« VorigeDoorgaan »
not keep her any longer, but, a few days after into a code his grand panacea-his never-failing their imprisonment, sent her to Madame de Bri- punch on the head''—with the most beneficent enne in a sedan; and Madanie de Brienne would effect. not receive her, but sent her to my Lord Aubeny, " The alligator is a formidable-looking creature. who sent her back to Madame de Brienne, and it is true, but he is generally harmless. His bade tell her that he had no woman in his house, office is to prowl in the sluggish waters of this and therefore could not receive her without dis- southern region, pick up what he can, and digest paragement of her honor and his. Madame de it into excellent oil for the illumination of our Brienne would not let her come within her house, houses.” but sent for Madame de Ferrand, a councillor's Is not this the perfect type of a penny-a-liver? lady, and prayed her to take the young lady in her Are not his looks—his office his brilliant result, carriage, and deliver her to Madame de la Flotte as burning in the columns of the press-all in the Palais Royal. When they arrived there, it shadowed forth in this? The Egyptians were a was near nine o'clock at night. Madame de la wise people. We call them barbarous idolaters Flotte, seeing them come to her at that time of for worshipping the crocodile. They put jewelled night, and thinking that this lady-to wit, Madame rings in his ears, and built a city-Crocodilopolis de Ferrand-had been but one of Madame de Bri- -in his honor. A hideous, ravenous, filthy enne's gentlewomen, did claw her up soundly for wretch he seems to us ; but the Egyptians, doubibringing Mademoiselle de Gordon to her at that less, knew of his oil, and treating him like an unactime of night." But Madame de la Flotte, when knowledged genus, worshipped him for his hidden she saw she was mistaken in the lady, asked her light.-Punch. pardon, and showed her how she could not possibly receive Mademoiselle de Gordon that night, A“ FORLORN Hope.”—Marshal Bugeaud has but would next day; and back she was taken to hit upon a new expedient for capturing Abd-el-kaMadame de Brienne, who, late as the hour was, I der. ' He has taken his dog. The cunning Marrefused to let her in ; and Madame de Ferrand shal evidently thinks that his only chance of findwas at last constrained to take her with her to her ling out Abd-el-kader's hiding place is by following own house ; Blackhall remarking, ", So Mademol in the track of his dog. It would make a fine selle de Gordon might have learned, by Madame picture for Versailles_The French army marchde Brienne's unkindness towards her, how im- ling to Victory," and a poodle at the head of it. provident a thing it is to neglect powerful persons, Punch. able both to do good and evil.”
The APPEALS IN THE LORDS.-A foreigner
would be very much struck by the air of calm GAME ALLIGATORS.
decency that pervades the hearing of appeals in Your Alligators are looking up. They have the house of lords. Three peers are sufficient to been considered dull, stupid wretches; but are form a house, and these three are not required to now discovered to have a world of light in them, keep awake during the proceedings ; so that the when properly extracted and kindled : in a word, chairman generally goes off first, into the arms of they are to be killed for their oil. We have Somnus, and his example is speedily followed by almost nsed up whales, and shall now begin to his two supporters. Lord Brougham, who never burn the midnight alligator. An expedition has will go to sleep under any circumstances, genestarted from Montreal, for Black Creek, for the rally smuggles the last new novel under his fishery. The writer says
papers, and amuses himself with a “ quiet read ;" " You know how many of these enormous ani- or, while pretending to take notes, he is not unfremals are shot out of wantonness, from the decks quently rattling off some “copy” for one of the of the steamboats that plough our waters. I ex- numerous works that he always has in the hands pect hereafter to hear of laws passed for their pro- of the printer. The counsel go quietly on with tection.”
