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foreigners-her mines, manufactures, and com-, which the people give 10 their respective sovemerce; because, among other reasons, the reputa- reigns of the estimation in which they hold their ble and enterprising Mexican cannot protect him- respective governments ; but if any one doubt that self against the exactions of his own government. political motives are the cause of the phenomenon, The system of bribery by which the revenue is let him read the official acts of the German goycollected is known to the whole world ; andernments in which these emigrants are all stiganother evidence of narrow policy is seen in the matized as malcontent and political fanatics.' fact that, although Mexico can grow tobacco equal " It is said that the month of July is at last fixed to that of Cuba, bands of armed men are sent an upon by the King of Prussia for granting his nually to destroy the green tobacco crop, except people a constitutional government, but his in those two provinces where the government majesty, and his majesty's illustrious father have monopolize the growth of an inferior article. broken so many promises, that it is extremely
The greatest curse of the country is found in its doubtful whether he will keep his word this time. military establishment, and a view of the evils of Perhaps the rumor was only got up to punish the this almost causes one to regard the glitter of an Czar for his want of politeness in not visiting uniform as a crime against civilization.
either Berlin or Vienna on his proposed tour Yours, truly,
through Germany. The Czar, namely, has an WM. MaxwELL Wood. inuate aversion to all liberal institutions, which
extends even to the name of them, so that he even
dislikes the constitutional states of Germany, and CORRESPONDENCE.
the constitution in futuro of Prussia. His dislike
to that form of government is a perfect idiosynTHE Antwerp corrrespondent of the United cracy, and he has gone so far in it as to lecture States Gazette, speaking of the Oregon question, his brother-in-law, William IV. of Prussia, very in his letter of Ist June, says:
severely on the meditated changes of his adminis
tration, and on being told that he (the king of "On the whole, we may, as Americans, feel Prussia) had promised to effect reform, to adproud of the firmness which has been manifested vise him to abdicate the crown. This is no idle on this occasion by the coördinate branches of our rumor, no on dit, but a fact, which, if the King government ; for though we may have come in for of Prussia had a spark of manhood, (this being i share of censure occasionally, yet, on the whole, exactly the property which nature has denied him,) I believe, we will come off with flying colors, and would, long ago, have made him seek the alliance no mistake. There is an old soldier's proverb, of the German people, who but awaited the word which says, 'fortune favors the brave!' and a of command, to prove to the autocrat that he was Dan who insists on his rights cannot, under any free to administer his own government without circumstances, be refused respect. But I refrain asking the consent of the cabinet of St. Petersfrom further observations, as, in all probability, burg. But the King of Prussia is more afraid of the whole difficulty is already arranged to the liberalism than of the growing influence of his satisfaction of the lovers of peace, and without Northeastern neighbor, or he would not have acted sacrifice of the national honor.
such a despicable and cowardly part as the late "The most important feature on the continent, Polish revolution. Prussia has, by the extradition at this moment, is the emigration to America. It of the Poles to Russia, shown thai she has no idea seems as if the populations of all Europe, after in of national independence or honor. She is hesivain attempting to establish liberal governments at tating commercially and politically between Enghome, had now resolved to elect the United States land and Russia, without satisfying either, and as their future theatre of action, and the field of alienating every day the only source of her strength their manly industry. At this port (Antwerp) the -the affections and the respect of the Germans. price of steerage passage to the United States was Austria has not yet recovered from the shock she last year 50 francs a head, the passenger finding has received in Gallicia, where she is threatened his own provisions. It has this year already risen with fresh insurrections in Italy. In addition to to 100 francs, just double the amount, and the that, she is quite isolated from Russia, and has charterers besides offer to find the water casks, thrown the gauntlet to her own feudal aristocracy which was not customary in this place, and which in anjeliorating the condition of the peasants. The makes the actual price of passage agree to 103 Hungarians and Croatians are quite dissatisfied, francs a head. All American vessels are char- and the peasantry of Bohemia has risen. Austria, tered long before they enter the Scheldt, and Ger- the old rival of the house of Bourbon, is near its toans, Swedes and Norwegians equally profit by spontaneous dissolution—the first blow from a this unexpected increase of business. When all foreign foe is sure to dismember the monarchy." the vessels fit for an American voyage are engaged, agents are sent over to England to pick up
A letter to the Union from Hanover, 23d May, vessels as they come in, and there are instances where charter parties have actually been concluded says: in the mouth of the Channel. Hamburg and Bre- “ The number of emigrants from Europe to the men do three times the emigration business of United States during the present year will amount, former years, and engaging besides every Ameri- it is believed, to not less than two hundred thoucan vessel that touches there. The number of sand a third more than ever embarked in any Germans emigrating this year to the United States previous year. The · Dublin Post,' estimates that will not be less than 60,000, and those from Ire- Thirty thousand will leave Ireland alone, most of land and England 140,000 or 150,000, in all about whom are substantial farmers, and they will carry 300,000 ; enough at least to form the population with them at least £600,000 or $3,000,000. In of two new States!
