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defence continued on. Rosas now brought his squadron to blockade the port, thus completely cutting olT all further supplies. What they had on hand Wok, in time, almost consumed; the inhabitants were even obliged to feed on dogs, cats, &c. Thus reduced, in a very short time the town would have capitulated, and Oribe would have aj;ain been fully reinstated; and then he proposed to allow them a fair election. At this state of affiirs, nil at once, the English and French appeared as pacificators, so they called themselves. All at once, they saw Rosas' ambition, and determination to destroy the independence of this province of Uruguay, which they (the English) had guarrantied in some treaty with Brazil. They protested against Rosas' right of blockade; and, after a heavy correspondence of advice, threats, &c, which Rosas unheeded, thev seized and dismantled the blockading squadron; turned their crews adrift; received several of the vessels into their service; and, finally, the united forces of England and France blockaded Buenos Ayres. The documents that I have sent will put you in possession of all the particulars of this last movement, which took place last fall. The English have also landed the 73d and 45th regiments, and a party of royal marines, amounting to near two thousand men; the French have also landed a few hundred nf their sailors, (who are half-soldier, half-sailor,) and their ministers and admirals sway all the counsels of the city. Besides these troops, there are about one thousand blacks and two to three thousand French Basques, and Italians, all under arms, and supported, no doubt, by English gold, with a promise of rich lands in the interior when once Oribe's power is destroyed. If they wait for that, it will be a long day; for one hundred thousand men would scarce overrun this province, or that of Buenos Ayres. Within the lasi ten days Rivera arrived from Rio. The pacificators denied him permission to land; but so severe was the outcry among the troops—especially the blacks, who commenced every kind of excess— that they were at last obliged to allow him 10 land. He is now on shore, and at the head of the blacks, Basques, and Italians, and, it is thought, will not be swayed longer by foreign influence, and rather than submit to it he may capitulate with Oribe. They used him as a tool as long as he might serve their views, snd then wished to see him cast aside. They are certainly on the look-out; and I fancy I can see signs of an embarkation of their troops, which must take place before long, if their governments do not materially reinforce them. They have clearly made fools of themselves; and if their object was and is a foothold in this part of the world, I believe they have so far fully missed it; sooner or later they must retire, and then Oribe will take instant possession, and should he rid the state of that foreign tribe, he will be doing ii some service. So far I have, by a feeble sketch of affairs, brought you up to the existing slate at present. 1 will only sdd that Oribe has been encamped at his present site near three years; that he maintains a strict government of the whole country, except Colonea, a small village opposite Bueaoa Ayres and Maldanada, also a small town near I he sea, off both of which places the English or French maintain a naval force. What have been (heir views in the whole transaction, I leave to soaader heads than mine to unravel; the greater knowledge you possess of political affairs than I have, will, no doubt, guide you to a motive ; one
thing more I will mention, and then hare dooe with this miserable attempt at description. You no doubt have heard of the combined force, with a large convoy of merchant vessels, of all nations, loaded with merchandise, forcing the passage of the Parana on their way to Paraguay, and of the desperate resistance they met with. Still they succeeded in destroying the forts and passing on to Corrientes, a part of which province English gold has caused to rebel against Rosas. In Paraguay they have also, by the same means, created a feeling against Rosas, which they trust will aid them in whatever views they have towards Buenos Ayres. Lately we have not heard anything further of this fleet, but that they have not reached Paraguay is certain; and whether Paraguay will be forced into a direct war with Buenos Ayres, or whether these noble rivers will be entirely opened to trade, time alone will decide, and naiious slnoe will judge how far the English and French had the right to force the opening of the river: but one thing is certain, if it is ever freely opened, we shall derive the same advantage as we did from the China transaction. Our peaceful attitude, and the course we have pursued, will give it to us; wherever we go we are respected and loved as a just and honorable nation, strictly loving peace, but determined to bear no wrong, and one that I hope will never suffer European interference. I have seen enough of it in every part of the world never to view with indifference their least foothold in our blessed conntry.
JOURNEY ACROSS MEXICO SINCE THE WAR.