their speeches, utterly regardless of the inattention We would do more than protect-we would they experience; and the whole affair has an suggest that they be fed by a regular supply of aspect of sober quietude that is peculiarly imposing men, women, and children. We-in merry Eng. on all who witness it. We shall look in some land here—compare peasants, their wives and day, and give a verbatim report of the proceedings. families, to our game, our birds and partridges : 1 -Punch. why should not the folks on the border of Black / REFORM OF THE LAW.-Chancellors, ex-chanCreek make alligators game, and so fatien ihein cellors, and queen's counsel, are members of a upon live Indians ? But this will come. A sense society for the reform of the law. They meet and of the value of alligators is evidently gaining denounce the wickedness of costs, and then hie ground.
away to practice. This reminds us of a passage - We must allow them to be killed only at a in Borrow's Gipsies of Spain :-“And now, my proper season, when they are fattest, and not per- dears," says the head of the family to the younger mit their destruction at the season when they lay | branches—« now you have said your prayers, go their eggs.”
out and steal."-Punch. Thus, doubtless, there will be alligator preserves ; and to poach alligators' eggs in the south,
| ENCOURAGEMENT TO Fight.The State of will be made as criminal as to poach the eggs of
Louisiana has passed an act for the protection of pheasants in the west. Foreign states besought
ht all debtors who are willing to take arms against Bentham for constitutions—why do not the folks
Mexico; thus offering a premium to those heroes of Montreal apply to Mr. Grantley Berkeley for a
who, at home, are not " worth powder and shot." short, concise, stringent law—or a set of laws, like
-Punch. a set of razors—one for every week-day, and a DETERMINED Suicide.—Sir Robert Peel intends particularly sharp one for Sundays, for the pro- to persevere in endeavoring to carry the Coercion tection of alligators? Surely he might work Bill.-Punch.
MR. JEAMES AGAIN.
was scrouging round us by this time-pawters & “ Dear Mr. Punch,
clarx and refreshmint people and all. What's
this year row about that there babby!' at last says "As newmarus inquiries have been maid both the Inspector, stepping hup. I thought my wife at my privit ressddence, The Wheel of Fortune was going to jump into his harms. Have you Otel, and at your Hoffis, regarding the fate of got him?' says she. that dear babby, James Hangelo, whose primmiture "Was it a child in a blue cloak!' says he. dissappearnts caused such hagnies to his distracted "And blue eyes!' says my wife. parents, I must begg, dear sir, the permission to "* I put a label on him and sent him on to Bristol : ockupy a part of your valuable collams once more, he's there by this time. The Guard of the Mail and hease the public mind about my blessid boy. took him and put him in a letter-box,' says be:
“ Wictims of that nashnal cuss, the Broken he went 20 minutes ago. We found him on the Gage, me and Mrs. Plush was left in the train to broad gauge line, and sent him on by it, in course, Cheltenham, soughring from that most disagreeble says he. And it 'll be a caution to you, young of complaints, a halmost broken Art. The skreems woman, for the future, to label your children along of Mrs. Jeames might be said almost to out-Y the with the rest of your luggage." squeel of the dying, as we rusht into that fashnable “If my piguniary means had been such as once Spaw, and my pore Mary Hann found it was not they was, you may imadgine I'd have had a speshle Baby, but Bundles I had in my lapp.
train and been hoff like smoak. As it was, we was "When the old Dowidger, Lady Bareacres, oblidged to wait 4 mortial hours for the next train who was waiting heagerly at the train, that owing |(4 ears they seemed to us,) and then away we to that abawminable brake of Gage, the luggitch, went. her Ladyship's Cherrybrandy box, the cradle for “My boy! my little boy !' says poor, choking Lady Hangelina's baby, the lace, crockary, and Mary Hann, when we got there. À parcel in a chany, was rejuiced to one immortial smash ; the blue cloak,' says the man? Nobody claimed him old cat howld at me and pore dear Mary Hann, as here, and so we sent him back by the mail. An if it was huss, and not the infunnle Brake of Gage, Irish nurse here gave him some supper, and he's was to blame; and as if we ad no misfortns of our at Paddington by this time. Yes,' says he, lookhown to deplaw. She bust out about my stupid im- ing at the clock, he's been there these ten parence; called Mary Hann a good for nothing minutes.' creecher, and wep and abewsd and took on about “ But seeing my poor wife's distracted histarriher broken Chayny Bowl, a great deal more than cle state, this good-naturd man says, I think, she did about a dear little Christian child. • Don't my dear, there 's a way to ease your mind. We' talk to me abowt your bratt of a babby,' (seshe ;) know in five minutes how he is. * where 's my bowl!-where 's my medsan! " • Sir,' says she, don't make sport of me." where's my bewtiffle Pint lace !-- All in rewins "* No, my dear, we 'll telegraph him.' through your stupiddaty, you brute, you !
