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ous war England engages in with a great power tinental competitor, and thus be the more dependwill not be paid for by the English perple, but by ent for his exchanges on the American market, wealthy classes who provoke it ; and the wealthy But whatever may take place, the power of the classes of all countries are but 100 peaceably dis- merchant and manufilcturer which will be inposed to risk, readily, the certain for the lincer creased by the abolition of the corn Jaws, at the tain. England has outgrown her youthful passions, expense of the landed proprietors will not be wieldand France is satisfying them in another way. It ed against us. Merchants and mannfacturers canmay have been the interest of these powers to suis- not, from the nature of their business, forego an intain Mexico by words ; but Mexico will soon dis- mediate and direct benefit for the sake of a distan! cover that the thing was not meant as seriously as contingency, and are therefore, not likely to break she took it. If they send any agents abroad to with their best customers, for the purpose of addsolicit aid, they will be advised paternally and in a ing a few square miles of woodland to this or friendly, neighborly manner to keep the peace, and that territory. At present the power of the landif they want money they will have to submit to ed aristocracy of England, comprises not only the greater sacrifices io obtain it than were de- nobles, but all their respectable farmers, who, manded by the United States to regulate the Tex- being entirely dependent on them for their loaves, an frontier. Paredes, if no counter revolution is are disposed of, politically, like the servants of the going on, will find that he has challenged a supe- nobility. When the corn Jaws shall be abolished, rior foe, and will at last submit to necessity. The rents will he governed by commercial principleswhole matter, in this quarter, is looked upon as by the prices of corn generally, and not by the arepisode, not more likely to trouble the peace of tificial standard fixed by a privileged class. Thus Europe than the annexation of Texas has done it. land will have a market value, regulated by deWhat reason, indeed, could Europe put forward mand and supply, and the relation of landlord and to oppose the United States, after they submitted tenant will be changed into buyers and sellers. to the annexation, which is the alleged cause of This will virtually emancipate the farmer and in. war with Mexico ? England and France had ac- cover the nobility. The latter will become an isoknowledged the independence of Texas, and Eng- late class, stripped of the best part of its patronage, land and France admitted that Texas, if willing to and incapable of dividing the community into two be annexed, had a right to do with herself as she great halves, of which one was entirely devoted to thought fit. After such a declaration, the idea of their interests. The consequences of such a revoan armed interference is preposterous. England lution are not easily foreseen, but they cannot but and France must have a better cause to interfere be tremendous, implying greater dangers for the in American affairs, and less at stake to venture safety of existing institutions, than any that might upon a similar experiment. On the part of Eng- attend a forcible attempt to change the condition land, a war with the United States partakes al- of the laboring class. If the English nobility conways more or less of the character of a civil war, sent to such an arrangement, they must consider and is accompanied by all its miseries ; on that of their position altogether hopeless, and a formal deFrance, would be unnatural and opposed to those nial only as the means of precipitating events. interests which alone support the present dy- These considerations lead one to believe firmly in nasty.
