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was even then in great agony. Again—I could hare looked forever on the face of him who stood next in the line. Where the expression on the face of Ihe dead is beautiful, it must be infinitely more Bo than it ever can be while living; and in the still eyes of this corpse, in the sweet smile that brightened even that livid mouth, there was a fervor of hope and faith not to be mistaken. He was very young, and had probably been cut off in the first enthusiasm of his vocation, ere time, or the imperishable craving for human sympathy, had quenched the anient religious fervor, which is so sincerely felt by many young novices on their first profession. I was "cry clad he died when he did, it was so glorious a look of triumph! Strange to say, the most unmeaning of all these faces was that of a man who hail been murdered: there was a mere vacant stare of surprise in his wide, glaring eyes. The spirit seemed to have been so suddenly expelle.l from her mortal tenement, that she had left no trace of her passage forth. Near to this ghasily corpse stood a young man, who appeared to have fallen gently asleep, with that expression of utter weariness which is the very stamp of a broken heart.
When 1 had gone round about half the room, and had minutely examined the features of some twenty of this ghostly company, 1 was seized with a very strange hallucination. On entering into the presence of these forty monks, I had been fully aware, of course, that they were all dead, and I alone was living; and now I was equally conscious that there was some vast difference between the present stale of my grisly hosts and my own: only, after I had gone from one to another, ever meeting the gaze of their meaning eyes, and gathering such volumes of eloquence from their still lips, I could almost have believed that they were all living, and I myself dead, or in a dream! It wasquitetime to hold some communication with the living when assailed by such fancies as these; and I turned to look for my guide, with a strung desire to enter into conversation with him. I looked round and round in rain. I counted fortyone monks, therefore the living man must be amongst them; but the exact similarity of dress, and the motionless attitude with which he had installed himself between two of his lifeless com
E anions, made it no easy matter to distinguish im. When I did find him out, the question with which I addressed him would have been considered passably unfeeling in more polite society; it wss, if he himself would one day take his place in this strange sepulchre !" Assuredly !" he answered, with more vivacity than he had yet displayed; *' and this one must make way for me," he continued with a grim smile of satisfaction, at the same time dealing a light blow with hia bunch of keys on the shoulder of one of the corpses, which caused the bones to rattle with a sound so horrible, that I flew to the door, and begged him to open it, that I might escape from this dreadful room. I had had quite enough of the society, certainly not enlivening, of the Capuchins, both living and dead: indeed, on the whole, I rather give the preference to the latter, fur we claim no kindred with the dead . whereas, it must always be painful to come in contact with a fellow-creature so devoid of human feeling as this old msn seemed to be. He afterwsrds condncted me through the whole of the convent, at least of that part of it to which stringent are admit;id. It is very extensive, but princi
pally remarkable from the strange sight I had witnessed. As this order is one of the most rigorous, the brotherhood is composed, for the most part,of men who have committed some crime, and flown thither for refuge from the vengeance of the law, or the yet sterner justice of their own conscience Judging from the countenances of those I saw, I should say they had sought all mental rest in vain but so indeed it must have been. It was scarcely possible that the quiet of the cloister should have any effect on them; for it ia starting on a false principle to suppose that a man can ever escape from his own deed, be it what it may, good or bad. As soon as he has committed it, he has given it an existence, an individuality which he can never again destroy : it becomes independent of him, and goes out into the world to deal its influence lu widening circles far beyond his ken.
From Iha Uaha. RAILWAY TO ASIA.
As the Oregon question is now settled, wc can view its position, and see what can be done with it.
At the rate of 15 miles per hour, (as is proposed for the steamers to be built for our navy,) it requires but 8J days from England to New York, or other ports, but say 10 days.
From New York to the Pacific, 3,000 miles by railroad, at 30 miles per hour, allowing one day for detentions . . . 5"
On the Great Western mad from Lonilon to Bristol, passengers travel daily at SO miles per hour with perfect safety.