" And he began hopparating on that singlar and "• Bring your haction against the Great West- ingenus elecktricle inwention, which aniliates ern, Maam,' says I, quite riled by this crewel and time, and carries intellagence in the twinkling of a unfealing hold wixen. “Ask the pawters at Glos- peg-post. ter, why your goods is spiled-it's not the fust " I'll ask,' says he, 'for the child marked G. time they 've been asked the question. Git tho / W. 273.' gage haltered against the nex time you send for “Back comes the telegraph, with the sign • All medsan-and meanwild buy some at the Plow- right.' they keep it very good and strong there, I'll be *** Ask what he's doing, sir,' said my wife, bound. Has for hus, we're a going back to the quite amazed. Back comes the answer in a cussid station at Gloster, in such of our blessid Jiffychild.'
.C. R. Y. I. N. G.' " You don't mean to say, young woman,' “This caused all the bystanders to laugh excep seshee, that you 're not going to Lady Hangeli- my pore Mary Hann, who pull'd a very sad face. na: what's her dear boy to do! who's to nuss "The good-naterd feller presently said, he'd
have another trile ;' and what d'ye think was the ***You nuss it, Maam,' says I. Me and Mary answer! I 'm blest if it was ni Hann return this momint by the Fly.' And so “ P. A. P.' (whishing her a suckastic ajew) Mrs. Jeames and “He was eating pap! There 's for youI lep into a one oss weakle, and told the driver to there 's a rogue for you-there's a March of Ingo like mad back to Gloster.
telleck! Mary Hann smiled now for the fust "I can't describe my pore gals hagny juring our time. He 'll sleep now,' says she. And she ride. She sat in the carridge as silent as a mile-sat down with a full heart. stone, and as madd as a march Air. When we " If hever that good-natered Shooperintendent got to Gloster she sprang hout of it as wild as a comes to London he need never ask for his skore Tigris, and rusht to the station, up to the fatle at the Wheel of Fortune Hotel, I promise yogBench.
where me and my wife and James Hangelo now is: ** My child, my child,' shreex she, in a hoss, and where only yesterday, a gent came in and hot voice. Where's my infant ? a little bewtifle drew this pictur of us in our bar. child, with blue eyes-dear Mr. Policeman, give it “And if they go on breaking gages ; and if the to me-a thousand guineas for it.'
child, the most precious luggage of the Henglish"• Faix, Maam,' says the man, a Hirishman, man, is to be bandled about in this year way, why and the divvle a babby have I seen this day ex- it won't be for want of warning, both frour Profes cept thirteen of my own--and you 're welcome to sor Harris, the Commissioner, and from any one of them, and kindly.' ** As if his babby was equal to ogrs, as my dar
“My dear Mr. Punch's obeajent servant, ling Mary Hann said, afterwards. All the station
" JEANES Plush."
From the Art-Union. imitable representation will naturally give rise, we * THE TALBOTYPE.--SUN-PICTURES.