We are indebted to Dr. Wood, who has recently returned to the United Stales, in company with Messrs. Dimond and Parrot, (consuls,) for the following sketches. Dr. W. has spent some time on the coasts of ihe Pacific; and travelled, on his return, from Mazatlan, on thai coast, to Vera Crux. on the Gulf of Mexico. These sketches will be found interesting, particularly at this time.— Union.
"Although the route and mode of procedure between Mexico and Vera Cruz has been frequently described by tourists, I believe there is not so much familiarity with the road from the Pacific to the capital of the Mexican States; and it may not be uninteresting at the present moment to take a rapid glance at this long route, passing through the heart, the chief provinces, and cities of the republic. While hostilities were threatening, bat before their commencement, il became necessary to hold immediate communication with the Tinted States across the continent. The most convenient point of departure is at the town of San Bias, a lit tie south of the mouth of the Gulf of California, and one day's ordinary sail from Mazatlan. Slatting from San Bias instead of Mazatlan saves five daya' laborious land travel. The village on ihe beach consists of a collection of thatched huts, inhabited by a sallow, unhealthy looking population, and particularly rich in mosquitoes and sand flies. About a mile back of the beach stands lb'- "Id town of San Bias, on a rocky eminence, rising lil< a castle from the swampy verdant plain surrounding il; it is now but the mouldering gravestone of past prosperity. Both San Illus and Tepic, the city of which it is the port, arc losing themselves in the flourishing town of Mazatlan, which has risen rapidly out of that smuggling commtroe which the benighted policy of Mexico has rendered the systematic, if not the legitimate, commerce of the country. With the Spanish style of architecture, Mazatlan has the freshness, newness, and, disdaining the limitation of walls, the independent, straggling character of a new town in the United States.
At San Bias arrangements had heen made with an arriero, or muleteer, to convey us to the city of Tepic; some of our party going no further than this place ; and accordingly on the morning of May 4lh, we found the requisite quantity of beasts on the beach, all caparisoned for the journey. It is next to impossible to describe the huge, confused mass of wood, leather, thongs, and slraps which make up the equipment of a Mexican saddle, and appears a sufficient load for the little animal which sustains it without the addition of the rider. It is necessary that each traveller on this journey should have at least one baggage mule; fur, besides his ordinary luggage, he must carry all his bedding, and, with a josl discretion, a good store of provisions. Upon this occasion, we had handsome and convenient brass bedsteads, stowed compactly in trunks and boxes, and at night, when they were put up, their glittering posts and canopy frames formed a strong contrast with the rude unfurnished rooms in which we lodged. In loading the mules two things surprise the stranger : first, the weight and bulk which the animals carry ; and next, the facility with which the arrieros secure articles of every weight and size, so that the animal climbing precipitous paths, and walking narrow shelves, seems'a moving mass of trunks, boxes, and bales.
Our party consisted, including the muleteers, of seven persons, and ten horses and mules ; each of os equipped with a formidable battery of carbines at the saddle bow, pistols round the waist, and the Mexicans wearing long rusty swords which had lost their scabbards. All this warlike equipment was, I presume, upon the principle of scarecrows in a cornfield, more than with any design of bloody conflict. All preparations being completed at seven o'clock, we took our departure from the shore of the Pacific ocean, and passed into a dense, luxuriant, bottom land thicket or jungle. This bottom 'a only passable in the dry season, and we noticed the elevation of the water during the wet season marked six feet high on the trees. From this bottom we ascended by a gentle rise to some good cultivable land, upon which was here and there a Mexican farm or rancho, and occasionally a new clearing, such as are seen in our west. At twelve we reached the half-way house, a plain farm-house, where we found clean and comfortable provision. Resting until half-past three, we again got under way, and now commenced the ascent of the mountains. Our way lay through a dark forest of giramie trees, up and down precipitous declivities until, about sun down, we emerged upon a naked and desolate mountain summit, from which, looking back over a vast region of country below us, we bad our parting view of the Pacific losing itself in the distant horizon. The road now passed over bills of white and red clay, a sterile and lonely cnantry. The moon rose upon us long before our rfsy's journey came to its close in the city of Tepic, jost as the serenos, or watchmen, were whistling on their sharp calls the hour of ten, and giving forth their devotional cry of "Ave Maria puris■inaa." We were received in the elegant mansion o( Mr. Forbes, a Scotch gentleman, whose warm hospitality allows no stranger to pass Tepic without a home. He had been expecting us, and we |
found ready an ample supper; after which we were assigned chambers provided with every luxury for the most fastidious, and particularly agreeable after an unaccustomed ride of fifty-five miles.