From Oregon to Chang-hai, in China, at the mouth of the Yang-tsc-keang, which crosses the great canal, and whero all the commerce of the vast empire centres, is 5,100 miles, at 15 miles per hour, (which can be performed as easily on the Pacific as 12 on the Atlantic,) allowing one day for coaling, &.c 10"
From England, ria New York, to
From New York to Chang-hai . . 21" But by sea voyage, as at present, cither from England or New York, 110 to 1B0 days, requiring, for a voyage out anil , home, 10 to 12 months ; distance estimated at more than 1H.0O0 miles.
From England, via New York, to
From New York to Australia . . . 21" From England, via New York, to Manilla 31"
From New York to Manilla . 24" From England, via New York, to Java 35 *' From New York to Java ... . 25" From England, via New York to Singapore 37"
From New York to Singapore 57" From England, via New York, to Calcutta 38"
From New York (U days for coaling,
tic.) to Calcutta SO"
On the route are, first, the Sandwich and numerous islands convenient for depots, coaling, &c , lie.; and at Australia is an abundance of coal. A. WHITNEY. Washinoton, D. C, June 10, 1810.
From Chambers' Journal.
Wc quote below the title of a recent volume by Dr. Mantell,* the object of which is " to present a familiar exposition of the nature and habits of tome of the invisible beings which people our likes and streams." Invisible beings! and yet urn the creatures of superstition and dreamland, bat actual, substantial existences, that, unseen by llie eye nf sense, perform, within a single drop of water, the circle of an economy as perfect in its kind as is that of man himself. The object is in the highest degree commendable. And the name of the author is guarantee sufficient for its correct and agreeable treatment. There is no branch of icience more interesting, none whose revelations are more wonderful, than that which unfolds the forms and nature of the minute creatures which l«ople every stagnant pool, inhabit the leaves of etery forest, and which take up their abode even in the fluids and tissues of other living beings. Nor is it a study the result of which is merely amusement and wonder; for, like the minute parUilic vegetation whose growth absorbs the elements of decay, and which occasionally create aucli havoc among human food, and engender disease and deaih, the myriad animalcules in nature mav execute similar missions, sometimes repressing putridity, at others becoming the sources of the ■hut loathsome and fatal diseases. It is, therefore, only by a knowledge of the nature of these rreatnres, and of the causes and sources of their detfKip-nent, that man can call in their aid or eontrol their results, as his purposes may demand. So simple, moreover, and so easily discernible is the organizition of many animalcules, that the physiological functions of their structure are fully exposed to view—functions which find their counterparts in the higher animals, but in whom the ■nde of operation is hopelessly obscured. Apparent as are the advantages resulting from a itudy of microscopic life, it must not be supposed that" the little work before us either affords an ample exposition, or adds new discoveries to the lubjeet. All that is attempted, is a familiar deKription of a few common facts, a description which will in some degree instruct the ordinary reader, and lead him—if he can be led at all—to further investigation, while works of greater re•earch and higher pretensions would have been unintelligible and forbidding.
Dr. Mantell's idea is a happy one: he takes a Ihtle water from a neighboring pool, and confining himself to the examination of this, describes, in aimple but attractive terms, what he sees, figuring at the same time, with the greatest delicacy and eleginee, the objects of bis observation. "From tome water containing aquatic plants, collected from a pond on Clapham Common, I select," says he, " a small twig, to which are attached a few delicate flakes, apparently of slime or jelly; some minute fibres, standing erect here and there on the twig, are also dimly visible to the naked eye. This twig, with a drop or two of the water, we will put between two thin plates nf glass, and place anderlhe field of view of a microscope having lenses that magnify the image of an object two hundred tunes in linear dimensions. Upon looking through the instrument, we find the fluid swarming with
• Thought* on Animalcules j or a Glimpse of the IntiiihU World Revealed by the Microscope. By Gideon Algernon Mantel], Esq., LL. D. London: Murray. MM.