the continuation of peace. Whatever triumph As to the Oregon question it has ceased to alarm may have followed British arms in distant climes, the good people of Europe, who dread a war at Great Britain cannot stand much more agitation least as much as we do, and want nothing more within, and no foreign war she can wage, would than a speedy settlement of the vexatious question. bring these internal agitations so soon to a crisis, The notice which has passed the senate has, as as one with the United States. I have now put you will have seen from the prints, produced quite the finger on the sore place, which is worth an a favorable impression. It is looked upon as a army to America, and requires the presence of one measure of peace, not of war; and as simplifying, in England. Remember the chartists' petition to not perplexing the question. I have been of that parliament, embraced four millions of signatures, opinion all along, though perchance you may have and these chartists are now, partially at least, movput little faith in my predictions. I have the ing with the anti-corn-law league. pleasure to repeat to you the advance of the speedy The Polish revolution has lost its historical abolition of the corn laws in the course of the reg- character, but continues still to operate powerful ular business of both houses. I am afraid I look changes in political economy. The relation of upon the probable effect of that bill, as very differ- landlord and tenants is about to be changed all over ent from that which is generally anticipated. The Gallicia, and in part also in Bohemia, Moravia, and changes which in my opinion, it is likely to effect, the Sclavonian provinces of Hungary and Transylwill be more of a political than a commercial char-vania. The consequence may be an amelioration acter, and affect the internal organization of the of the condition of the peasant; but the governBritish empire more than its foreign relations. If ment, which has been hitherto the most aristocratic bread become cheap, and the manufacturers ex- in Europe, has thereby assumed a hostile attitude pect to lower wages in proportion, that is if the to the nobility, which has thus far proved its main capitalists of England continue to look upon labor support. And the government, by giving to the as merchandize to be regulated by demand and peasant what it promised him, has lost its power supply, and not as the act of human beings who in of contenting him in future. But the best part of return for the same have a right to demand bread, the whole conduct of Austria is that she is now and that bread in sufficient quantity to support again reduced to borrowing money to meet her themselves, the abolition of the corn law, will be current expenditures, and that, in all probability but the forerunner of organic changes in the Brit-Austria is on the eve of another, her fourth State ish constitution, or such violent agitation as will bankruptcy. endanger the existing government. But if the The condition of Russia is not much better. She, wages of labor do not decrease, then the British too, has to contract a new loan to repair her immanufacturer will not be able to undersell his con- mense losses in the Caucasus, and to defray the expenses of the annihilation of Poland. Russia. The revolutions in Spain and Portugal are again may find amateurs on the various exchanges of put down at much expense of blood and treasure ; Europe ; but Amsterdam and Berlin, heretofore but it is difficult to tell the number of days and the bankers of the Czar, have declined henceforth hours Isturiz is about to govern. I believe his days to be distinguished by that honor.
are numbered, and that Spain will not be quiet Prussia has opened a vent to her difficulties by until the queen mother who sets her virgin daughissuing 10,000,000 thalers through the bank of ter the most infamous example of political treachBerlin ; but the measure is new, and may lead to ery and lewd debauch, shall have been banished embarrassments in the future. Let the cabinet at the country. This is the opinion in part of the Berlin be once in the power of the moneyed men, conservative journals of England and France, and and it will soon receive, not make, the laws of the shows the degree of moral detestation entertained country. No one has as yet conjured up the for her life and character. Narvaez has gone as power of money without becoming in the end its minister to Naples; the queen refusing the blood slave. All constitutional governments of Europe, money he asked beforehand for undertaking to all revolutions in the old world, owe their origin to quell the insurrection. The species of negotiations financial embarrassinents. The deficit produced however, remains unique in the annals of constituthe convocation of the national congress, and eventional governments. Italy continues forcibly quiet, protestant Holland did not revolt against bigoted so is the rest of Europe by mere force. These Spain till the exaction of the tenth penny! We governments are all the time sailing under high wish Prussia luck on her setting out on her new pressure ; having at each stroke to overcome the career. It is quite time she should give up play- resistance of the common medium, and yet there ing soldiers and take an active share in the appro- are many who believe that because a great power priate iinprovements of the times.
is active somewhere, that power must also be proIt is now almost certain that Baron Roenne will, ductive of corresponding results. after all, resign the presidency of the newly organ- or the Mexican war, the Spectator of the 30th ized chamber of commerce in Berlin, and ihat the director of imposts Mr. Kruse, will take his place.