Tepic is a handsome and well built city of about eight thousand inhabitants, but in a state of decay —its population having fallen off in a few years four thousand. The only thing refreshing, prosperous, and un-Mexican about it, is the cotton factory of the Messrs. Forbes. The situation is pretty and picturesque, where they have the waterpower of a mountain stream, and the buildings, both of the factory and residences of the persons connected with it, are in a showy and appropriate architectural taste. The superintendent, as well as all the leading workmen, are from the United States; and in the number of years in which they have been employed, Mr. Forbes assured me he never had had the least difficulty or cause of dissatisfaction with any of them. This factory makes eighty pieces a day, and it sells at twenty-five cents the yard—something less than a yard. Most of the raw material is brought from New Orleans, although a little is grown in the country. In the neighborhood of Tepic are some fine sugar estates, where refined sugar is made at a cost of three or four cents, and sells at ten cents a pound, though nothing like a supply for the country is produced, as I have known, in the neighborhood of Tepic, this sugar to retail at fifty cents a pound.
At Tepic we first met the hostile proclamation of Paredes, directing an advance upon General Taylor. This gave us some uneasiness, although it was the general impression that this proclamation had some other design in its threats than the purpose of executing them.
At Tepic we made a new contract with an arriero for himself, his' mozos, or boys, horses, mules, carbines and swords, to carry us to Guadalaxara, a five-day journey. The annual fair of Tepic was in progress as we passed through. It is nothing more than a scene of low dissipation; the public square, or plaza, which is common to every Mexican town, being filled with every possible contrivance—wheels, cards, dice, colored cloths, &c.—for gambling, and the tables ranging in wealth from a small capita] of copper coin, where children and beggars tried their fortunes, to those where their elders and betters might stake gold.
The necessary arrangements being completed, on the afternoon of May 6th our cavalcade was on its way to Guadalaxara, reaching that night the village of San Leone). Don Ramon, our chief arriero, instead of taking us to the fonda, lodged us in the farm-house of a friend of his. The lady of the establishment was particularly cautious in locking the doors and securing the windows before retiring; and, as a reason for her care, she showed an enormous scar extending the whole length of her arm, which had been inflicted by the knife of a robber some years before, who, at the same time, laid two others of her household wounded on the floor.
The usual mode of travelling is to start at three or four o'clock in the morning, having first taken the desayuero, or cup of tea, coffee, or chocolate, with a small cake or rusk; then travelling until eleven or twelve o'clock, when breakfast, in our sense of the word, is taken, and a rest of three or four hours enjoyed, the day's journey being completed in the cool of the evening, at which time the traveller dines. This order and period of meals is that common to all Mexico.