animals of various shapes and magnitudes. Some are darting through the water with great rapidity, while others are pursuing and devouring creatures more infinitesimal than themselves. Many are attached to the twig by long delicate threads; several have their bodies enclosed in a transparent tube, from one end of which the animal partly protrudes, and then recedes; whHe numbers are covered by an elegant shell or case. The minutest kinds—the monads—many of which are so small, that millions might be contained in a single drop of water—appear like mere animated globules, free, single, and of various colors, sporting about in every direction. Numerous species resemble pearly or opaline cups or vases, fringed round the margin with delicate fibres, that areN in constant oscillation. Some of these are attached by spiral tendrils; others are united by a slender stem to one common trunk, appearing like a bunch of harebells; others are of a globular form, and grouped together in a definite pattern on a tabular or spherical membranous case for a certain period of their existence, and ultimately become detached and locomotive; while many are permanently clustered together, and die, if separated from the parent mass. No organs of progressive motion, similar to those of beasts, birds, or fishes, are observable in these beings; yet they traverse the water with rapidity, without the aid of limbs or fins; and though many species are destitute of eyes, yet all possess an accurate perception of the presence of other bodies, and pursue and capture their prey with unerring purpose." To the uninitiated this must be a startling revelation; more wonderful, because real, than all the multitudes with which superstition and fancy have peopled the realms above, beneath, and around us.
The animalcules above enumerated now become the subjects of individual examination—there being nearly a dozen different genera in the small phial of water selected. The first and most conspicuous of these is the Hydra, or fresh-water polype, an animalcule visible to the naked eye, appearing', when at rest, a mere globular speck of jelly, but, when active, protruding into a funnel-shaped body, furnished with a number of long, delicate tentacula or arms, by which it secures its prey. This polype is carnivorous in its habits, feeding on small worms and insects. "I have seen," says our author, " a polype seize two worms at the same instant; and to reach them, the arms were extended to such a degree of tenuity, as scarcely to be perceptible without the aid of a lens; and the worms, though very lively, and struggling violently, were unable to break asunder these delicate instruments, and escape, but in an instant were struck motionless. This phenomenon strikingly resembles the effect produced by the electric eel; and it is not improbable that the hydra, like that fish, kills its prey by an electric shock." The fresh-water polypes are exceedingly prolific, several hundreds of thousands springing from one parent slock in the course of a few months. The generation or mode of multiplication in the hydra is one of its most striking peculiarities In its ordinary condition, this takes place by gemmation, or buds, as in certain plants. A small protuberance appears externally on some part of the body of the polype, and gradually enlarges, and becomes elongated; arms speedily spring forth from the free extremity, and a miniature hydra is formed, which in a short time separates from its parent, and assumes its individual existence. Nor is this all: a single hydra may be cut into several pieces, either across its body, or longitudinally, and, what is wonderful, every section will in time become a polype, as perfect as the originil of which it formed a part! Further, the animal may be turned inside out like a glove, and the original outer surface will perform the function of digestion, while the focmer lining of the stomach becomes the skin; and this without the creature apparently suffering any inconvenience.