supply a brief account of the process and its inven
tion. THROUGH the courtesy of H. Fox Talbot, Esq., Early in October, 1833, the inventor, H. Fox we are enabled to present, with this number of the Talbot, Esq., F. R. S., was amusing himself in Art-Union, an example of the “sun-pictures," of sketching, by the aid of Wollaston's camera luthe method of the production of which this accom-cida, passages of the enchanting scenery of the plished gentleman is the inventor. It will be re- shores of the Lake of Como. But the results efmembered that we have from time to time called fected by this means were unsatisfactory, insomach attention to these truly wonderful representations, as to lead to the conclusion that the use of the inin our notices of Mr. Talbot's work, “ The Pencil strument required a certain knowledge of drawing, of Nature." By the public these “sun-pictures” which the operator unfortunately did not possess. are still misapprehended-still “misnomered;" | The rejection of this instrument by Mr. Talbot inwe shall accordingly, in this notice, show what duced him to make trial of another instrument, the they are not, and endeavor to explain what they camera obscura, which prompted the wish that the are, as it is yet far from generally accepted that beautiful imagery which it displays could be made they result from the action of light alone, and are a fixed and permanent picture or impression upon not produced by some leger-de-main of art. On the paper. Reflecting on the known chemical influtheir first appearance, artists who were not as yetence of light, it occurred to Mr. Talbot that a certain cognizant of the discovery were utterly at a loss to action might be exerted upon paper in a manner so pronounce upon them—they could, at once, under-entirely subject to the degrees of light and shade stand that they were charactered by nothing like by which it was promoted, as to bear a strict rehuman handling; there was no resemblance to semblance to the forms on which the light fell ; truch, for the eye to rest upon-they resembled and “ although," says Mr. Talbot, “I knew the nothing that had ever been done, either in the fact from chemical books that nitrate of silver was broad or narrow styles of water-color washing- changed or decomposed by light, still I had never they had nothing in common with mezzotinto- seen the experiment tried, and therefore I had no nothing with lithography-nothing with any idea whether the action was a rapid or a slow one known method of engraving. By the artist all/-a point, however, of the utmost importance, since, this was determinable, but still the main question if it were a slow one, my theory might prove but was onsolved. By the public they were consider- a philosophic dream." ed drawings, or some modification of lithography, 'Early in the year 1834, Mr. Talbot began to reor mezzotinto—and this is still extensively believed. duce his speculations to experiment by employing It cannot be understood that these are veritable a solution of the nitrate of silver for the purpose Phæbi labores-that no two are exactly alike, and of preparing the paper ; but the result was unsatisthat to copy them surpasses all human ingenuity, factory, and not less so was an experiment with inasmuch as they are a transfer to paper of the the chloride of silver already formed. The effect masses and tracery of light and shade by a means was then tried of the formation of the chloride utterly inimitable by the ordinary resources of art. on the paper, by first washing the paper with a On every print or plate, of what kind soever, strong solution of salt, and afterwards with nitrate the trace of manipulation is perceptible; but an of silver ; but this proceeding was not more satisexamination of a sun-picture by a magnifying glass factory than the others. serves only to render the problem more difficult of In the course of numerous experiments, Mr. solution, if the mind of the inquirer be occupied Talbot discovered that the paper was rendered with art without reference to nature.
more sensitive by the employment of a weaker soA due consideration of these productions sug- lution of salt than he had before used, having hithgests to us at once those works which are essen- erto erred in the formation of a 100 perfect chloride; tially the triumphs of the Dutch school-as the whereas that which was really necessary to the nearest approach which the labors of the human desiderated end was an imperfect chloride. The hand have ever effected to the sun-picture. No de result of this step was a facility in obtaining distailed comparison can be instituted; but we are tinct and very pleasing images of such things as here taughi-and there is no appeal from the pre- leaves, lace, and other flat objects of complicated cept—that finish is by no means incompatible with forms and outlines, by exposing them to the light breadth. How skeptical soever the eye may be, of the sun ; but the paper was not yet sufficiently there is nothing inharmonions in nature; therefore sensitive for the purpose of obtaining pictures with the closest imitation of nature is the nearest ap- the camera obscura. proach to the beautiful; and she is, consequently, At Geneva, in the autumn of 1834, Mr. Talbot outraged in proportion to any amount of discordant prosecuted the inquiry by varying the experiments hardness which may exist in professed representa- in many ways. His attention was directed to tions of truth.