The first part of our journey from Tepic wu among a succession of smooth, rounded hills, rising from tlie surrounding dry, barren plains, like Indian mounds, the plains themselves intersected by long stone fences, but entirely destitute of cultivation. Soon after leaving San Leonel on the morning of the seventh, the country assumed a rather more cheering ai>|K-arance. A few thinly-scattered pine trees covered the hills, and an occasional small atream nf water ran at their base. In the valleys were fields of barley; here and there we passed an Indian village nf thatched huts, and mules treading out barley on a ground threshing-floor. Our halt for the day was at the village of Santa Isabel. Leaving this place, our road conducted us, during the afternoon, over a singular volcanic formation. As we approached this region, there appeared to be a lofty dark wall extending across the country from the base of a mountain on the left. This wall formed the boundary, or outer edge of a widely-extended mass of craggy rocks rising some twenty feet above the country over which they were spread. They lay, far as the. eye could see, tossed into all manner of confused shapes, like rocky waves with ragged summits, grown black with age, and had the appearance of a Icmpest-iost sea uf molten iron, suddenly congealed in all its wild confusion. In contemplating the probable force producing the phenomenon, it presents the idea of the explosion of a mountain and the masses tumbling into their present disorder. By night we arrived at the pretty town of Aguacatlan, of some five thousand inhabitants, having a fine plaza surrounded by shade trees, and a conspicuous church and convent. The porada of Aguacatlan is one of more pretension than any on the route, having a large corridor in front, over which is announced in large letters, "Here may be found every convenience for persons of good taste." The offices surrounding the court yard were each labelled, and it was very gratifying to noiice over one, "Here the bread is made with the greatest cleanliness." Generally the arrangement of all these poradas is the same. The traveller is shown into a room containing a heavy table, a bench with a high back, and some boards in a corner—upon which to place his bedding ; but in addition to this at Aguacatlan, we had a lay sala or drawing-room, furnished with mahogany chairs. The proprietor is undoubtedly one of those spirits in advance of his age and country. On the following morning our route from Aguacatlan to Isllau lay for ten or twelve miles through the most fertile and best cultivated valley we had yet seen, and belter covered with farm houses and villages; (till the cultivation is careless, antique, and barbarous, the plough in use being no more than a sharpened log of wood. The afternoon of this day brought us to the Barrancas, the wildest and most picturesque scene on the whole route from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The barranca is a gorge several thousand feet deep, separating two ranges of mountains, and the descent is by a zig-zag road along the face nf the left hand range, with this tremendous gulf on the right; the bottom of ibis gorge being reached, a little advance shows that we are still on the summit of a mountain, for another opening of still greater depth appears on the left hand, the bottom of which has also to be reached; the road there continues in this deep and shady valley, along the banks of a rocky stream, and beneath overhanging precipice* for some miles. In this wild and difficult pass, by some capricious impulse, is seen the only evidence of national energy, or internal im
provement which came under my notice. A broad, handsome, well-made, paved carriage road is beano; cut from the face of the mountain, descending it in a succession of inclined planes, turning one upon another, and much of the road is already completed. Ascending from these shady depths by a precipitous road we reached, a little after night, the miserable village, but pood porada of Mocholitli. Leaving this village early in the morning, we entered upon the lonely desolate table lands of Mexico; but although uucheered by shrubbery or cultivation, we had the advantage of a good level road, which towards evening brought us rather suddenly upon a different scene. From the brow of the elevated plain upon which we had beco travelling, we looked down upon nn extensive green valley, spread over with fields of the maguey plant, from which the brandy of the country is distilled. Immediately beneath us was the town of Tequila, with its houses and church domes shooting from amid groves of trees. Tequila, although constructed with handsome houses and regular streets, owed much of its effect to distance ; for, in passing through it, the appearance of the whole place was one of poverty, dilapidation, and decay, sleeping that night at the village of Amelatan, on the following morning, (Sunday, May 10th,) under a broiling sun, in clouds of dust, and amid troops of mules, at 11 o'clock we entered the truly beautiful city of Guadalaxara, but not without seeing; something of the benighted policy, constructed to facilitate robbery, and sustain a rapacious soldiery, the system which scarce permits an article to move from one part of the country to anoihcr, without taxation. Although we had now advanced so far in the interior at the garita, or interior customhouse, one of our mules was selected to be unloaded, while a slovenly epaulelted fellow—some Mexican general or colonel, undoubtedly—overhauled the baggage to we that we were not smuggling. Had we realiy been loaded with contraband articles, it would have given us no annoyance, aa he was only stationed there to make his living by taking bribes. However, we had no favors to ssk, and did not choose to pay him to release us from the detention.