England the number will be still larger, and con"This rage for emigration, however political fined principally to farmers, who are frightened by writers may account for it, is the best testimony the probable abrogation of the corn laws. Many families in affluent circumstances are also quitting canal or railroad, the peninsula of Samana must be Holland for our shoresma country which, for a a tête de pont for the junction of the Atlantic with long time, has been less of an emigrating turn than the Pacific Ocean. Soon one or the other would any in Europe. Twenty thousand persons, chiefly be accomplished, and then France might establish French and Swiss, will embark at Havre. Forty a factory and entrepots, which, by reason of the thousand Germans, at the lowest computation, safety for her trade and the advantages to be will sail from Bremen, three or four thousand from secured by proper custom-house laws, would Hamburgh, as many from Rotterdam, and four or speedily become the centre of operations highly five thousand from Antwerp. Besides the increase useful to French commerce and navigation. Mr. of our wealth from this addition to our population Guizot dissented on the score of policy. France by its industry, it carries with it an actual capital was pledged to the independence of Hayti; she exceeding $ 20,000,000.
would improve as far as possible her commercial " What higher testimonials are required of the relations with the whole island, but not interfere estimation placed upon our government, our insti- or involve herself in its internal affairs : to recomtutions, and our people, than to behold the bone mence the disastrous attempts of old was out of and sinew,' the honest yeomanry of Europe, seek the question. Accept the Dominican Republic, ing an abode where they can safely repose under and the subjugation of the colored Hayti must be their own vine and fig-tree,' under and among undertaken finally. A deputy rejoined, “Do as them, and none to make them afraid?' At no the English have done in China : provide yourperiod of our history has confidence been more self with a Hong-Kong on the coast of Hayti, and unbounded with regard to the durability of the carry thence your goods into the interior of the Union, and its future magnificent destiny, than at island." this moment, in the various powers and states of If the following paragraph of a letter of the cor
the Old World.' The political doctrines which respondent of the London Morning Chronicle at constituted the creed of the late sage of Monti. Constantinople can be trusted, we may judge of cello, must and will prevail ultimately throughout the famous “integrity of the Ottoman empire” in the universe. They are extending as speedily as the sense of independence: monarchical principles are diminishing. In the “ The French and Austrian ambassadors here English parliament, Cobden speaks universally have, within the last few days, exhibited an examof the rights of the people, and his sentiments are ple of overweening insolence towards the sultan, cheered by the most distinguished functionaries. such as it would be impossible, I believe, to find
“Great preparations are making in Germany any parallel for. The occasion was this: The for the New York steamers. The King of Hano- sultan had started on his tour in the provinces by ver is hastening his railroads to completion. In the way of the Black sea, intending to disembark twelve months the line from Bremen to Trieste at Varoa. The weather, however, was very will be finished ; and branches from it will connect stormy, and, as the sultan suffered much from seawith towns and cities in every direction.”
sickness, his physicians were afraid, as his chest is The preceding extract of a letter by the last very weak, that in his violent retching he might steamer from Europe casts new light upon the break a blood-vessel. By their unanimous advice, magnificent destiny of our country. There seems therefore, the Captain Pacha determined to conto be no perceptible limit to our prosperity. Notinue the voyage no further, but to return to Conman can undertake to say, “ Thus far shalt thou stantinople, which he did. The sultan little go, and no farther”-the famous expression which thought of what awaited him on his return. He is ascribed to Canute, but which he had borrowed was thereupon reprimanded sharply both by M. from the Holy Scriptures. Let us but use that Bourqueney and M. Sturmur. These envoys prosperity well, without abusing it-let us but from foreign nations have taken upon themselves prove ourselves worthy of our brilliant destiny- to chide the sovereign to whose court they are let us not run into excesses-let not our enterprise sent. In two notes to the Porte, these representarush into wild speculation, schernes that are too tives of France and Austria comment, in the most gigantic for our grasp, and overaction and over- insulting vein, on the motives which they suppose trading-into projects of aggrandizement 100 enor- occasioned the return of the sultan, and declare mous—and there never was a people under the sun that the circumstance must have a most prejudicial more favored by Providence than those of the effect on the mind of his subjects. If the Porte United States.- Union.
