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was cren then in great agony. Again, I could pally remarkable from the strange sigbt I had withave looked forever on the face of him who stood nessed. As this order is one of the most rigorous, next in the line. Where the expression on the the brotherhood is composed, for the most part, of face of the dead is beautiful, it must be infinitely men who have commiited some crime, and flown more so than it ever can be while living; and in thither for refuge froin the vengeance of the law, the still eyes of this corpse, in the sweet smile or the yet sterner justice of their own conscience. that brightened even that livid mouth, there was a Judging froin the countenances of those I saw, I fervor of hope and faith not to be mistaken. He should say they had sought all mental rest in vain : was very young, and had probably been cut off in but so indeed it must have been. It was scarcely the first enthusiasm of his vocation, ere time, or possible that the quiet of the cloister should have the imperishable craving for human sympathy, had any effect on them ; for it is starting on a false quenched the ardent religious fervor, which is so principle to suppose that a man can ever escape sincerely felt by many young novices on their first from his own deed, be it what it may, good or bad. profession. I was very glad he died when he did, As soon as he has committed it, he has given it an it was so glorious a look of triumph! Strange to existence, an individuality which he can never say, the most unmeaning of all these faces was again destroy : it becomes independent of him, and that of a man who had been murdered : there was goes out into the world to deal its influence in a mere vacant stare of surprise in his wide, glar- widening circles far beyond his ken. ing eyes. The spirit seemed to have been so suddenly expelled from her mortal tenement, that
From the Union she had left no trace of her passage forth. Near to this ghasily corpse stood a young man, who
RAILWAY TO ASIA. appeared to hare fallen gently asleep, with that As the Oregon question is now settled, we can expression of utter weariness which is the very view its position, and see what can be done with stamp of a broken heart.
it. When I had gone round about half the room, At the rate of 15 miles per hour, (as is proand had minutely examined the features of some posed for the steamers 10 be built for our nary.) it twenty of this ghostly company, I was seized with requires but 84 days from England to New York, a very strange ballocination. On entering into or other ports, but say . . . . . . 10 days. the presence of these forty monks, I had been fully From New York to the Pacific, 3,000 aware, of course, that they were all dead, and I miles by railroad, at 30 miles per hour, alone was living; and now I was equally con- allowing one day for detentions... 5 * acious that there was some vast difference between On the Great Western road from Lonthe present state of my grisly hosts and my own: don to Bristol, passengers travel daily at only, after I had gone from one to another, ever 50 miles per hour with perfect safety. meeting the gaze of their meaning eyes, and From Oregon to Chang-hai, in China, gathering such volumes of eloquence from their at the mouth of the Yang-tse-keang, still lips, I could almost have believed that they which crosses the great canal, and where were all living, and I myself dead, or in a dream! all the commerce of the vast empire cenIt was quite time to hold some communication with | tres, is 5,400 miles, at 15 miles per hour, the living when assailed by such fancies as these ; (which can be performed as easily on the and I turned to look for my guide, with a strong Pacific as 12 on the Atlantic,) allowing desire to enter into conversation with him. I one day for coaling, &c. . . . . . looked round and round in vain. I counted fortyone monks, therefore the living man must be From England, via New York, to amongst them; but the exact similarity of dress, Chang-hai .... and the motionless attitude with which he had From New York to Chang-hai . . installed himself between two of his lifeless com- But by sea voyage, as at present, either panions, made it no easy matter to distinguish from England or New York, 110 to 160 him. When I did find him out, the question with days, requiring, for a voyage out and . which I addressed him would have been considered home, 10 to 12 months ; distance estimated passably unfeeling in more polite society ; it was, at more than 18,000 reiles. if he himself would one day take his place in this from England, sia New York, to atrange sepulchre ! " Assuredly !" he answered, Australia . with more vivacity than he had yet displayed : ! From New York to Australia. .. ** and this one must make way for me," he con- From England, via New York, to Matinued with a grim smile of satisfaction, at the nilla . . . same time dealing a light blow with his bunch of From New York to Manilla . . keys on the shoulder of one of the corpses, which From England, via New York, to Java caused the bones to rattle with a sound so horrible, From New York to Java . . . . that I flew to the door, and begged him to open it. From England, via New York to Sinthat I might escape from this dreadful room. Igapore . . . . . . . . . . had had quite enough of the society, certainly not From New York to Singapore . . enlivening, of the Capuchins, both living and dead : From England, via New York, to Cal. indeed, on the whole, I rather give the preference cutta to the latter, for we claim no kindred with the From New York (14 days for coaling, dead. whereas, it must always be painful to come &c.) to Calcutta . . . in contact with a fellow-creature so devoid of On the route are, first, the Sandwich and nohuman feeling as this old man seemed to be. He merous islands convenient for depots, coaling, &c., afterwards conducted me through the whole of the &c.; and at Australia is an abundance of coal. conveni, at least of that part of it to which strang