Guadalaxara is a very showy city, of palace-like houses, and enormous churches and convents, covering many squares nf the city ; concealing in their recesses a vast population lost to life and usefulness. Flowers and gardens seemed in be a prevalent taste, and the verandahs nr iron balconies projecting from the second stories were so filled with vases of flowers as to give along the length of elegant streets the appearance of hanging llouer gardens. A broad and shaded pasro extends for s mile and a half along one side of the city, and terminates in a handsome rose-hedged park and garden. Fountains of stone and bronze, bubbling forth clear cold water, are seen in every direction. But these are all remnsnta and splendors of the past—the present is in strong enntrsst. Poverty, vice,and wretchedness are its chararteristics; beggars forming the great population nf the streets, and the prisons thronged with criminals of the vilest character, and existing in the most disgusting filth. The prison of Guadalaxara is one of tho most fertile recruiting stations of the army. The California garrison was always formed from these assassins ; or rather they were sent there to depredate with impunity upon the unoffending inhabitants, until, patience being exhausted, all Mexican rule was expelled. Their offences and their expulsion came under my own observation; and bat recently a garrison of these criminals was sent to Maatlan, and it had scarcely reached there before it threatened a sack of the town. Seven assassinations occurred in one Mexican town during my abort residence in it, and I never heard of anything worse happening to the criminals than being made soldiers of, although one of them had despatched bi« third victim. At Guadalaxara, we were startled by receiving the.Mexican account, in triumphant and boastful language, of the capture of Captain Thornton's dragoons. This intelligence placed ns in a very precarious situation. All the representations we received being through the Mexican press, gave us great uneasiness as to the result of our interests on the frontier, notwithstanding the huge allowance we made for Mexican braggadocia. Soon after the arrival of the intelligence, boyi were crying extras about the streets, crying oat, "Triumph over the North Americans." We determined to hurry on our way, thongh it was in anxiety and gloom that we did so.
From Guadalaxara a line of diligences runs to Vera Crux, and this line is worthy of all commendation. The conveyances are good Troy-built coaches: the horses and mules are in fine order, and the coachmen possess great skill and dexterity. Originally, the coachmen were all Yankees; hut now they ire Mexicans who have grown upon the road, and among the coaches and horses. It is somewhat amusing to notice the amalgamation they have Bade on the Mexican costume with that of our coachmen or drivers. The universal Mexican serape has given way to the box coat; but the splitleg pantaloons hold their own, and a brightly-colored handkerchief tied over the throat and chin, seems a type of the woollen cravat so generally worn by our drivers in cold weather. The fondas (hotels) are regulated by a system extending along the whole route, prescribing what shall be given, and the hours of meals, and also regulating the charges. These rules also direct that every pas«nger shall be furnished with clean sheets and pillow-case, which no one has used, at every lodging-place oo the route. The hours of travel are from three to four in the morning to the same hour u the afternoon.
Leaving Guadalaxara at half-past three in the noraing, our first day's joumey was over a desolatelooking rolling table land, in many places rocky; the soil was a stiff blue clay, here and there broken hythe plough and ready for corn,but the general face of the country was covered by a short yellow dried piss. The road (thanks to Nature!) was generally rood; but where she had left any impediments, art had disdained to remove them : and in some places, for short distances, our strongly-built coaches had terrible encounters. Over thirty leagues of such a Mtntry.by four o'clock in the afternoon, we reached the wretched little hamlet of San Jose', and the diligence coming in the opposite direction not having arrived, we were compelled to await its arrival for dinner. The delay became unusual, and the sun *** going down, leaving San Jose and the desolate woniry about it to the additional gloom of night, when tbe expected stage rattled into the court-yard; •m solitary passenger leaped from it, with his dress ail loose and disordered ; his trunk being taken from the boot, he gave it a kick of ineffable disgust, and which betrayed its lightness and emptiness. While *e bad been awaiting his arrival to dinner, he had •tea lying under the coach with his mouth to the groood, and a carbine at his head, and a band of