iodide of silver by a remark of Sir H. Davy, as to These photogenic drawings are not extensively a superior susceptibility in the jodide ; but, in known in proportion to the importance of the dis- making the trial, the result was the contrary covery. The picture which accompanies this of the statement of Sir H. Davy-that the jodide number of the Art-Union, as an example, will, to of silver was more sensitive to light than the chloThose to whom the art is entirely new, afford some ride. It proved itself not only less sensitive than idea of the style in which these productions are the chloride, but did not in any way respond to the brought forward, and will, at the same time, sup- influence of the strongest sunshine, but would report the observations we have already made on the tain its original tint (a pale straw color) for any subject. To meet the inquiries to which the in- length of time unchanged in the sun. By this fact
the operator was convinced that little dependence * The name photogenic drawing, or photography, was could be placed on the statements of chemical invented by Mr. Talbot, having been previously un writers with regard to this particular subject-in known.
| fact, those aids and resources which are available in other inquiries were here altogether wanting, so and, therefore, after having admired the beauty of that every step towards the discovery, and in its this new phenomenon, I laid the specimens by for progress to perfection, is, it may be truly said, the a time, to see whether they would preserve the result of the unassisted labors of Mr. Talbot, to same appearance, or would undergo any further whom alone be the whole honor.
alteration.” This experiment, as our readers Although the experiment was not according to will see, was a curious anticipation of the first part the observation of Sir H. Davy, the fact of the of the Daguerreotype process about six months beiodide of silver being insensible to light was of im- fore Daguerre announced it. mediate utility : for the jodide of silver being found! In September, 1840, Mr. Talbot discovered the to be insensible to light, and the chloride being process first called Calotype (but the name has easily convertible into the jodide by immersion into since been changed by some of his friends into Taliodide of potassium, it followed that a picture hotype.*) By this process the action of light on made with chloride could be fixed by dipping it paper was rendered many hundred times more into a bath of the alkaline iodide.
rapid, allowing portraits to be taken from the life, “ This process of fixation" (extracted from the which could not previously be accomplished. The “ Pencil of Nature"'--Mr. Talbot's work already method of obtaining the Calotype pictures, commumentioned) " was a simple one, and it was some- nicated by Mr. Talbot to the Royal Society, shortly times very successful. The disadvantages to which after the discovery is as follows:it was liable did not manifest themselves until a “ Preparation of the Paper.-Take a sheet of later period, and arose from a new and unexpected the best writing paper, having a smooth surface, cause, pamely, that when a picture is so treated, and a close and even texture. although it is permanently secured against the “The water-mark, if any, should be cut off, lest darkening effect of the solar rays, yet it is exposed it should injure the appearance of the picture. to a contrary or whitening effect from them ; so Dissolve 100 grains of crystallized nitrate of silver that after the lapse of some days, the dark parts of in six ounces of distilled water. Wash the paper the picture begin to fade, and gradually the whole with this solution with a soft brush, on one side, picture becomes obliterated, and is reduced to the and put a mark on that side whereby to know it appearance of a uniform pale yellow sheet of paper. again. Dry the paper cautiously at a distant fire, A good many pictures, no doubt, escape this fate ; or else let it dry spontaneously in a dark room. but, as they all seem liable to it, the fixing process When dry, or nearly so, dip it into a solution of by iodine must be considered as not sufficiently cer- iodide of potassium containing 500 grains of that tain to be retained in use as a photographic pro- salt dissolved in one pint of water, and let it stay cess, except when employed wiih several careful two or three minutes in this solution. Then dip precautions, which it would be too long to speak it into a vessel of water, dry it lightly with blotof in this place."
ting paper, and finish drying it at a fire, which During the summer of 1835, Mr. Talbot re- will not injure it even if held pretty near; or else newed his attempts to execute pictures of buildings it may be left to dry spontaneously.