From the examination of the hi/ilrtr or polypes, which arc giants in comparison, Dr. Manlell passes to the consideration of ihe true Infusoria—those minute animalcules which were sporting in the drops of water between the plates of glass placed in the field of his microscope. "The existence of these minute beings having been first detected in water containing vegetable matter, such as hay, grass, &c, it was taken fur granted that they were peculiar to certain infusions; hence the term Infusoria, given to this class of animals, in allusion to their supposed origin. This name is still employed as a general designation, although it has long been known that the presence of animalcules in infusions has no necessary relation to the vegetable ingredients, except as far as the decomposition of the latter may tend to the production »f a proper medium for the development of the invisible eggs, or germs, of these creatures, which are everywhere present. The essential characters of the infusoria —in other words, those points of organization in which they differ from all other animals—consist in their bodies being destitute of any true articulated or jointed limbs, and locomotive members or feet; their varied movements being performed by means of processes or filaments, which are always j in motion, and arc termed cilia, from their supposed resemblance to the eyelashes. The cilia, in many species of the Infusoria, are more or less! generally distributed over the surface of the body; in others they are disposed in one or more circles around the mouth or aperture of the digestive or- j gans; and in some, are arranged in zones on one' or more circular or semicircular projections on the upper part of the body." The examination of j these minute creatures requires great tact and pa-, tience. From the original drop of water a particu-! lar species is first selected; it is then removed, transferred to a drop of pure water, and placed f under the field of the microscope—the observer lie-' ginning with low powers, till he obtain a general knowledge of the form and appearance of the spe-' cics, and afterwards examining the several parts of I the body with the most powerful glasses
By such a scrutiny. I)r Manlell delects, in the original glass of water, a number of species of the' roost beautiful forms, and of the most curious j economy. Among these arc Monads, animated' spherules of various colors, little more than the I thousandth part of I line in diameter; and vet | each exhibits an individual activity, feeding, di» I porting, and propagating its kind with incon- J osivable rapidity. The floating colored slime which sometimes appears in Ihe water of stagnant! pools, is an aggregation of countless myriads of' these Wings—not individually distinct, but visible only in the mass. There arc also VortictVa, or bell-shaprd animals, and Strn/ort, or those of trampet shapes—fixed singly, or in clusters, by the narrow extremity, and waving in the water their wider extremities, fringed with rilia, like so many animated harebells of astonishing minuteness. The digestive organs of these tiny creatures "consist
of a series of globular stomachs—hence the term polygastria—connected by a common tube, which allows entrance to the food, and exit to the effete particles. The food is brought to the mouth by the currents produced in the water by the cilia; aeration is performed by the sgency of the tame organs; and the increase of the species is effected by spontaneous division, each part, like the severed portions of the polype, growing into a perfect individual." Besides these polvgastric animalcules, which are the lowest of the Infusoria, there are in the water under examination numerous species of Rotifcra, or wheel-bearing animalcules, so called from the circular rows of cilia which fringe the upper parts of their bodies, and which, whea in motion, appear like wheels revolving round a common axis. These are more highly organized than the former class: "the digestive canal is a lube more or less straight, which in many genera is provided with jaws and teeth, which, like the masticatory organs in birds, are situated low down, are very distinct, and present considerable diversity of form and arrangement." Jaws and ttttk in creatures invisible to the naked eye! Yet so it is: like the miniature watch set in a finger-ring, its wheels and springs arc not less perfect Ix-cause of their tiny dimensions. In the Holifera there are indications of nerves, muscles, and punctiforrn eyes, all shadowing forth, as it were, the dawn of higher existences. Some are oviparous, others viviparous—the eggs in many species being in size equal to one third of the animalcule. These ova " retain their vitality for almost an unlimited period, and are transported by the water and wafted hy the winds—for, whether dry or moist, they remain uninjured—till, thrown into the conditions suitable to their organization, they become developed, and the apparently pure waters Keni with myriads of highly-organized beings. Even the adult animals of some species—the common Rotifers, for instance—after being apparently dried tip for several years, will start into life upon the addition of a few drops of water, and throw their rotary organs into full play, as if roused fn.m a refreshing slumber."