robbers had been appropriating his property; they stripped him even to his suspender buckles, and asked what he was, where he was from, &c, concluding by healing him with their swords. The robbers—three in number—were masked. The minuteness of their inquiries caused us to feel somewhat apprehensive, as, in case of their ascertaining our nationality, they might think they rendered the state some service by taking our lives; and consequently no choice was left us but to fight in case of an attack. The Mexican servant accompanying us being called in to the council, expressed his willingness and ability to handle a gun. In addition to the arms in our possession, two fowling-pieces were obtained from the manager of the fonda ; and as it was more than probable the robbers were from the village itself, and had their agents about us at this time, we gave some little publicity to our preparations. I discharged a Colt's pistol, and re-loaded it, in presence of this respectable public. Having made these preparations, and arranged our plan of defence, we started at four in the morning, and were upon the look-out, finger on trigger, for two or three hours, after this our uneasiness somewhat subsided, and we made the day's journey safely, and to our own satisfaction, if not to that of the robbers. Through most of this day the country was very much the same as that of yesterday ; destitute of population, water, or any growth but the nopal, or prickly pear, and a few scattering acacias. Late in the afternoon it was quite refreshing to come upon a fine valley prairie, watered by a small stream, and covered with wheat-fields ready for the harvest. Our stopping-place for the night was a town of about eight thousand inhabitants, called Lagos, rather a neat place, with the usual share of enormous churches. From Lagos our road on the following morning continued through the same beautiful prairie and waving wheat-fields, upon which we had entered the preceding evening, and this was the character of the country until our arrival in the afternoon at the mining town of Guanajato. This city has a very picturesque situation, climbing up the sides and over the summits of a range of hills; the streets are exceedingly intricate and precipitous.' For miles before reaching the city there are a succession of immense establishments for reducing the metals from the ore. Viewed from one of the surrounding elevations, it appears as though there was a separate town on each hill as far as the eye can see, the church crowning each summit. Here we sat down to table with some more unfortunate fellows, who had been robbed the preceding evening in the stage approaching us. In this case there were eight robbers; and not feeling it to be necessary to go far, or take much trouble in the matter, they robbed this stage in sight of the gates of the city of Queretero—a city of 20,000 inhabitants; not even taking the precaution to mask themselves; and one of the robbers on the following day, near the door of our hotel, asked a gentleman whom he had relieved of his purse and watch for the light of his cigar. No one acquainted with the country would take the responsibility of denouncing a robber; to do so would take nothing from his impunity, and would insure the assassination of the informer. Soon after leaving Guanajato, we passed from the rugged mountain region in which it is situated to a continuation of the fertile valley upon which we had been the preceding day, and continued along this our whole day's journey of forty leagues, to the handsome city of Queretero, passing on the way several pretty towns of five or six thousand inhabitants each. Just before reaching the town of Celayn, we fell in with a group of half-naked peasants, some on foot and some on donkeys, being driven in by a lew Mexican soldiers to form part of the army destined lor Malamoras. The stage stopped one day, being Sunday, in Querciero, and on the first night of our arrival the house of a curate nearly opposite to us was entered by a band of robbers and stripped of all its portable valuables, with five thousand dollars in specie. Here we, for the first time, learned through a Mexican paper the name of our unfortunate dragoons, and the unhappy late of Col. Cross.
As an evidence of the facilities of Mexican civilization in this handsome and populous city of Queretero, having occasion to receive six cents in change, I was compelled to take it in four cakes of white soap, the common currency of the country. Before leaving this city on Monday morning, we called a council of war to determine whether we should defend ourselves or yield, in case of an attack. There were eight of ua, but one waa a priest, the other an old man of seventy, two were Invalids, and none would entertain for a moment the question of war. They had no arms; we therefore laid ours aside and determined to submit quietly to any fate. We fortunately entered Mexico on the evening of the second day from Queretero without any interruption. On the night before our arrival in the city we put up at an antiquated and prison-like fonda, the court-yard of which was occupied by part of a company of soldiers, and a machine on wheels which greatly excited the curiosity and attention of our companions. A glance at it was only necessary to discover that it was a camp forge; for there were the bellows and the anvil. Hut a particularly luminous Mexican explained to the whole party that it was • " bomba"—a bomb carriage for the destruction of as North Americans.