ce May thus speaks : The latter is a free trader, and a most thorough The United States and Mexico are fairly at war. creature of Great Britain. Political, not commer- Mexico strikes the first blow; crossing the Texan rial motives, are supposed to be the origin of this frontier, and inflicting on the American general movement. The King of Prussia, who is every- something very like defeat. General Scott and thing by halves, is afraid of lending his influence reinforcements of men and treasure are to be har. to a policy which might be considered as offensive ried to the boundary. Of course the United States to England, while, on the other hand, he is equally will conquer eventually-that is, if they manage undetermined to assume publicly the part of an op- to avoid giving European states occasion to mingle ponent of protection. In this unsetiled state of in the quarrel ; for, independently of superior dethings, the new Zollverein conferences convoked termination of purpose, the United States could at Berlin do not promise to become very interest- expend resources in the war, dollar for dollar, in a ing, or decisive to German industry. Nothing se- sanguinary game at “ beggar my neighbor," and rious will be attempted on either side. But it is bankrupt their antagonist without sustaining any quite likely the Verein itself may undergo some vital injury. But there may be much trouble in changes, the south uniting with Austria, and the process: the wolf seems likely to find that this *the north with Prussia, in a peculiar system of lamb may bite. And, biting or not, the slaughter customs.
will be costly. Congress has voted ten millions lo proportion as the particulars of the contem- of dollars, and much more will be needed : voting plated constitution for Prussia become known, the money is easy, collecting it is a different matter. project itself ceases to have any meaning. The ** Base is the slave that pays," and brother JonaPrussian parliament will contain advising, not de-than is po " pigger;" he detests paying taxes ; liberating members, who will talk, write and pub- and so congress must borrow. Borrow!-of lish, but do nothing as becomes the philosophers whom! who will lend on American securities! of the Kepsic school. As an offset the liberal The credit of Mexico herself is not so low in the king--the comedian I mean-has ordered the ex- European markets. tradition of the Polish prisoners who were not taken by the Prussians ; but who voluntarily sur. rendered to Prussia, as the most civilized and
Pictures from Italy. By CHARLES DICKENS. (No. enlightened of the three powers who had united to
LXIII. of Wiley & Putnam's Library of Choice effect her ruin. This dastardly act of the impotent Reading.) man has produced an incredible sensation in Ger- The greater part of these descriptions, as the many; but the patience of the Germans will long author informs us, were written on the spot, and endure what their hearts abominate, and their sent home, from time to time, in private letters. heads despise. The mean spirit of the king is the As penned in the fulness of the subject, and with more reprehensible as he has of late been subjected the liveliest impressions of novelty and freshness, to every species of humiliation from the Emperor they will be all the more acceptable to those who of Russia, (his brother-in-law,) who first lectured have been wearied out by the stiff and formal de him like a schoolboy, as to the best mode of gov-lineations contained in the great mass of books of erning bis country, and then left him without cere- travel, upon Italy especially. The peculiar life mony ; having since repeatedly visited almost and humor of Mr. Dickens are everywhere agreeevery country in Europe except that of his brother. ably exhibited. "If my book," he says, ** has in-law, and having probibited the empress on her even a fanciful and idle air, perhaps the reader will Tetorn to St. Petersburg, 10 visit her brother in suppose it written in the shade of a sunny day, in Berlin. So you see Prussia, as I always told you, the midst of the objects of which it trents, and will is still wavering between England and Russia, i like it none the worse for having such influences but equally though not overtly opposed to France upon it."- Protestant Churchman. and the United States.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 114.-18 JULY, 1846.
From Chambers' Journal, an eye, represented the head waters of the great HORACE MANN'S EDUCATIONAL TOUR.