had sent back to these ambassadors their notes,
with their passports, and injunctions to quit the EXTRACTS FROM MR. WALSH'S LETTER TO THE empire within the space of twenty-four hours, it
NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER, DATED PARIS, 29Th would have sent them the only fitting reply ; but MAY.
they very well knew, when they ventured ihe inIn the chamber the case of Hayti was treated in
sult, that such a reply was impossible.”. a strain of some interest for the United States.
The colors taken at the battle of the Obligado, Regrets and complaints were expressed that the in the La Plata war, have been pompously carried French cabinet had repelled the offer of the to the Hotel des Invalides, and five of the French sovereignty of the Dominican Republic. Spain / combatants, who were severely wounded, are decould never repossess herself of that portion of the
clared admissible to the hospital on their return to island ; so that delicacy towards her was idle. France. National pri
idle France. National pride relishes the French share The peninsula of Sainana, at the east extremity of in that aggression : the Sycee silver from Canton the Dominican Republic, had one of the finest was welcomed in London as a better trophy than roadsteads in the whole world. It commanded the the laurels gained by the British at Obligado. O Gulf of Mexico; and, whether a communication ye peace-makers, opium-heroes, and joint mediaacross the Isthmus of Panama were opened by tors!
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 115.-25 JULY, 1846.
From Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. water, seeking the lowest point, and pressed by ARTESIAN WELLS IN LONDON.
that which is nearer the surface, would equally
rise, and form the Artesian well or spring, if tho During the late session of parliament, the bishop strata were perforated at their lower level.* of London, while advocating the necessity for the
| The general mode of constructing an Artesian building of new churches in the metropolis, stated well is by first digging and bricking round to a certhat its population increased at the rate of 30,000 tain depth, dependent on the nature of the soil, as annually ; an increase that requires a proportion- in an ordinary well; from the bottom of this tho ate multiplication of all that contributes to the boring into the lower strata of sand and chalk is comforts and conveniences of life. Greater quan cornmenced. In order 10 prevent the flow of any tities of food and clothing will be wanted every water into the opening, except that from these year; more houses, involving the extension of
particular strata, the bore is lined with iron tubes, streets and thoruughfares; and, above all, a great which completely shut out all percolations except er supply of water, to quench the thirst of the ad- that from the main source. Two borings were ditional number of throais, as well as to lay an sunk for the works in Trafalgar square-one of ever-widening surface of dust. It is to be hoped which is in front of the National Gallery, the other that the new scheme for the erection and working in Orange street, immediately in the rear, both of public fountains will be continued and extended being connected by a tunnel formed of brick until London may be as usefully embellished with laid in cement, 6 feet in diameter and 380 feet in jes d'eau as continental cities, of which they are length. The boring for the deepest well penetragenerally considered the chief ornament. The in- ted to a depth of 395 feet, the lower portion of itiative, as is pretty well known, has been taken by which, passing into the chalk 135 feet, is not lined the formation of two fountains, with large basins, / with tubes. + in Trafalgar Square; the water for which, instcad A contract was next made with Messrs. Easton of being supplied from any of the numerous com- and Amos, who furnished the plans and constructpanies, was obtained by boring, or the formation of led the works-engine-house, lanks, and cisterns in Artesian wells.