A. WHITNEY. ers are admiu ed. It is very extensive, but princi- WASHINGTON, D. C., June 10, 1816.
te, first, the si
From Chambers' Journal. animals of various shapes and magnitudes. Some DR. MANTELL ON ANIMALCULES. are darting through the water with great rapidity, We quote below the title of a recent volume by
while others are pursuing and devouring creatures
more infinitesimal than themselves. Many are alDr. Mantell,* the object of which is “ to present al. familiar exposition of the nature and habits of
tached to the twig by long delicate threads ; sev. some of the invisible beings which people our
eral have their bodies enclosed in a transparent lakes and streams." Invisible beings! and yet
tube, from one end of which the animal parily pro
trudes, and then recedes; while numbers are covnot the creatures of superstition and dreamland,
ered by an elegant shell or case. The minutest but actual, substantial existences, that, unseen by
kinds—the monads—many of which are so small, the eye of sense, perform, within a single drop of
that millions might be contained in a single drop water, the circle of an economy as perfect in its kind as is that of man himself. The object is in the
of water-appear like mere animated globules, highest degree commendable. And the name of
free, single, and of various colors, sporting about
in every direction. Numerous species resemble the author is guarantee sufficient for its correct
pearly or opaline cups or vases, fringed round the and agreeable treatment. There is no branch of
margin with delicate fibres, that are in constant osscience more interesting, none whose revelations
cillation. Some of these are attached by spiral are more wonderful, than that which unfolds the
lendrils ; others are united by a slender stem to forms and nature of the minute creatures which people every stagnant pool, inhabit the leaves of
one common trunk, appearing like a bunch of hare
| bells; others are of a globular form, and grouped every forest, and which take up their abode even in the fluids and tissues of other living beings.
together in a definite pattern on a tabular or spheriNor is it a study the result of which is merely
cal membranous case for a certain period of their amusement and wonder ; for, like the minute par
existence, and ultimately become detached and loisitic vegetation whose growth absorbs the ele
comotive ; while many are permanently clustered ments of decay, and which occasionally create
together, and die, if separated from the parent such havoc among human food, and engender dis
mass. No organs of progressive motion, similar
to those of beasts, birds, or fishes, are observable ease and death, the myriad animalcules in nature
in these beings; yet they traverse the water with may execute similar missions, sometimes repress
rapidity, without the aid of limbs or fins; and ing putridity, at others becoming the sources of the
though many species are destitute of eyes, yet all most loathsome and fatal diseases. It is, therefore, only by a knowledge of the nature of these
possess an accurate perception of the presence of
other bodies, and pursue and capture their prey creatures, and of the causes and sources of their
with unerring purpose." To the uninitiated this developinent, that man can call in their aid or
must be a startling revelation ; more wonderful, control their results, as his purposes may demand.