rivers which flow in different directions from that
mountainous range; while the children, almost as Some of our readers may recollect an account eager and excited as though they had actually of the Rauhe Haus of Hamburgh, which appeared seen the torrents dasbing down the mountain sides, in the Journal for 30th August last year. It was cried out-Danube, Elbe, Vistula, Oder, &c. The extracted from a report on education in Europe, next moment I heard a succession of small strokes written by Mr. Horace Mann, the Secretary of the or taps, so rapid as to be almost indistinguishable; Board of Education in the State of Massachusetts. and hardly had my eye time to discern a large We are glad to find that this remarkable document number of dots made along the margins of the has now been reprinted for the British public, rivers, when the shout of Lintz, Vienna, Prague, under the care of Dr. Hodgson, principal of the Dresden, Berlin, &c., struck my ear. At this Mechanics’ Institution of Liverpool.* It is the point in the exercise, the spot which had been production of such a mind as, unfortunately, we occupied on the black board was nearly a circle, see but rarely devoted to the subject of education ; of which the starting point, or place where the one expressing, we would say, the highest tone of teacher first began, was the centre; but now a moral and intellectual culture, and yet as care- few additional strokes around the circumference of ful respecting the practical details of its subject, the incipient continent extended the mountain as it is profoundly reflective on general aims and ranges outwards towards the plains the children results.
responding the names of the countries in which The immediate object of Mr. Mann in his tour they respectively lay. With a few more flourwas to describe teaching arrangements, and modes ishes, the rivers flowed onwards towards their in use, in European countries, which he thought several terminations ; and by another succession might be advantageously transferred to his own. of dots, new cities sprang up along their banks. His report is therefore mainly of a practical By this time the children had become as much character, and calculated to be directly useful to excited as though they had been present at a teachers, and all who have any charge in educa- world-making. They rose in their seats, they tional institutions ; for which reason we strongly flung out both hands, their eyes kindled, and their recommend the present volume to their atten- voices became almost vociferous, as they cried out tion. Yet such is the character of the author's the names of the different places which, under the mind, that the whole reads like a philosophical magic of the teacher's crayon, rose into view. treatise.
Within ten minutes from the commencement of A considerable portion of the volume is occu- the lesson, there stood upon the black board a pied with memoranda on the schools of Germany, beautiful map of Germany, with its mountains, which Mr. Mann describes as superior to the principal rivers, and cities, the coast of the Gercharacter of the existing institutions of the coun- man Ocean, of the Baltic and the Black Seas ; try, but such as must soon force improvements in and all so accurately proportioned, that I think these, whether the governors choose or not. We only slight errors would have been found had it cannot go into any comprehensive view of this sub- been subjected to the test of a scale of miles. A ject; but the reader, we think, may obtain some part of this time was taken up in correcting a few idea of the interest which the author imparts to mistakes of the pupils, for the teacher's mind all his details, by the following account of the seemed to be in his ear as well as in his hand ; manner in which he found geography taught in a and notwithstanding the astonishing celerity of his Prussian school. “The teacher stood by the movements, he detected erroneous answers, and black board with the chalk in his hand. After turned round to correct them. The rest of the casting his eye over the class, to see that all were recitation consisted in questions and answers reready, he struck at the middle of the board. With |
specting productions, climate, soil, animals, &c. a rapidity of hand which my eye could hardly fol. Many of the cosmogonists suppose that, after low, he made a series of those short, divergent the creation of the world, and when its whole surlines, or shadings, employed by map-engravers to face was as yet fluid, the solid continents rose represent a chain of mountains. He had scarcely gradually from beneath the sea. First the loftiest turned an angle, or shot off a spur, when the peaks of the Andes, for instance, emerged from scholars began to cry out--Carpathian mountains, ihe deep, and as they reached a higher and a Hungary ; Black Forest mountains, Wirtemberg ; higher point of elevation, the rivers began to flow Giant's mountains (Riesen-Gebirge,) Silesia ; Me- down their sides, until at last—the lofty mountains tallic mountains (Erz-Gebirge,) Pine mountains having attained their height, the mighty rivers (Fichtel-Gebirge,) Central mountains (Mittel-Ge their extent and volume, and the continent its birge), Bohemia, &c., &c.