Orange street-by which they agreed to work the In June last, Mr. Faraday delivered a lecture at engines for ten hours every day, supplying 100 galthe Royal Institution on the subject of these wells, lons of water per minute to the barracks, National in which he explained and illustrated the practical Gallery, Office of Woods and Forests, Admirally, details of the boring, and showed that the London Horse Guards, 'Treasury, Scotland Yard offices, public must look to the accumulations of water Whitehall Yard offices, ludia board, Downing street, underlying the London clay for their chief supply and houses of parliament, in addition to 500 gallons of the pure element, for drinking and other domes- per minute to the fountains in the square, for the fic uses. In inquiring into the geological relations suin of £500 per annum ; being just half the sum of the waters lying deeply below the surface, he previously paid to the water companies who supdescribed the soil npon which London is situated plied those departments. The whole expense for as particularly favorable to the realization of this sinking the wells, erecting the engine-house, laymeans of raising water. It is composed, in going ing down the mains and the pipes to the fountains, from above downwards, of a layer of gravel of was not quite £9000. The water of the fountains moderate thickness; then an enormous bed of is constantly running the same round of duty, plastic clay, known, in geology, tinder the name being pumped out as fast as it returns from the of London clay; beneath which lie calcareous marls, basins: the supply of 100 gallons per minute is obgravel, sand, and freestone, succeeded by massive tained from the deepest well, which, at the end of strata of chalk; the whole thickness, from the sur-the ten hours, is not lowered more than five feet face to the chalk, varying from 200 to 300 feet. I under the rest level. With a little more power in It was further explained that, wherever the sand the machinery, the contractors are satisfied that and chalk crop out, or rise to the surface, they the supply might be increased to five times the must absorb the water which falls in those parts. I present quantity. This water percolates downwards underneath the
Not only has an important economical advantage clay, and, finding no mode of escape, accumulates been gained, but the quality of the water is far suin the fissures of the chalk, ready to rush upwards
perior to that supplied for the consumption of the through any opening which may present itself.
inhabitants generally. The presence of an alkali “ The property of water to seek a level when it is shown, by its turning red cabbage-water blue ; has descended between strata concave upwards, or a reäction due to the carbonate of soda, of which it between inclined beds of stratified rock, naturally
contains a notable quantity, from 16 to 24 per cent. accounts for the success of the Artesian operation. I of the total proportion of saline matter held in susIf two basins be supposed different strata, placed
pension. Mr. Faraday found 41.5 grains of solid one within another, a little distance apart, and wa
matter, among which was a small portion of lime, ter be poured between, and a small hole be made
on evaporating a gallon of the water. The excess e bottom of the inner basin, the water will of soda renders it extremely sost, and particularly rise in a jet a very considerable height, and exem
useful for domestic purposes. It is at the same plify the nature of these springs, and multiplying the basins would afford an idea of those different
* Encyclopedia Metropolitana, vol. xxv., p. 1183. springs found at varying depths, and of equally
I + The' well sunk three years since at Grenelle, near varying qualities. If, instead of the concave form, Paris, is 1800 feet in depth, and throws up 150,000 galthe plane of the strata be supposed to dip, the lons of water every twenty-four hours.
cxv. LIVING AGE. VOL. X. 10
time very agreeable to the taste. This success, to render the experiment more striking, ascends, and the certitude which the known natural consti- and mingling with the descending coluinn, flows tution of the soil affords for procuring the same out with it through the escape-lube. The lecturer quantity of water, and in as great abundance as stated, in conclusion, that, from the result of his may be desired, in all quarters of the capital, has experiments, it was probable that the principle given rise to the idea of carrying out the practice might, in certain cases, be economically applied tu either by new independent companies, or by con- practical purposes. currence with those already existing, wherever a sufficient number of consumers may he found willog to contribute to the expense.
From Chambers' Journal Professor Faraday stated that the water rent of visit TO THE CRYPT OF THE CAPUCHIN CON. 2000 houses would solice for the practical carrying out of the plan, inclusive of ihe ornamental ad
VENT AT MALTA. dition, already alluded to, of a public fountain. In
BY A LADY. Berkeley square a well has been sunk, from which water is listed by a hand-pump, for the use of the “Will you go on, or are you afraid ?" Theer inhabitants of that fashionable locality ; but it was words were addressed to me by an old monk, as shown that an outlay of £3500 in ihe necessary we stood together on the last step of the stair lead. machinery, &c., would have produced a supply of ing down to certain mysterious vaults which exist water for £350 annually, which now costs £700, under the Capuchin convent of Malta. The mouk without a fountain, that might hive been embraced was very decrepit, very ghastly-indeed, I may in the other scheme.