because real, than all the multitudes with which So simple, moreover, and so easily discernible is
superstition and fancy have peopled the realms the organization of many animalcules, that the
above, beneath, and around us. physiological functions of their structure are fully The animalcules above enumerated now become exposed to view-functions which find their coun
the subjects of individual examination—there being terparts in the higher animals, but in whom the
nearly a dozen different genera in the small phial mode of operation is hopelessly obscured. Ap
of water selected. The first and most conspicuparent as are the advantages resulting from a
lous of these is the Hydra, or fresh-water polype, study of microscopic life, it must not be supposed
an animalcule visible to the naked eye, appearing, that the little work before us either affords an ample exposition, or adds new discoveries to the
when at rest, a mere globular speck of jelly, but,
when active, protruding into a funnel-shaped body, subject. All that is attempted, is a familiar de
| furnished with a number of long, delicate tentacula scription of a few common facts, a description
or arms, by which it secures its prey. This which will in some degree instruct the ordinary
polype is carnivorous in its habits, feeding on small reader, and lead him-if he can be led at all-to
worins and insects. “I have seen," says our further investigation, while works of greater re
author, “ a polype seize two worms at the same search and higher pretensions would have been un-linstant : and to reach them, the arins were extendintelligible and forbidding.
ed to such a degree of tenuity, as scarcely to be Dr. Mantell's idea is a happy one : he takes a
perceptible without the aid of a lens; and the little water from a neighboring pool, and confining himself to the examination of this, describes, in
worms, though very lively, and struggling violent
ly, were unable to break asunder these delicate insimple but attractive terms, what he sees, figuring
struments, and escape, but in an instant were at the same time, with the greatest delicacy and
struck motionless. This phenomenon strikingly elegance, the objects of his observation. “From
resembles the effect produced by the electric eel; some water containing aquatic plants, collected
and it is not improbable that the hydra, like that from a pond on Clapham Common, I select," says
fish, kills its prey by an electric shock.” The he, “ a small twig, to which are attached a few
fresh-water polypes are exceedingly prolific, sevdelicate flakes, apparently of slime or jelly ; some
eral hundreds of thousands springing from one paminute fibres, standing erect here and there on the
rent stock in the course of a few months. The twig, are also dimly visible to the naked eye. | This twig, with a drop or two of the water, we lis one of its most striking peculiarities
generation or mode of multiplication in the hydra
Inits ordiwill put between two thin plates of glass, and place under the field of view of a microscope having lenses
nary condition, this takes place by gemmation, or
buds, as in certain plants. A small protuberance that magnify the image of an object two hundred times in linear dimensions. Upon looking through
appears externally on some part of the body of the the instrument, we find the fluid swarming with
| polype, and gradually enlarges, and becomes elon
gated ; arms speedily spring forth from the free * Thoughts on Animalcules; or a Glimpse of the In
extremity, and a miniature hydra is formed, which visible World Revealed by the Microscope. By Gideon Algernon Mantell, Esq., LL. D.
in a short time separates from its parent, and as
London: 'Murray. 1646.
sumes its individual existence. Nor is this all : a single hydra may be cut into several pieces, either of a series of globular stomachs-hence the term across its body, or longitudinally, and, what is polygastria-connected by a common tube, which wonderful, every section will in time become a allows entrance to the food, and exit to the effete polype, as perfect as the original of which it particles. The food is brought to the mouth by formed a part! Further, the animal may be the currents produced in the water by the cilia: turned inside out like a glove, and the original aëration is performed by the agency of the same outer surface will perform the function of diges- organs ; and the increase of the species is effected tion, while the former lining of the stomach be- by spontaneous division, each part, like the serered comes the skin ; and this without the creature ap- portions of the polype, growing into a perfect indiparently suffering any inconvenience.