Of these Rmifera, Dr. Mantell detects several genera: some flower-shaped, Flostvlana; some crown-shaped, Strphanorcro*; the common whedanimah'iile. Rotif r; and other species covered with siliceous shells and spines, Broehionus. These last are perhaps the most wonderful, as they are, geologically speaking, the most important of tbeirrlass. "Their cases or shells consist either of lime, silex, (flint.) or iron; ami these retain their form and structure for unlimited periods of time From the inconceivable numbers of these shell-animalcules, which swarm in every body of water, whether fresh or salt, and the immense rapidiiv with which the species increase—by spontaneous fissoration, germination, and ova—extensive deposits, or strata of their cases, are constantly forming at the bottom of lakes, rivers, and seas. 1 fence have originated the layers of white calcareous earth common in peat-bogs and morasses, the tripoli, or pollshing-slatc of Bilin,* consisting wholly of the siliceous cases of animalcules, and the bog iron, composed of the femiginoos shields of other forms. In short, the extensive and tin
• The p»li«hin?<fc]atr> nf Bilin, in Pnmta, tnrm« s ■cries of «irnin fourteen fori thick, and is enlirvly coinposed of the 'ihceous ibirliU of Infusoria, of such films* minulenru, that a cubic inch nf thr «tunc conlaiut fortyooe thousand millions of distinct organitms.
portent changes that have been produced on the garth's surface by this agency in the earlier ages of the physical history of our planet, and those of a like nature which are going on at the present time, ire in the highest degree interesting, and have but lately become the subject of scientific investigation."
The contents of the little phial have now been explored, the microscope removed, and all that remains is a small twig, two or three minuie lei<es, a few flakes of mucus, and a turbid condition o( the water from the presence of earl lily particks. "All the diversified forms of life that were sporting in the apparently wide waste of water hive vanished from our sight, and are as ibouEli they were not; yet what a world of wonders, what a marvellous display of Infinite wisdom, »re there concealed! Within that narrow space, the microscope has shown us the mysterious principle of vitality embodied in structures of which we had previously no conception, and under conditions which, if estimated according to our experience cif lhc visible creation, would appear incompatible with animal existence. Were we to describe the fa'-ts that have come under our nolice to persons uG.icquainted with the optical powers of the micro•nipe, and tell them that the seeming particles of earth in the water are creatures of various forms »nd structures, endowed with life, and the capacity fir its enjoyment; that those flakes of mucus are ae?regated thousands of animals, in the shape of (Wers. which increase, like plants, by buds and t>y sdf-division; that some of these creatures are carnivorous, feeding on living atoms more infinitrsimal than themselves; that others are herbivorous, and nourished by particles of decomposed vegetables too minute to be visible till accumulated in the internal organs of the animalcules; that wc fleeted some of these animals, and caused them UiMvallow carmine, and thus imparted a red color in their digestive organs, and rendered their structure more obvious; that some are free, and roam through the water at pleasure, others always ►"■denlary, others locomotive in youth, and fixed to one spot in after life; that many h:ive eyes, the number and color of which can be distinguished; that the difference in the relative magnitude of ih«se creatures is as great as that between a mouse and an elephant; that if the water in •liirh these beings are now immersed be allowed to evuxjrate, and the sediment become as dry as dust, and ibis be moisiened three or four years hence, muny of the individuals at this moment sporting tlimnoh the water will be resuscitated, and appear i'i full activity, although, had they rammed in lix-ir native element, the term of their existence would have extended but through a few days— thus realizing one of the beautiful fictions of Arabian stnrv—would not this statement he deemed mworthy of belief!—would it not be regarded as Miprobahle and as extravagant as the wildest chimeras of the imagination' And yet such a narrative would be but the simple truth—an unex•ezerated. unadorned matter-of-fact summary of the phenomena th-it have come under our observation!" Verily, there are more things in nature Una the uninquiring dream of.