amplitude-cultivation began, and cities and towns o In less than half a minute, the ridge of that were built. The lesson I have described was a grand central elevation which separates the waters beautiful illustration of that idea—with one advanthat flow north-west into the German Ocean from tage over the original scene itself, that the specthose that flow north into the Baltic, and south-tator had no need of waiting through all the geoeast into the Black Sea, was presented to view- logical epochs to see the work completed. executed almost as beautifully as an engraving. A “ Compare the effect of such a lesson as this, dozen crinkling strokes, made in the twinkling of both as to the amount of the knowledge communi
cated, and the vividness, and of course the perma* Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., London.
nence, of the ideas obtained, with a lesson where CXIV. LIVING AGE. VOL. X.
the scholars look out a few names of places on a to plead an important cause before a jury, but lifeless atlas, but never send their inaginations instead of standing and extemporizing, and showabroad over the earth, and where the teacher sits ing by his gestures, and by the energy and ardor listlessly down before them to interrogate them of his whole manner, that he felt an interest in his from a book, in which all the questions are printed theme ; instead of rising with his subject, and at full length, to supersede on his part all neces- coruscating with flashes of genius and wit, he sity of knowledge."
should plant himself lazily down in a chair, read All this must be equally new and interesting from some old book, which scarcely a member of to the greater portion of our public. So, we the panel could fully understand, and, after thoroughly believe, will be the following account droning away for an hour, should leave them, of the general conduct and bearing of the Prussian without having distinctly impressed their minds teachers amongst their pupils. It is even, we with one fact, or led them to form one logical conwould say, affecting to hear of the activity and clusion-would it be any wonder if he left half of self-devotion of these most useful ministers, paid them joking with each other, or asleep? Would as they generally are below the gains of many it be any wonder-provided he were followed on ordinary tradesmen. “I have said that I saw no the other side by an advocate of brilliant parts, of teacher sitting in his school. Aged or young, all elegant diction, and attractive manner, who should stood. Nor did they stand apart and aloof in pour sunshine into the darkest recesses of the case sullen dignity. They mingled with their pupils, -if he lost not only his own repotation, but the passing rapidly from one side of the class to the cause of his client also ? other, animating, encouraging, sympathizing, “In Prussia and in Saxony, as well as in Scotbreathing life into less active natures, assuring land, the power of commanding and retaining the the timid, distributing encouragement and endear-attention of a class is held to be a sine qua non in ment to all. The looks of the Prussian teacher a teacher's qualifications. If he has not talent, often have the expression and vivacity of an actor skill, vivacity, or resources of anecdote and wit in a play. He gesticulates like an orator ; his sufficient to arouse and retain the attention of body assumes all the attitudes, and his face puts his pupils during the accustomed period of recion all the variety of expression, which a public tation, he is deemed to have mistaken his callspeaker would do, if haranguing a large assembly ing, and receives a significant hint to change his on a topic vital to their interests.
vocation. "It may seem singular, and perhaps to some "Take a group of little children to a toy-shop. almost ludicrous, that a teacher, in expounding and witness their outbursting eagerness and dethe first rudiments of handwriting, in teaching the light. They need no stimulus of badges or prizes difference between a hair-stroke and a ground to arrest or sustain their attention ; they need no stroke, or how an I may be turned to a b, or a u quickening of their faculties by rod or ferule. To into a w, should be able to work himself up into the exclusion of food and sleep, they will push an oratorical fervor, should attitudinize, and ges- their inquiries, until shape, color, quality, use, ticulate, and stride from one end of the class to the substance, both external and internal, of the objects other, and appear in every way to be as intensely around them are exhausted ; and each child will engaged as an advocate when arguing an impor- want the showman wholly