vidual.". Besides these polygastric animaleules, From the examination of the hydra or polypes, which are the lowest of the Infusoria, there are in which are giants in comparison, Dr. Mantell passes the water under examination numerous species of to the consideration of the true Infusoria--those Rolifera, or wheel-bearing animalcules, so called minute animalcules which were sporting in the from the circular rows of cilia which fringe the drops of water between the plates of glass placed upper parts of their bodies, and which, when in the field of his microscope. “The existence of in motion, appear like wheels revolving round a these minute beings having been first detected in common axis. These are more highly organized water containing vegetable matter, such as hay, than the former class : "the digestive canal is a grass, &c., it was taken for granted that they were tube more or less straight, which in many genera peculiar to certain infusions ; hence the term Infuso- is provided with jaws and teeth, which, like the ria, given to this class of animals, in allusion to masticatory organs in birds, are situated low down, their supposed origin. This name is still employed are very distinct, and present considerable diversity as a general designation, although it has long been of form and arrangement." Jaws and recth in known that the presence of animalcules in infu- creatures invisible to the naked eye! Yet so it is : sions has no necessary relation to the vegetable in- like the miniature watch set in a finger-ring, its gredients, except as far as the decomposition of the wheels and springs are not less perfect because of latter may tend to the production of a proper me- their tiny dimensions. In the Rotifera there are dium for the development of the invisible eggs, indications of nerves, muscles, and punetiform or germs, of these creatures, which are everywhere eyes, all shadowing forth, as it were, the dawn present. The essential characters of the insusoria of higher existences. Some are oviparous, others --in other words, those points of organization in viviparous--the eggs in many species being in which they differ from all other animals--consist size equal to one third of the animalcule. These in their bodies being destiinte of any true articu- ova " retain their vitality for almost an unlimited lated or jointed limbs, and locomotive members or period, and are transported by the water and feet; their varied movements being performed by wafted by the winds-for, whether dry or moist, means of processes or filaments, which are always they remain uninjured-till, thrown into the copin motion, and are termed cilia, from their sup- ditions suitable to their organization, they become posed resemblance to the eyelashes. The cilia, in developed, and the apparently pure waters teem inny species of the Infusoria, are more or less with myriads of highly-organized beings. Even generally distributed over the surface of the body; the adult animals of some species-the common in others they are disposed in one or more circles Rotifers, for instance-after being apparently dried around the mouth or aperture of the digestive or- up for several years, will start into life upon the gans; and in some, are arranged in zones on one addition of a few drops of water, and throw their or more circular or semicircular projections on the rotary organs into full play, as if roased from a upper part of the body." The examination of refreshing slumber." thesc minute creatures requires great tact and pa- Of these Rotifera, Dr. Mantell detects several tience. From the original drop of water a particu- genera : some flower-shaped, Floscularia; some lar species is first selected ; it is then reinoved, crown-shaped, Stephanorcros; the common wheelTransferred to a drop of pure water, and placed animalcule, Rotifır; and other species covered with under the field of the microscope-the observer be siliceous shells and spines, Brachionus. These last ginning with low powers, ull he obtain a general are perhaps the most wonderful, as they are, genknowledge of the form and appearance of the spe. I logically speaking, the most important of their class. cies, and afterwards erimining the several parts of " Their cases or shells consist either of lime, the body with the most powerful glasses.
silex, (flint.) or iron ; and these retain their form By such a scrutins, Dr Mantell detects, in the and structure for unlimited periods of time. From original glass of water, a number of species of the the inconceivable numbers of these shell-animalmnost beautiful forins, and of the most curious cules, which swarm in every body of water, economy. Among these are Monads, animated whether fresh or salt, and the immense rapidity spherules of various colors, little more than the! with which the species increase--by spontaneous thousandth part of a line in diameter; and yet fissuration, germination, and ovi-extensive deeach exhibits an individual activity, feeding, dis posits, or strata of their cases, are constantly form porting, and propagating its kind with incon- ing at the bottom of lakes, rivers, and seas. Henre ceivable rapidity. The floating colored slime have originated the layers of white calcareous which sometimes appears in the water of stagnant! earth cominon in peat-bogs and morasses, the pools, is an aggregation of countless myriads of tripoli, or polishing-slate of Bilin, consisting these beings-not individually distinct, but visible wholly of the siliceous cases of animalcules, and only in the mass. There are also l'orticella, or the bog iron, composed of the ferruginous shields bell-shaped animals, and Seniors, or those of trum- of other forms. In short, the extensive and impet shapes-fixed singly, or in clusters, by the Darrow extremity, and waving in the water their * The polishing-slate of Bilin, in Prussia, formes wider extremities, fringed with rilia, like so many series.
