Hindoos are to the British in preferred and unlimitedly pursued. His quotations India and the natives of Java to the Dutch. (A begot the liveliest agitation and wincing impatience voice from the floor : Neither British por Dutch throughout the chamber. Pudet, &c. He was colonize, as you pretend to do.) The Arabs, the not w be stopped. “You shall hear much, and native tribes, were better disposed to French conyou shall shudder. I will brave all your denials, nection and law than the preceding speakers imyour murtours, your inattention, real or feigged. agined; he could cite a number of powerful tribes You shall know what are your razzias, what who lived in amity, who fought in alliance with rapine, ravage, and massacre you threatened in the French ; immense progress was visible; very proclamations, and how you fulfilled your threats." probably there would be more insurrections, more The details are in the superlative of ferocity and struggles, more efforts ; still the accomplishment destruction. They lost nothing in the recitation of all ends was certain and near. Other nations and commentary of the indignant poet. What if had their difficulties in similar enterprises: see we had the particulars of devastation and homi- ihe instance of New Zealand for England. It was cide, the scenes of woe and horror--those which intended to found a great ciril society in Algeria are not bulletined-from the natives themselves with a civil government ; when, precisely, could The chamber betrayed emotions of disgust and not be affirmed. European colonization was held shame; the orator asked an interval of repose. all-important--the necessary final guaranty of In a quarter of an hour, he entered the tribune possession; as for the measures, the modes, the again, to denounce and explode all the plans and questions of annexation, special ministry, modificadevices of colonization, and to show how impotenttions of administrative and belligerent systems, the such a style and scale of war in Africa rendered period for their solution had not arrived; the presFrance in regard to hostile or rival Europe. He ent course of things could not be immediately was afraid-nay he believed that it was thus altered; the government required time, and carried ou to disable and avert France from any awaited opportunity. confict in Europe. He reasoned against the idea You have now the substance of the ministerial
f * viceroyalty, which he described as insensate defence and policy. Nothing was gained in the for a country so near to their own kingdom. He way of reform or comfort by the many able barascribed the refusal to accept the crown and incor-angues. The debate reflects credit on the champoration of Belgium : the recreant proceedings of ber; and, as Algeria is indeed the supreme present the government in 1840 ; the humbling recall of concern and perplexing problem for France, I have the French fleet from the Levant; the submission ventured to bring more of it in my own language, to Lord Palmerston's treaty of July 15, which was within the compass of a letter, than you or your a grand defiance of French power, nationaliiy, and I readers will readily accept or pardon.
which separates Uranus from the sun, and in a From the Atheneum.
slightly inclined orbit.-A paper by M. Dumas, on
the component parts of blood, was read. It is PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.
known that blood contains fibrine, albumen, and May 23.-M. Velpeau presented to the Acade- globulous matter. The analysis of the two former my a boy who has a third, but deformed, leg at parts is exceedingly simple ; but hitherto that of the posterior part of the other legs, which are per- the globules has been difficult, for they consist of fectly formed. It appears that the boy has been to living matter. It was necessary to keep them in a London ; where the surgeons were divided in opin- state of life. This M. Dumas does by agitating jon as to the possibility of amputating it without the liquid, giving it air, and keeping up the natural danger. Some of them considered this to be quite temperature of the person from whom the blood is practicable ; others that the operation would be fol-drawn. lowed by almost instant deaih. M. Serres mentioned in this sitting a similar case, in which the I was not a little surprised, on reading your exsuperfluous mass was removed with perfect safety. cellent journal of last week, to find, near the con-A communication was received from M. Roque, clusion of the article “ Foreign Correspondence," on a project of manufacturing paper from the " a question adverted to which" your correspondfibres of the banana tree. It appears that experi- ent "had heard agitated to-day!'-that the origin ments have been made under the eyes of a com- of the disease Pellagra, which is well known to mittee appointed by the minister of commerce, and prevail in Lombardy, is attributed to the general that some very white and good paper was produced. consumption of polenta, or Indian corn. He says, I is proposed by M. Roque to carry on this opera- " certain it is that the disease exists in no other tion in Algeria, not merely as regards the banana part of Italy; and that in no other part of Italy is tree, but also the Alves and other textile plants ; I polenta the staff of life." Now, it is very well and it is said that a large grant of land has been known that, in Modena and other parts of northern made to him in the colony for that purpose. Italy, Indian corn is very much used as food; and,