to himself. But in all Cant cause to a jury; but strange as it may seem, the boundless variety and beauty of nature's works it is nevertheless true ; and before five minutes of -in that profusion and prodigality of charms with such a lesson had elapsed, I have seen the child which the Creator has adorned and enriched every dren wrought up to an excitement proportionally part of his creation-in the delights of affectionintense, hanging upon the teacher's lips, catching in the ecstatic joys of benevolence-in the absorb every word he says, and evincing great elation or ing interest which an unsophisticated conscience depression of spirits as they had or had not suc-instinctively takes in all questions of right and ceeded in following his instructions. So I have wrong-in all these, is there not as much to chalseen the same rhetorical vehemence on the part of lenge and command the attention of a little child the teacher, and the same interest and animation as in the curiosities of a toy-shop! When as on the part of the pupils, during a lesson on the much of human art and ingenuity shall bave been original sounds of the letters--that is, the differ-expended upon teaching as upon toys, there will ence between the long and the short sound of a be less difference between the cases. vowel, or the different ways of opening the mouth “The third circumstance I mentioned above, in sounding the consonants b and p. This zeal of was the beautiful relation of harmony and affection the teacher enkindles the scholars. He charges which subsisted between teacher and pupils. I them with his own electricity to the point of a cannot say that the extraordinary fact I have menplosion. Such a teacher has no idle, mischievous, tioned was not the result of chance or accident. whispering children around him, nor any occasion of the probability of that others must jodge. I for the rod. He does not make desolation of all can only say that, during all the time mentioned, 1 the active and playful impulses of childhood, and never saw a blow struck; I never heard a sharp call it peace; nor, to secure stillness among his rebuke given; I never saw a child in tears, nor scholars, does he find it necessary to ride them arraigned at the teacher's bar for any alleged miswith the nightmare of fear. I rarely saw a teacher conduct. On the contrary, the relation seemed to pot questions with his lips alone. He seems so be one of duty first, and then affection, on the part much interested in his subject, though he might of the teacher-of affection first, and then doty, on have been teaching the same lesson for the hun. the part of the scholar. The teacher's manner dred or five hundredth time,) that his whole body was better than parental; for it had a parent's is in motion-eyes, arms, limbs, all contributing to tenderness and vigilance, without the foohsh she impression he desires to make ; and at the end dotings or indulgences to which parental aflection of an hour, both he and his pupils come from the is prone. I heard no child ridiculed, sneered at, work all glowing with excitement.
or scolded, for making a mistake. On the con" Suppose a lawyer in one of our courts were trary, whenever a mistake was made, or there was a want of promptness in giving a reply, the ex-la peasant girl and the pig of the house. The pig pression of the teacher was that of grief and disap- had absconded, or at least had not returned all pointment, as though there had been a failure not night; and the girl, who had been out searching merely to answer the question of a master, but to for him since daybreak, was now bringing hiin comply with the expectations of a friend. No home, reproaching him with his ingratitude as they child was disconcerted, disabled, or bereft of his walked along-the piy returning a sort of grudgsenses through fear. Nay, generally at the ends ing acquiescence to each touching interrogatory. of the answers, the teacher's practice is to encour-"Didn't I always get you enough straw at night age him with the exclamation, good,' right,' to cover round you, and a wisp to stick in ihe
wholly right,' &c., or to check him with his chink o' the wall to keep the wind out!” Ouff, slowly and painfully-articulated .no;' and this is said the pig. “Haven't I given you the best pradone with a tone of voice that marks every degree ties, and leaves, and warm mash, and often gone of plus and minus in the scale of approbation and without a meal myself for you—eh, now?' Ouff, regret.'
said the pig; but the grudging acquiescence did in
some degree partake of an " Oh, don't bother me." From the Daily News 1" And would n't I always do my duty by you-eh? AN IRISH PIG-FAIR.