series of strain (nurteen feet thick, and is entirely comanimated harebells of astonishing minuteness. The
posed of the riliceous shields of Infusoria, of such extreme ated barebells of astonishing minuteness. The ininuteness, that a cubic inch of the stone contains forty
inn digestive organs of these tiny creatures " consist one thousand millions of distinct organisins.
postant changes that have been produced on the added, though the latter may swarm with marine earth's surface by this agency in the earlier ages species; but they survive if the mixture be of the physical history of our planet, and those of a gradual; and many kinds inhabit brackish water. like nature which are going on at the present time, Infusoria always appear in vegetable infusions, are in the highest degree interesting, and have because their ova or germs, being everywhere but lately become the subject of scientific in- present, find in such fiuids a proper medium for vestigation."
Their development. Every stream is laden with The contents of the little phial have now been thein ; every breeze wafts its myriads of myriads. explored, the microscope removed, and all that Though the influence of light is favorable to their remains is a small twig, two or three minute life, yet it does not appear indispensable, for they leaves, a few flakes of inucus, and a turbid condi- abound in the waters of deep mines, which are tion of the water from the presence of earthly par- always in impenetrable darkness. “The ordinary ticles. “ All the diversified forms of life ihat duration of life in the Infusoria varies from a few were sporting in the apparently wide waste of hours to several days, or even weeks. Rotifera water have vanished from our sight, and are as have been traced to the twenty-third day of their though they were not; yet what a world of won- existence. The death of these animals is genders, what a marvellous display of Infinite wisdom, erally sudden ; but in some of the larger speare there concealed! Within that narrow space, the cies, convulsive struggles attend their dissolution. microscope has shown us the mysterious principle Shortly after death, the soft parts rapidly decomof vitality embodied in structures of which we had pose, and all traces of their beautiful structures previously no conception, and under conditions disappear : the species, which are furnished with which, if estimated according to our experience earthy cases, or shells, alone leave durable vesof the visible creation, wonld appear incompatible tiges of their existence." with animal existence. Were we to describe the Such is an outline of Dr. Mantell's - Thoughts facts that have come under our notice to persons on Animalcules," which we cordially recommend unacquainted with the optical powers of the micro- to the perusal of the young and intelligent. They scope, and tell them that the seeming particles of may or may not become original inquirers—they earth in the water are creatures of various forms may never adjust the focus of a microscope, or and structures, endowed with life, and the capacity place one drop of an infusion under the lens of a for its enjoyment; that those flakes of mucus are magnifier--but this need not prevent them from aggregated thousands of animals, in the shape of making themselves acquainted, through the disflowers, which increase, like plants, by buds and coveries of others, with a department of knowledge by self-division ; that some of these creatures are than which we know of none more replete with carnivorous, feeding on living atoms more infini-interest and instruction. tosimal than themselves; that others are herbivorous, and nourished by particles of decomposed
SCIENTIFIC PROPHECY -Newton expresses his vegetables too minute to be visible till accuinulated deliberate opinion that cohesion, light, heat, elecin the internal organs of the animalcules ; that we
tricity, and the communication of the brain with selected some of these aniinals, and caused them
the muscles, are all to be referred to one and the to swallow carinine, and thus imparted a red color same canse--an ether or spiritus, which pervades to their digestive organs, and rendered their struc
| all bodies. We might smile at such an opinion ture more obvious ; that some are free, and ruam