Like animals of higher organization, these mir.ro•oipic creatun-s suffer and perish from sudden trtoaitinns of temperature. Atmospheric air is •» necessary to their existence as to ours; and thev are killed hy substances which aflecl the ehemical composition of the water. Fresh-water •oeeies instantly die if sea-water be suddenly
added, though the latter may swarm with marine species; but they survive if tho mixture be gradual; and many kinds inhabit brackish water. Infusoria always appear in vegetable infusions, because their ova or germs, being everywhere present, find in such fluids a proper medium for their development. Every stream is laden with them; every breeze wafts its myriads of myriads. Though the influence of light is favorable to their life, yet it does not appear indispensable, for they abound in the waters of deep mines, which are always in impenetrable darkness. "The ordinary duration of life in the Infusoria varies from a few hours to several days, or even weeks. Rotifera have been traced to the twenty-third day of their existence. The death of these animals is generally sudden; but in some of the larger species, convulsive struggles attend their dissolution. Shortly after death, the soft parts rapidly decompose, and all traces of their beautiful structures disappear: the species, which are furnished with earthy cases, or shells, alone leave durable vestiges of their existence."
Such is an outline of Dr. Mantell's "Thoughts on Animalcules," which we cordially recommend to the perusal of the young and intelligent. They may or may not become original inquirers—they may never adjust the focus of a microscope, or place one drop of an infusion under the lens of a magnifier—but this need not prevent them from making themselves acquainted, through the discoveries of others, with a department of knowledge than which we know of none more replete with interest and instruction.
Scientific Pkophecy —Newton expresses his deliberate opinion that cohesion, light, heat, electricity, and the communication of the brain with the muscles, are all to be referred to one and the same cause—an ether or spirilus, which pervades all bodies. We might smile at such an opinion from many quarters; and had Newton been only the author of the " Prtncipia," we might perhaps think bis head a little exalted by tho excitement attending the close of an arduous labor, (though, in truth, the scholium, from which the above is extracted, does not appear in the first edition;) but when we consider his prediction, that the diamond would be funnel to lie combustible, that the earth was between five and six times its weight of water, and others which have turned out correct, we feel something like a presentiment that tho opinions just riled may in some degree share the same destiny.—Dublin Review.
Right In The Lono-run.—Mankind do sooner or later make a " good report" of things worthy to be so reported of. The world is long sometimes in estimating merit rightly, hut is pretty sure in the end to accord iis approbation to the deserving. Too often, it is true, the wrealhs that ought to have encircled the brows of tiring men—the eminent of their race for mental and virtuous attainments—have been twined only for their mnnvmentat rffigii.s; hut once placed on these, they have preserved an imperishable freshness. Milton's bays grow greener with the touch of time. Newton's name shines like the stars with which, while he was upon earth, he held immortal converse. Nature spoke hy Shakspeare when he lived, and mankind have since taken care that she shall speak by him forever. Whence we may fairly infer that the world's ultimate judgment is in most things correct, and should be regarded by every man of sense accordingly.—T. Cromwell.
Prom lh« New York Kraninf Mirror. REPEAL OF THE CORN LAWS, AND THE CONSEQUENCES ON ENGLAND AND THE WORLD.
Tnx last arrivals from Europe hare put to rest this lone agitated and most important question— the great qurstion of our day—that on which, more than any other, has hinged the commercial policy of the world. We have no hesitation in saying that we regard it as a measure which, taken in connection with the other free trade measures of the British government, and regarded as the consummation of them, is fraught with more important consequences than any other act of our lime.
It shows a complete revolution in the governing influences of Great Britain. Those influences have seen hitherto wielded by the landed aristocracy. This body has hitherto controlled both lords and commons. It has done, or rather permitted, many liberal things towards the other great interests of the slate. Commercial restrictions began to be relaxed soon after the close of the war in 1815, and the relaxation has proceeded with a tolerably steady pace ever since. Mr. Huskisson was the father of the modern free trade system in England, and the principles which he laid down and so ably advocated, have in no important particular been departed from, in any of the changes that have been introduced. These have all been in one direction—in favor of freedom of trade.
