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the one for the most part faithful; the other not so assured.

These matters are well to be considered : for albeit, the nature of man desireth nothing more than curiously to know the doings of others, yet are those things to be handled with so great secrecy and dissimulation, as the prince's intent be not in any wise suspected, nor the ministers made odious: for these sometimes to win themselves reputation, do devise causes of difference where no need is, divining of things future, which prove to the prejudice of their own prince.

To win Confidence with Neighbours.

This is chiefly attained unto by being loved and honoured : for these things do work so many good effects, as daily experience sufficeth, without any express example, to prove them of great force.

The ways to win love and trust, is in all actions to proceed justly, and sometimes to wink at wrongs, or set aside unnecessary revenges ; and if any thing be done not justifiable, or unfit to be allowed, (as oftentimes it happeneth) there to lay the blame upon the minister; which must be performed with so great shew of revenge and dissimulation, by reproving and punishing the minister, as the princes offended may be satisfied, and believe that the cause of unkindness proceeded from thence.

Now only it resteth, that somewhat should be said touching provision, to the end the people may not be drawn into despair by famine, or extreme dearth of victual, and chiefly for want of corn, which is one principal consideration to be regarded, according to the Italian proverb-Pane in Piazza, Giustitia in Palazzo, siverezza per tutto: whereunto, I could wish every prince or supreme governor to be thus qualified, viz. Facile de audienza, non facile de credenzi, desioso de spedition, essemplare in costunü proprü, et inquei de sua casa tale chevorra governare, e non esser governato da altro; he della raggione.

Chap 13.

Observations confirmed by authorities of Princes and

Principalities, charactering an excellent Prince or Governor.

Every good and lawful principality is either elective or successive. Of them, election seemeth the more ancient; but succession, in divers respects the better: minore discrimine sumitur princeps quam quaeritur. Tac. The chief and only endeavour of every good prince

ought to be the commodity and security of the subjects; as contrariwise, the tyrant seeketh his own private profit with the oppression of his people. Civium non servitus sed tutela tradita est. Sal.

To the perfection of every good prince, two things are necessarily required; viz. prudence and virtue ; the one to direct his doings, the other to govern his life. Rex eris si recte feceris. Hor.

The second care which appertaineth to a good prince, is to make his subjects like unto himself; for thereby, he is not only honoured, but they also the better governed. Facile imperium in bonos, Plaut.

Subjects are made good by two means; riz. by constraint of law, and the prince's example : for in all estates, the people do imitate those conditions whereunto they see the prince inclined. Quicquid faciunt principes, præcipere videantur. Quintil.

All virtues be required in a prince; but justice and clemency are most necessary: for justice is a habit of doing things justly as well to himself as others, and giving to every one so much as to him appertaineih. This is that virtue that preserveth concord among men, and whereof they be called good. Jus et æquitas vincula civitatum. Cic.

It is the quality of this virtue also to proceed equally and temperately. It informeth the prince not to surcharge the subjects with infinite laws : for

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thereof proceedeth the impoverishment of the subjects and the enriching of lawyers *, a kind of men, which in ages more ancient, did seem of no necessity. Sine causidicis satis felices olim fuere futuræque sunt urbes. Sal.

The next virtue required in princes is clemency, being an inclination of the mind to lenity and compassion, yet tempered with severity and judgment. This quality is fit for all great personages, but chiefly princes; because their occasion to use it is most. By it also, the love of men is gained. Qui vult regnare, languidá regnet manu. Sen.

After clemency, fidelity is expected in all good princes, which is a certain performance and observation of word and promise. This virtue seemeth to accompany justice, or is, as it were, the same; and therefore most fit for princes. Sanctissimum generis humani bonum. Liv.

As fidelity followeth justice, so doth modesty accompany clemency. Modesty is a temperature of reason, whereby the mind of man is so governed, as neither in action or opinion, he over-deemeth of himself, or any thing that is his-a quality not common in fortunate folk, and most rare in princes. Superbia commune nobilitatis malum. Sal.

* The author of the epistle dedicatory to the duchess of Suffolk, prefixed to Mr. Latimer's Sermons, saith, that lawa Yers' covetousness hath almost devoured England,

This virtue doth also moderate all external demonstrations of insolence, pride, and arrogance, and therefore neces

cessary to be known of princes, and other, whom favour or fortune have advanced. Impone fælicitati tuæ frænos, facilius illam reges. Curt.

But as princes are to observe the bounds of modesty, so may they not forget the majesty appertaining to their supreme honour, being a certain reverend greatness due to princely virtue and royal statem a grace and gravity no less beseeming a prince, than virtue itself: for neither overmuch familiarity, nor too great austerity, ought to be used by princes. Facilitas autoritatem, severitas amorem minuit. Tac.

To these virtues we may apply liberality, which doth not only adorn, but highly advance the honour due tò princes. Thereby also, the good will of men is gained: for nothing is more fitting a prince's nature, than bounty, the same being accompanied with judgment, and performed according to the laws of liberality. Perdere multi sciunt donaré nesciunt. Tac.

It seemeth also that prudence is not only fit, but also, among other virtues, necessary in a prince: for the daily use thereof is in all human actions required; and chiefly in matters of state and government. Prudentia imperantis propria et unica virtus. Aris.

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