from many quarters, and had Newton been only through the water at pleasure, others always
the author of the “ Principia," we might perhaps sedentary, others locomotive in youth, and fixed
ed think his head a little exalted by the excitement to one spot in after life ; that many have eyes, the
he attending the close of an arduous labor, (though, in number and color of which can be distinguished ;
and color of which can be distinguished. truth, the scholium, from which the above is exthat the difference in the relative magnitude of | tracted, does not appear in the first edition ;) but these creatures is as great as that between a
when we consider his prediction, that the diamond mouse and an elephant; that if the water in
would be found to be combustible, that the earth which these beings are now iminersed be allowed to
was between five and six times its weight of evaporate, and the sediment become as dry as dust,
water, and others which have turned out correct. and this be moistened three or four years hence,
we feel something like a presentiment that the many of the individuals at this moment sporting op
Sporting opinions just cited may in some degree share the through the water will be resuscitated, and appear same destiny.-Dublin Reriew. in full activity, although, had they remained in RICHT IN THE Long-Run.-Markind do sooner their native element, the term of their existence or later make a good report of things worthy would have extended but through a few days—to be so reported of. The world is long sometines thus realizing one of the beautiful fictions of Ara- in estimating merit rightly, but is pretty sure in bian story--would not this statement be deemed the end to accord its approbation to ihe deserving. unworthy of belief-would it not be regarded as | Too ofien, it is true, the wreaths that ought to inprobable and as extravagant as the wildest have encircled the brows of living men—the einichimeras of the imagination? And yet such a nent of their race for mental and virtuous attainnarrative would he but the simple truth--an unex- ments--have heen twined only for their monumental aggerated, unadorned matter-of-fact summary of effigies; but once placed on these, they have prethe phenomena that have come under our observa served an imperishable freshness. Milton's bays tion!” Verily, there are more things in nature grow greener with the touch of time. Newton's than the uninquiring dream of.
name shines like the stars with which, while he was Like animals of higher organizalion, these micro- upon earth, he held iminortal converse. Nature scopic creatures suiffer and perish from sudden spoke by Shakspeare when he lived, and mankind transitions of temperature. Atmospheric air is have since taken care that she shall speak by him as necessary to their existence as io ours ; and forever. Whence we may fairly infer that the they are killed hy substances which affect the world's ultimate judgment is in most things corchemical composition of the water. Fresh-water rect, and should be regarded by every man of sense species instantly die if sea-water be suddenly I accordingly.-T. Cromwell.
From the New York Evening Mirror. Chinese] war. The goverument accordingly REPEAL OF THE CORN LAWS, AND THE CONSE- changed hands, and Sir Robert Peet signalized QUENCES ON ENGLAND AND THE WORLD.
his accession to power by one of those bold and
| decisive measures which either bring about triThe last arrivals from Europe have put to rest omphant success, or ruin, otter and irretrievable this long agitated and most important question- defeat. the great question of our day-that on which, more This was no other than the imposition of one of than any other, has bioged the commercial policy the most unpopular and burdensome of the war of the world. We have no hesitation in saying taxes—a property and income tax, by means of that we regard it as a measure which, taken in which he not only made up the deficient revenue, connection with the other free trade measures but gave a new impulse to the manufacturing and of the British government, and regarded as the commercial interests, by lessening or repealing a consummation of them, is fraught with more im- host of duties on the raw material, and by greatly portant consequences than any other act of our lessening all protective duties on the product of time.