-would n't I? How could you have the heart to
| leave your own home-eh? Will I tell you of all In order to enter into the scene of an Irish pig- your ingratitude, eh?” Ouff, said the pig ; mean, fair with the proper spirit, it is requisite that the in this case, “ Well, I don't care if I do hear about reader, besides encouraging a mirthful disposition, that." and a love for the study of character, should pos- | What should an education like this produce ? sess a duly-instructed mind on certain precursory What could be expected from such circumstances principles and facts of the subject now proposed io surrounding a creature from its birth? What be treated. It will therefore be necessary to offer should all this incessant pampering of body and a few remarks on the character and the circum-mind produce in the character of the individual? I stances which have combined to form and establish speak it with regret in the present case—what but the character of an Irish pig.
a brutal, gross, morose, selfish hog! Born in the warmest nook of the peasant's do- Now then imagine, oh, reader !--if, after what mestic circle—in the very hosom of his family, we has been said, thou canst imagine such a thingmay say-an Irish pig begins life ander the most that the day at length arrives when this pampered flattering circumstances which could be imagined. Ipig has to be taken to the fair, whether he is graHe may, indeed, be said to suck flattery with his cously pleased or not, there to be criticized and mother's milk. His bringing-up hath a smack of sold! Yes; the right honorable gentleman “ who royalty in it. As everything within the immediate pays the rent" has to walk, perhaps for several range of his experience is made subscrvient to him, miles, with a certain indignity round one of his both in respect of his needs and his humors, he hind legs; and the disloyal, false knave, his ownnaturally and inevitably comes to the conclusion er, urging him, after divers base expedients, from that he is the most important person in existence, behind or laterally, on the highway, to a public and that the world was made for his use. His mart-there to be weighed, pinched, or fumbled mother was reared amidst the same illusory im- | all over, and then sold !-to what “end," let the pressions. The whole object of the family he classic muse of pie and sausage, pot, oven, ironlives with is to fatten him, and do hiin honor. In spit, or hrine-lub, in fitting verse recite. * * * fact, honor and fat react upon each other, and he The fair is held usually in the ordinary marketis crowned with favor in proportion to his obese place, being in itself no more than a market, exdemonstrations of having been graciously pleased cept from the dignity and importance, and, we to receive the offerings of his humble servants. * * may add, contumacions excitement of the chief
The pig takes his meals with the rest of the thing sold. There are a few poor stalls for the family, whom, at best, he regards as his poor rela- huckster or pedlar trade; one gambling turn-about tions. Ho sits down with the circle of the family with half-penny stakes; a litile stage on a cart for board, (often literally a board for a plate,) and eats the hoaxing sale of good-for-nothing haberdashwith them from the same dish, from which they ery; no shows of any kind, no toys, and only usually select for him the largest potatoes. In three most unattractive stalls for stale-looking stances, it is true, have been known where a dis- cakes and commonplace gingerbread with no gilt loyal peasant has endeavored to persuade the pig upon it, nor even the shining brown varnish which to eat a few potato-peelings mashed up with the is the only admissible substitute. The fair is derest; but seldom with success. Far more common voted to higher purposes. is it to give the pig something in addition, such as We have seen the pig in his domestic circle, porridge, bran and cake, and cabbage. Not mere- and have come 10 right understanding of his inevly is the pig better fed than the peasant, with his itable character-the pampered creature of circumwife and children, but in several districts it is the stances. From his earliest infancy he was the only animal that is sufficiently fed. This is more heir-apparent of the grossest egotism, selfishness, especially the case in Sligo and Roscommon. The and ignorance. Now, let the reader of this hispig, meantime, knows how matters stand, and is torical, philosophical, severe, yet not unloving quite aware of his own importance. If he happens sketch, imagine himself, if he can venture such a to be coming in at the door of the cabin at the thing, in the midst of three or four hundred pigs same time that one of the children is coming out, like these! Three or four hundred outraged counhe tries to make it appear that there is not room try nobles, partly driven, and partly seduced away enough for both, and gives a child a hunch with from their cabins, vassals, and baronial bogs, and his shoulder in passing, like a surly brute who here assembled in public. Be it understood they would growl, “Get out of the way-don't you see are not in a drove, not under any discipline, not in me coming!" A traveller in the provinces told me any degree even of swine-herd order. No man that he once overheard a sort of dialogue between | dares to exercise his whip; nothing but a thin.