the camera obscura ; and having communica-l “All this is best done in the evening by candleted to the paper a greater degree of sensibility by light. The paper so far prepared I call iodized pameans of repeated alternate washes of salt and sil- per, because it has a uniform pale yellow coating ver, and using it in a moist state, the time for ob- of iodide of silver. It is scarcely sensitive to light, taining a representation with the camera obscura but, nevertheless, it ought to be kept in a portfolio on a bright day was reduced to ten minutes. But or a drawer, until wanied for use. It may be kept these were small, and, although others of larger for any length of time without spoiling or undersize were obtainable, a much greater amount of going any change, if protected from the light. patience was necessary for their production ; and, This is the first part of the preparation of Calotype moreover, they were less perfect ihan the smaller paper, and may be performed at any time. The ones, as it was difficult to keep the instrument remaining part is best deferred until shortly before steady for any great length of time pointing at the the paper is wanted for use. same object; and, the paper being employed in a “When that time is arrived, take a sheet of the moist state, the action was not sufficiently uni- iodized paper, and wash it with a liquid prepared form.
in the following manner :At the close of 1838, Mr. Talbot discovered a “ Dissolve 100 grains of crystallized nitrate of fact of a new kind, of which he thus speaks :- silver in two ounces of distilled water; add to this “ Having spread a piece of silver leaf on a pane of solution one sixth of its volume of strong acetic glass, and thrown a particle of iodine upon it, I acid. Let this mixture be called A. ubserved that colored rings forined themselves. “Make a saturated solution of crystallized around the central particle, especially if the glass gallic acid in cold distilled water. The quantity was slightly warmed. The colored rings I had no dissolved is very small. Call this solution B. difficulty in attributing to the formation of infinite- “When a sheet of paper is wanted for use, mix ly thin layers or strata of jodide of silver ; but a together the liquids A and B in equal volumes, most unexpected phenomenon occurred when the but only mix a small quantity of them at a time, silver plate was brought into the light, by placing because the mixture does not keep long without it near a window ; for then the colored rings spoiling. I shall call this mixture the gallo-nitrate shortly began to change their colors, and assumed of silver. other and quite unusual tints, such as are never " Then take a sheet of iodized paper and wash seen in the colors of thin plates. For instance, the it over with this gallo nitrate of silver, with a soft part of the silver plate which at first shone with a brush, taking care to wash it on the side which has pale yellow color was changed to a dark olive green when brought into the daylight. This
* Specimens of the Talbotype may be procured in great change was not very rapid it was much less
variety of Messrs. Gambart and Co., Berners street, and
Ess Messrs. Ackermann and Co., Strand, London ; and may rapid than the changes of some of the sensitive be ordered of any respectable printseller in town or coun papers which I had been in the habit of employing ; try.
been previously marked. This operation should, They may be made visible by the process already be performed by candle-light. Let the paper rest related, namely, by washing them with the gallohalf a minute, and then dip it into water. Then nitrate of silver, and then warming the paper. dry it lightly with blotting-paper, and finally dry it When the paper is quite blank, as is generally the cautiously at a fire, holding it a considerable dis- case, it is a highly curious and beautiful phenometance therefrom. When dry, the paper is fit for non to see the spontaneous commencement of the use. I have named the paper thus prepared Calo- picture, first tracing out the stronger outlines, and type paper, on account of its great utility in ob- ihen gradually filling up all the numerous and comtaining the pictures of objects with the camera ob- plicated details. The artist should watch the picscura. If this paper be kept in a press, it will ture as it develops itself, and when in his judg. often retain its qualities in perfection for three ment it has atlained the greatest degree of strengih months or more, being ready for use at any mo- and clearness, he should stop further progress by ment; but this is not uniformıly the case, and I washing it with the fixing liquid. therefore recommend that it should be used in a few “The Firing Process. To fix the picture, it hours after it has been prepared. If it is used im- should be first washed with water, then lightly mediately, the last drying may be dispensed with, dried with blotting-paper, and then washed with a and the paper may be used moist. Instead of em- | solution of bromide of potassium, containing 100 ploying a solution of crystallized gallic acid for the grains of that salt dissolved in eight or ten ounces liquid B, the tincture of galls diluted with water of water. After a minute or two it should be may be used, but I do not think the results are al- again dipped in water, and then finally dried. The together so satisfactory.