Mr. Canning, who was at heart of the Liverpool party, and whose splendid abilities gave the coup de grace to the old lory aristocracy, with their worn-out traditionary notions, supported the new riews of his friend Huskisson, with the whole weight of his almost matchless oratory. The whig party came into power a few years after his death, pledged hv their principles and professions, to carry out still farther ihose measures v> hich had for their object the removal of all species of restrictions on the manufactures and commerce of the country, and on its agriculture, so for at ihty could. This party did much, during their ten or eleven years of rule, to establish and extend liberal principles in every direction, eicrpt in rrcard to the •gricultvral intertill. Here they found themselves entirely too weak to cope with the landed aristocracy. This body had loo long enjoyed dominion in the state to resign it easily, ft yielded all it could 10 the advancing spirit of the age, and to greater freedom of action in all departments of trade and business; but it guarded, as the apple ef the eye, its own monopoly. Other interesis might be free* toward each other; the landholders must be protected against all. There were not wanting plausible arguments for this, in the pressure of the church, and the poor rates on land, and in the necessity for providing employment for the masses, which agriculture does In a greater extent ihan any of the other great branches of national industry. Here the agriculturists were inaccessible, obatinate, deaf to all argument and -entreaty, and defeated every effort of the whig ministry to repeal or modify the corn laws.
They were finally overthrown [so far as their public measures were concerned] hv their ill enc■tet* in finance. For years preceding their exit from office, there was an unusual deficit in the treasury, and that in apite of some taxes laid expressly to meet it. The nation became alarmed at the aspect of a deficient revenue in the midst of a profound peace, or only a money-making [the
Chinese] war. The government accordingly changed hands, and Sir Robert Peel' signalrxed his accession to power by one of those buhl and decisive measures which either bring about triumphant success, or ruin, utter and irretrievable defeat.
This was no other than the imposition of one of the most unpopular and burdensome of the war taxes—a property and income tax. by means of which he not only made up the deficient revenue, but gave a new impulse to the manufacturing and commercial interests, by lessening or repealing a host of duties on the raw material, and by greatly lessening all protective duties on the product of British manufacture. He also made a most important modification in the previous stringency of the corn laws. The success of these measures, bold and decisive as they were, must have exceeded the most sanguine expectations of the premier and his friends. The income-las vielded nearly one half more than the estimate. The impulse to trade and manufactures was so great thai the large reduction of taxes was attended, even at first, with but small loss to the revenue. Instead of repealing the income-tax, upon this success, as a weak or partisan minister would have done. Sir Robert Peel made its continuance the basis for new operations in the same direction, until, at length, British manufactures and commerce were freed from almost every shackle that could impede their competition with the manufactures and commerce of the world. An income-tax of fire millions (esiimaled originally to produce about three and a half) has led to the repeal of over eight millions of other taxes, besides leaving a surplus, the present fiscal year, of over two millions.
This unparalleled and wonderful success, in which the wisdom of the minister had been aided by a most hsppy combination of circumstances, gave him strength to propose the boldest measure that has ever emanated from a minister of the crown—the death of the corn-laws, with an interval of three years to die in; the process, however, commencing without delay. This is the crowning work of all the free trade measures which have heen in progress under the various ministries of Great Britain for a quarter of a century. The threatened famine in Ireland was, no doubt, aa important aid in effecting this prorligious resolution. But Peel ought not to deny his obligation to his predecessors. This great measure, upoa which he declares himself willing to slake the reputation of a life of great things, could have been carried only in a reformed parliament. It is strictly one of the fruits of that reform, which Perl opposed in the maturity of his vests, and with all I he strength of his powerful mind. In this sense it may be said that he is indebted to his enemies for his success; and that only the failure of his opposition to reform has enabled him to bring about " the greatest measure of his lite." That this measure, with the class to which it belongs, will be productive of the most important consequences to England and the world, we ha«e not the smallest douht. It would he too murh to expect that these should he all favorable, though a great preponderance of good may reasonably be looked for. But we csnnot enter upon so great a subject at the close of sn srticle.
We msy however express our doubts w briber the success of this great measure ensures the continuance of the Peel ministry. The premier has subjected himself to a luad of obloquy, aucb aa