of the queen. The dark insinuations of Cecil, his rival for power, succeeded in prejudicing king James against him; and his noblest actions--the fairest fruits of his patriotic genius, Wére blasted with the breath of malice. The king had not been three months in England, before he was charged with treason, with con. spiring with lord Cobham and others to dethrone James, and to advance Arabella Stewart to the throne of England; to introduce the Roman superstition, &c. &c.

This conspiracy is a state-riddle, which has never been solved; that Ralegh had any share in it, there is not a shadow of proof. But his death was determined ; and after a trial, perhaps the most disgraceful in our annals, he was condemned to lose his head. He was, however, reprieved by the king, who observed, in respect of lord Cobham's accusation of him, the only evidence, and which he subsequently recanted, that could Cobham have spoken any thing against Ralegh, they would have brought him from Constantinople to have accused him, His estates were taken from him, through a flaw said to be discovered in the conveyance, and transferred to the infamous minion Somer, set: and himself was imprisoned in the Tower

during twelve years--a period, the best employed of his life, as in his captivity he composed the greater part

of his numerous and valuable works. Prince Henry, between whom and Ralegh there subsisted an attachment of singular strength, was accustomed to say, “ No king but my father would keep such a bird in a cage.”

At the end of this time he was released, though not formally pardoned. In the hope of repairing his ruined fortunes, he now set sail for Guiana; but the enterprize, as is well known, failed, his son was killed, and on his return, himself executed, on the old sentence, at the instance of Spain. He was beheaded in 1618, and died with the same dauntless resolution he had displayed through life.

Sir Walter Ralegh is no less distinguished as a literary character, than as an experienced navigaior and a valorous knight. His most extensive work is his History of the World, first published in 1614; but the best edition is the eleventh and last, edited by Oldys, in 1736, folio. The work begins with the creation, and collects the flowers of history to the end of the second Macedonian war. Having surveyed the three first monarchies of the world, it leaves Rome, the fourth, triumphant, about a century and half before the birth of Christ, comprehending a period of nearly 4000 years. His biographer remarks" ranking in that class of historians who prefer the exercise of judgment in selection to that of genius in adorning, his industry and penetration are highly conspicuous, and his style is the best model of his age. His superior manner of treating Greek and Roman story has justly excited regret, that he has devoted so many pages to Jewish and Rabbiņical learning, and that he has not permitted himself a greater latitude, in those more fascinating subjects. If in this great work he has, to use the words of an eminent critic, produced an historical dissertation, but seldom risen to the majesty of history, still the variety of its learning and the elegance of its style, are sufficient to secure him a distinguished rank among the benefactors to our literature.”

This work was composed during his imprisonment in the Tower; and furnishes an honourable proof of the resources he found in his own mind, while oppressed by the injustice of his countrymen. There is an anecdote

which seems to imply, that sir Walter continued this history to his own times. It is said, that a few days before his death, Ralegh sent for Walter Burre, the printer of his History, to ask him how the work had sold; who replied, “ so slowly that it had undone him," Upon which, Ralegh taking a continuation of. it from his desk, threw it into the fire, saying to Burre," the second volume shall undo no more; this ungrateful world is unworthy of it." This anecdote, however, rests on insufficient authority; and is supposed by his biographer to refer to Ralegli's Breviary of the History of England, or some other unfinished work,

The following list of his miscellaneous works I give from Mr. Caley's late Life of him. “The collection of Dr. Birch, in two volumes, 8vo, 1751, in addition to the tracts relative to Guiana, and some smaller pieces, contains

"1. Maxims of State, a Compendium of Government; first published under the title, The Prince. Lond. 4to, 1642,

“ 2. The Cabinet Council ; containing the chief arts of empire and mysteries of state discabinetted, in political and polemical aphorisms, grounded on authority and experience, And illustrated with the choicest examples and

historical observations; first published by the celebrated Milton, in 8vo, 1658."

.I shall select from this work the three following chapters, which contain some hints and observations not to be despised even by statesmen of modern times.

Chap 11.

Observations intrinsically concerning every Public State

in points of Justice, Treasure, and War,

The first concern matter intrinsic; the second touch matter extrinsic. Matters intrinsic' are three: the administration of justice, the managing of the treasure, the disposing of things appertaining to war. Matters extrinsic are also three : the skill how to deal with neighbours, the diligence to vent their designs, the way how to win so much confidence with some of them, as to be made partaker of whatsoever they mean to enterprise.

Touching Administration of Justice. The good and direct administration of justice is in all places a principal part of government: for seldom or never shall we see any people discontented and desirous of alteration, where justice is equally admi

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