picture is in this manner very strongly fixed, and * Use of the paper. The Calotype paper is sen- with this great advantage, that it remains transsitive to light in an extraordinary degree, which parent, and that, therefore, there is no difficulty in transcends a hundred times or more that of any obtaining a copy from it. The Calotype picture is kind of photographic paper hitherto described. a negative one, in which the lights of nature are This may be made manifest by the following ex- represented by shades ; but the copies are positive, periment:-Take a piece of this paper, and, hav-having the lights conformable to nature. They ing covered half of it, expose the other half to also represent the objects in their natural position daylight for the space of one second in dark cloudy with respect to right and left. The copies may be weather in winter. This brief moment suffices to made upon Calotype paper in a very short time, the produce a strong impression upon the paper. But invisible impressions being brought out in the way ihe impression is laient and invisible, and its exist. already described. But I prefer to make copies ence would not be suspected by any one who upon photographic paper prepared in the way was not forewarned of it by previous experiments. which I originally described in a memoir read to
“ The method of causing the impression to be the Royal Society in February, 1839, and which is come visible is extremely simple. " It consists in made by washing the best writing-paper, first, washing the paper once more with the gallo-nitrate with a weak solution of common salt, and, next, of silver, prepared in the way before described, with a solution of nitrate of silver. Although it and then warming it gently before the fire. In a takes a much longer time to obtain a copy upon few seconds the part of the paper upon which the this paper, yet, when obtained, the tints appear light has acted begins to darken, and finally grows more harmonious and pleasing to the eye; it reentirely black, while the other part of the paper quires in general from three minutes to thirty minretains its whiteness. Even a weaker impression utes of sunshine, according to circumstances to obthan this may be brought out by repeating the wash tain a good copy on this sort of photographic paof gallo-nitrate of silver, and again warming the per. The copy should be washed and dried, and paper. On the other hand, a stronger impression the fixing process (which may be deferred to a does not require the warming of the paper, for a subsequent day) is the same as that already menwash of the gallo-nitrate suffices to make it tioned. The copies are made by placing the picvisible, without heat, in the course of a minute or ture upon the photographic paper, with a board betwo.
| low and a sheet of glass above, and pressing the "A very remarkable proof of the sensitiveness papers into close contact by means of screws or of the Calotype paper is afforded by the fact that otherwise. it will take an impression from simple moonlight, “After a calotype picture has furnished several N'it concentrated by a lens. If a leaf is laid upon copies, it sometimes grows faint, and no more good a sheet of the paper, an image of it may be obtained copies then can be made from it. But these picin this way in from a quarter to half an hour. tures possess the beautiful and extraordinary
“ This paper, being possesssed of so high a de- property of being susceptible of revival. In order gree of sensitiveness, is therefore well suited to re- to revive them and restore their original appearceire images in the camera obscura. If the aper. ance, it is only necessary to wash them again by ture of the object-lens is one inch, and the focal candlelight with gallo-nitrate of silver, and warm length fifteen inches, I find that one minute* is am- them; this causes all the shades of the picture to ply sufficient in summer to impress a strong image darken greatly, while the white parts remain unupon the paper, of any building upon which the affected. The shaded parts of the paper thus acsun is shining. When the aperture amounts to quire an opacity which gives a renewed spirit and one third of the focal length, and the object is very life to the copies, of which a second series may white, as a plaster bust, &c., it appears to me that now be taken, extending often to a very consideraone second is sufficient to obtain a pretty good image ble number. In reviving the picture it sometimes of it.
happens that various details make their appearance “The images thus received upon the Calotype which had not before been seen, having been latent paper are for the most part invisible impressions. all the time, yet, nevertheless, not destroyed by
their long exposure to sunshine. * Subsequent experiments, during the summer of 1841,
"I will terminate these observations by stating showed that ten seconds was the proper time under the circumstances above mentioned.
Tof action of the sensitive paper more familiar.