British manufacture. He also made a most imIt shows a complete revolution in the governing portant modification in the previous stringency of influences of Great Britain. Those influences have the corn laws. The success of these measures, been hitherto wielded by the landed aristocracy. bold and decisive as they were, must have This body has hitherto controlled both lords and exceeded the most sanguine expectations of the commons. It has done, or rather permitted, many premier and his friends. The income-lax yielded liberal things towards the other great interests of nearly one half more than the estimate. The imthe state. Cominercial restrictions began to be pulse to trade and manufactures was so great that relaxed soon after the close of the war in 1815, and the large reduction of taxes was attended, even at the relaxation has proceeded with a tolerably first, with but small loss to the revenue. Instead steady pace ever since. Mr. Huskisson was the of repealing the income-tax, upon this success, as father of the modern free trade system in Eng- a weak or partisan minister would have done, Sir land, and the principles which he laid down and Robert Peel made its continuance the basis for new 80 ably advocated, have in no important par- operations in the same direction, until, at length, ticular been departed from, in any of the changes British manufactures and commerce were freed that have been introduced. These have all been from almost every shackle that could impede their in one direction-in favor of freedom of trade competition with the manufactures and commerce
Mr. Canning, who was at heart of the Liverpool of the world. An income tax of five millions party, and whose splendid abilities gave the coup (estimated originally to produce about three and a de grace to the old tory aristocracy, with their hall) has led to the repeal of over eight millions worn-out traditionary notions, supported the new of other taxes, besides leaving a surplus, the presviews of his friend Huskisson, with the whole ent fiscal year, of over two millions. weight of his almost matchless oratory. The This unparalleled and wonderful success. in whig party came into power a few years after his which the wisdom of the minister had been aided death, pledged by their principles and professions, by a most happy combination of circumstances, to carry out still farther ihose measures which bad gave him strength to propose the boldest measure for their object the removal of all species of re- that has ever emanated from a minister of the strictions on the manufactures and commerce of the crown-the death of the corn-laws, with an intercountry, and on its agriculture, so far as they could. val of three years to die in ; the process, however, This party did much, during their ten or eleven commencing without delay. This is the crowning years of rule, 10 establish and extend liberal prin- work of all the free trade measures which have ciples in every direction, except in regard to the been in progress under the various ministries of agricultural interests. Here they found themselves Great Britain for a quarter of a century. The entirely too weak to cope with the landed aris-threatened famine in Ireland was, no doubt, an tocracy. This body had too long enjoyed dominion important aid in effecting this prodigious revo in the state to resign it easily. It yielded all itlution. But Peel ought not to deny his obligation could to the advancing spirit of ihe age, and to to his predecessors. This great measure, upon greater freedom of action in all departments of which he declares himself willing to stake the trade and business; but it guarded, as the apple reputation of a life of great things, could have of the eye, its own monopoly. Other interests been carried only in a reformed parliament. It is might be free toward each other; the land holders strictly one of the fruits of that reform, which Peel must be protected against all. There were not opposed in the maturity of his years, and with all 'wanting plausible arguments for this, in the the strength of his powerful mind. In this sense pressure of the church, and the poor rates on land, it may be said that he is indebted to his enemies and in the necessity for providing employment for for his success; and that only the failure of his the masses, which agriculture does io a greater opposition to reform has enabled him to bring extent than any of the other great branches of about " the greatest measure of his life." That national industry. Here the agriculturists were this measure, with the class to which it helongs, inaccessible, obstinate, deaf to all argument and will be productive of the most important conseentreaty, and defeated every effort of the whig quences to England and the world, we have not ministry to repeal or modify ihe corn laws. the smallest doubt. It would be too much to ex
They were finally overthrown (so far as their pect that these should be all favorable, though a puble measures were concerned) by their ill suc- great preponderance of good may reasonably be cess in finance. For years preceding their exit looked for. But we cannot enter upon so great a from office, there was an unusual deficit in the subject at the close of an article. treasury, and that in spite of some taxes laid ex. We may however express our doubts whether pressly to meet it. The nation became alarmed at the success of this great measure ensures the conthe aspect of a deficient revenue in the midst of a tinuance of the Peel ministry. The premier has profound peace, or only a money-making the subjected himself to a load of obloquy, such as