1 shall not, in a flying tour of this kind, undertake a description of the oft-described city of Mexico, or the emotions with which a stranger enters a place which has been alternately the capital of the Montezuma*, the capital of Cortex, and the theatre where one military chief has contended with another, not for the honor of his country, but for the possession of the returns of the customhouse.
Mexico is indisputably a magnificent city; but as Madame Calderon justly remarks, its elegant houses, without having the dignity of ruins, induce the impression of fine buildings in a state of neglect. One accustomed to a different state of things, walks the elegant streets of Mexico with feelings of melancholy and disgust, at finding himself amid throngs of epauleled and laced soldiers, in a mingled attire of decoration and dirt; and crowds of the most revolting beggars of every age from infancy to decrepitude. This disgusting spectacle accompaniea the traveller across the whole stage route of Mexico. The coach cannot stop for a moment without being surrounded by these wretched objects, displaying their disgosling infirmities and uttering piteous moans. At one point they start off with the stage; children, young girls, ami men. old women with infanta on their backs, and with their hands pressed together, uttering a continued moan. With marvellous speed they keep up with the coach for near a mile. Sensibility becomes blunted by the continued contemplation of disease and wretchedness, while
charity is paralyzed by the consciousness of inability to relieve the mass. The comfort of the stranger is by no means increased by the conviction that all his vigilance will not preveot his pocket being picked in the most public places, aa event which happened twice to my companion in one day, and twice I detected the depredator'* hand in my pocket; the third time he waa more successful. Soldiers seem an essential part o every institution of the country. If the host pa*ae* the streets and brings the whole population to Us knees, it is accompanied by soldiers; if you visit a peaceful scientific institution, a filthy soldier examines your right to admiaaion. He is, however, an appropriate sentinel; for scientific institution* with high-sounding names, upon being entered display nothing but disorder, neglect, and filth; they indicate a people degenerating into the darkness, without the energy of barbarism. The state of general ignorance may bo imagined when those who ought to be the receptacles of knowledge are among the most ignorant. Standing near a Franciscan friar, in the museum, examining a model representing a section of the mines, the good father contemplated it with great earnestness, and graciously informed me that it was a kind of representation of the birth of our Saviour.
Upon our arrival in the city we were naturally anxious to learn something of the state of affairs on the frontier; but at first could learn nothing bat the probability that an action had taken place; then that it had been fatal to us: finally, the truth began to leak out, and we learned that ihe Mexican arms had sustained a defeat. No public promulgation was made of this state of affairs, and long after the government was apprized of the truth, the news-boys were crying among the deluded people the triumph of the Mexican arms. The press, of course, dared publish nothing that Parades did not approve.
On the day of my departure from Mexico, (Mar 27,) the Mexican Congre»a was about lo meet, ft is, however, a burlesque lo call it a Congress of the nation, being a body selected from the clerjry and military chiefly, originally convened for the purpose of confirming the usurpation of Paredea. Some of the departments could not be coerced into sending deputies, and several of ihe deputies sent msde strenuous efforts to avoid the responstbilitie* of iheir position, knowing thai at this lime they could not much longer bolster up Parcdes.
It is difficult to conceive v» hat is the proper remedy for the present disorders of Mexico. With a |xipulalion of eight millions, seven are of Ihe poor, oppressed, humble, and submissive Indian rare, the victims of all changes, and the feeling of despair and melancholy has impressed itself upon the countenances of even the children. The other million is the Mexico Spanish blood, from winch are taken the clergy, the twenty thousand soldier*, and the twenty thousand officers, most of whom are left to pay themselves in any way they can. It is evident that this population wants the intellectual and moral basis upon which to form a government. a
Sympathy with Mexico, in relation to her conquest is a sympathy undenied by Mexicans whoso interests are those of peace and order; indeed, lo> desire the introduction of any influence opposed lo> principles of rapine and revolution, becomes tbopart of patriotism; for Mexico is now the subject of other powers by principles ss strong aa those of arm*. All her resource* are in the band* of