June 4.-Several astronomical and mathematical even at Rome, I have often seen and partaken of a papers were read the most remarkable by M. Le- very good Modenese dish, called there polenta, and Terrier. The object of it is to prove that there ex- never heard that pellagra was rife in that city, or ists in our solar system a large planet, which in any other part of Italy, except in the Milanese pobody yet has seen, but the orbit of which M. Le- the plains of which lie low, and are very swampy Terrier has calculated, and which, he says, may be at some seasons; and from that and other causes, seen on the 1st of January next year. He states abound in malaria, (“* l'aria cattiva,'') which is that he was led to his discovery by the observa- much more likely to produce a cachectic habit of tions collected since 1690 on the course of Uranus. body and cutaneous and other diseases of debility, The insurmountable difficulty experienced by geo- than the use of a wholesome, nutricious article of metricians, says M. Leverrier, in representing the diet, abounding as much in farinaceous matter real course of Uranus by analytical formulæ might (azote) as most of the other cerealia. To ascribe arise froin various causes. Either the theory was the disease to such a cause appears as rational as not sufficiently precise, and they had neglected in the vulgar notion that the use of rice produces their calculations some of the influence due to the blindness in Hindostan and other countries, where perturbatory action of the neighboring planets, Ju- it forms almost exclusively the diet of the whole piter and Saturn; or the theory had not been com- population-or that the great consumption of oalpared with the observations with sufficient correct- meal in the Highlands of Scotland occasions scaness in the construction of the tables of the planet; bies! In the United States of America, maize, or or, finally, some unknown cause, acting upon Ura- | Indian corn, is, as is well known, consumed in nus, added other influences to those which result great quantity-as well the new grain roasted, and from the action of the sun, of Jupiter, and of Sat- eaten with fresh buiter, as the flour in a great vaurn. To get out of this alternative, it was neces- riety of preparations :-and, who ever heard of sary to resume the whole theory of Uranus-recal- pellagra, or any similar disease, being ever buscolate, discuss the observations, and compare them pected to be produced in those extensive regions? with each other; and this hard task he undertook. For the French Academy of Sciences or of MediThe result is, the positive conclusion, that the ir- cine to send a commissioner into Italy to investiregularity of the movement of Uranus is to be gate whether the disease pellagra is produced by attributed to a special cause, independent of all eating Indian corn, would appear to be as rational analytical error, and deduced from the constitution and useful as to send one to India or Scotland to of the planetary system itself. The fact of the examine if blindness is produced by eating rice, or existence of this cause being established, it was the itch by the use of oatmeal. The French savnecessary to determine its nature-and, therefore, ants are fond of such commissions—“Mons partua new career opened upon M. Leverrier. Was it rit, nascitur ridiculus mus!” It would sometimes admissible, as some astronomers had proposed, to be well 10 recollect the good old Latin maxim, modify the law of gravity for the distant regions in “Post hoc, non semper propter hoc"--and to apply which Uranus moves; or did it suffice to assume it in such instances.
MEDICUS. the resistance of the ether or the influence of an obscure satellite moving round Uranus, or the ac- In the Annuaire for the present year, presented cidental shock of a comet? Or was he to admit to the King of the French by the Bureau of Lunof a still unknown planet whose existence was gitudes, M. Arago takes occasion, once for all, 10 shown by the anomalous movement of Uranus ? dispose of those weather-predictions which anniM. Leverrier adopted the latter hypothesis ; and, ally make the circuit of Europe falsely stamped proceeding upon that basis, has come to a conclu- with his authority. “Engaged," he says, “ both sion, from all his calculations and observations, that by taste and by duty, in meteorological studies, I no other is possible. This planet, he says, is situ- have frequently been led to consider whether it ated beyond Uranus, at a distanco double that will ever be possible, by means of astronomical cal