say, decidedly unearthly-looking--the voice was Considering the rapid spread of London, and the sepulchral, and the question not one to be answered eagerness with which new business enterprises are without serious consideration ; for he held in his reized opon, it is not improbable that Artesian hand (and the hand was uncommonly like that of a wells may become common, and thus give to the skeleton) a great key, which was destined to open metropolis what its inhabitants so much require the ponderous iron door of a very singular charnelpure water. The idea is not altogether new, for house. This convent is one of the very few, in it appears that “an endeavor was made in 1834-5 fact, I believe the only one of importance, now er. to form a Metropolis Pure Soft Spring Water tant, excepting that of Palermo, where the monk. Company,' to supply the existing companies with still retain the custom of preserving their dead their requisite quantities by Artesian wells of great unburied, and are yet in possession of the method magnitude : which failed rather through defects in by which they can keep the corpses of their breththe provisional commitee, than through any de- ren entire, with all the appearance of life, for 24 monstrated impracticability in their views, which long a period as they choose. The secret of the had been entertained ten years previously, and process by which the order of the Capuchins have formed the subject of an unsuccessful company in thus learnt to cheat the grave of its lawful preyi 1825.". A remarkable objection has been made not exactly known: I believe it is some sort of to these undertakings, which can only be explained baking or boiling. They have always the number by the prevailiog ignorance of the principles of of furty carefully preserved ; and when a death their action. It was said that they woold soon occurs in the monastery, the most ancient among drain the wells sunk in the London clay, which the dead bodies makes way for the new-comer. can only give back the water gained from the sur- and is buried. I had been told that the spectacle face; while the Artesian wells derive their sup- of these forty monks, so long departed from evistplies from the chalk, where there is not the slight- ence, yet still unshrouded and uncoffined, was most est communication with the clay. Such was the curions, although sufficiently appalling to render prejudice in this particular, that a formal complaint it less frequently visited than it would doubtless was instituted against the new well of Trafalgar have otherwise been. For myself, however, it square, while in course of boring, as having had been my lot, in iny various wanderings, to sre drained the neighboring wells, even before it had death in so many different shapes, that I could yielded a single drop of water.
hardly shrink from any new aspert under which it After his able exposition, Mr. Faraday exhibited might present itself, and I had therefore advanced a simple apparatus, designed to demonstrate a new thus far on my way to visit them. Still, I must property of the fluid vein. It is well known that own I was a long time of answering the pointed water, in escaping from an orifice of any form, question of my companion : to tell the truth, there does not long retain that form, but varies with was something in his own appearance and manner more or less of irregularity: this is called the con- which awed me considerably ; and I could not help traction of the rein. It occurred to the inventor of wondering what the dead monks must be if their the apparatus that this contraction would be ac- living brother had 80 little the semblance of companied by a diminution of volume, which humanity. There was a dulness in his sunken would consequently determine, in a close vessel, a eye, a solemn expression on his livid fare, hulf hid diminution of pressure sufficient to cause a smaller by the huge cowl, and something so mechanical in column of water to rise from below, under the or his every movement, that it was scarre possible dinary pressure of the atmosphere. To effect not to fancy the soul itself was wanting. These this, water is made to descend in a tube opening were the first words he had uttered since he had into a glazed box, in communication, by means of suddenly appeared at my side, in ohedience to the another tube, with a reservoir below. As soon as call of the superior ; and now having spoken, he the valve which prevents the descent of the water closed his withered lips again, as though these is opened, the stream rushes into the box, contracts, hollow tones were to issue from them no more, and produces a certain vacuum, when it is immediately
stood motionless till I mustered up courage to proBeen that the water from below, which was colored, nounce an emphatic Vado,' (I go,) when he
instantly stalked silently along the dark, narrow • Journal, Statistical Society, vol. viii., p. 159. passage, and unlocked the massive portal of the
chamber, whose silent inhabitants I was about to though, in this expressive look (the last trace of visit. The door rolled back heavily on its spirit petrified, as it were, on the dead face,) might hinges; the ghostly monk stood back to let me be read not only the record of their dying mopass ; and as I crossed the threshold, I heard ments, but also the history of their past lives ; him close it behind me with a noise which echoed, showing how the good man, humble and sincere, as it seemed to me most ominously, from vault to had departed in peace; and how the disappointed, vault.
ambitious soul had clung to a life which years of I found myself in a large hall, constructed en- asceticism had vainly sought to render odious. It tirely of the white Maliese stone, the roof rising in is sufficient, however, to look only once in their the shape of a dorne. It was lighted only from faces, to lose instantaneously the effect of the dethe top, so that although every object was per- lusion, which is so striking at a first glance. The fectly distinct, ihe day could only penetrate within imitation of life, cunning as it is, fails altogether ii, tempered by a kind of twilight shade. The before this palpable evidence of their laring undervery first breaih I drew in this dead-house, made gone the last dread trial. me gasp and shiver. It was not precisely cold ; The body nearest me, which was that of an old but there was a chill, and an indescribable heavi- man, had a countenance which would have told iis ness on the air, which caused a most unpleasant tale clearly to the most careless observer. I felt, sensation. It was some minutes before this feel- as I gazed on his serene and placid face, that death ing could be shaken off; at last I determined had been to him a glad release : he had waited, he boldly to raise my eyes and look around. For a had wished for it; and when it came, he had remoment I could have fancied we had mistaken our signed himself to its power, as a child sinks to way, and returned to that part of the vast con- sleep on its mother's breast. The strong lines vent which was inhabited by the living, the scene round the shrivelled lips, the deeply-furrowed was so very similar to that I had just witnessed in brow, the hollow eye, all told of a weary conflict the chapel above, where the vesper service was past-of tears which had been very bitter, of that being performed. Standing upright, in niches cut long struggle with sorrow which can make existin the wall, the forty monks were ranged round ence a Joad most gladly laid aside. But there was the room, twenty on cither side of me, clothed in a sublimity of repose upon that old man's face, the complete costume of their order. At a super- which life could never have known. And the ficial glance, they seemed all engaged in prayer; next! I wish I could forget the awful face of the and very still and quiet they were, with their next in order ; but I know I never shall : the exheads, from which the dark cowl was thrown back, pression of that countenance will never cease to bent slighily over their clasped hands. Alongside haunt me! The fierce scowl on the forehead, the of each one was an inscription, giving his name, eyes starting from their sockets, the lips convuland the date of his death ; and it really required sively drawn back, so as to show the sharp, white sonne such announcement to bring to my mind the teeth firmly clenched, all told an unwillingness to full conviction, that it was indeed on lifeless die-an uiter dread of dissolution, which it is corpses I was gazing : for, except that all had the frightful to think of! Here were, indeed, again salne uniform hue of dull, ghasily yellow, and the the traces of a confict, but a conflict with death: same fixity in the position of the eyes, there was itself. It was easy to see how madly, how wildly, bothing in their outward appearance to indicate he had struggled to retain his hold on life; and that they had not, each one of them, a living, when that life escaped, it had written on his face throbbing heart within his bosom. The flesh was the record of that last hour as one of most intense firm, the limbs retained their shape, the lips their despair. Assuredly this man must have been a color; the very eyelashes and nails were perfectly slave to the memory of some great crime, which preserved ; and the eyes themselves, though fixed, made him so very a coward in presence of his inas I have said, did not look dead or rayless. Il vincible foe; or else--for he seemed 100 young for was a frightful mockery of life, because so fright-thai-he may have had one of those morbid, restfully real. I could see no difference between those less spirits of inquiry which ever drove him to the mummies and their deathlike brethren up stairs ; burial-places, that he might rifle the secrets of the whose long confinement in the cloister, and strict grave, to learn the details of the universal doom, adherence to the most severe of the monastic rules, till he was seized with a frantic horror for the indihave wasted their bodies, quenched the fire of their vidual corruption which awaited himself, such as I eyes, and banished all expression from their faces. have known men of imaginative minds to feel. But when I went nearer, in order lo exarnine them Anyway, it was a fearful face. He had foughi regularly one by one, I saw that the Capuchins, with the King of Terrors, and been subdued, but who have thus ihe secret of triurnphing over cor- the struggle had been a dire one ; and what renruption, and, outwardly at least, would seem 10 dered this yet more striking, was the inock resigset even death at defiance, had altogether failed in nation with which the hands had been folded one most important point. They had preserved together after death. I was glad to pass on, the bodies from decay; they had clothed them in though it was to look on a corpse which could only the garments they were wont to wear; they had inspire disgust; it was so evident that this one had farvellously banished the likeness of death'; the died even as the beasts that perish. His heavy skin, the hair, the hands, were as those of living features were full of sottish indifference : he could beings; but, with all their art, they had been not have foreseen that his hour was come; or, if powerless to efface from the countenance of each he did, his must have been one of those narrow, one of these dead men the seal which the soul had grovelling minds, too completely filled with stamped thereon as it departed. All the faces daily occurrences of life to wake up and look fore the expression with which they had died ; beyond it, and question eternity. Next to him Jifferent according to their various temperament, was one who had expired in extreme suffering but fixed, immutable, unchangeably eloquent of from some terrible disease : his face told of nothing the exact frame of mind in which they had sepa- save bodily pain ; but so expressive was it of this, rately met that awful hour. It even seemed as that it was scarce possible not to believe that he