And always he expresses his thoughts and parenthood and even this is lost after a his desires, in music, in art, in poetry. He time, while man has discovered not only is curious about himself, about Nature, enormous gains to be won through coabout the stars and the waters and the öperation with his fellows but also the joy depths of the earth, about his fellows, that such coöperation brings. He has enabout the world before life came to it, larged his self, developed a wider personalabout his soul and its fate, about the ity, through sympathy and service, through future of his race. He can bask in the the brotherhood of the race. And, finally, sun after à good meal, just like any animal.

he has found a larger and deeper personLike an animal he will fight for food, for ality through reflecting on his relation to his young, to repel the stranger, to get Nature and the world in which he lives. into his possession things that he desires. He has learned how to make Nature serve But he can reflect on these things that him; he has also felt the magic and the he desires, or curb his desires when they mystery of flower and star, of the tempestare wicked. He lives according to his driven sea, of the silent pageantry of the ideals of how a man should live, and summer night and the canopy of stars. multiplies his powers to enjoy the months

II and years during which he lives on the earth and partakes of its benefits.

Before we go any farther, suppose we One of the chief sources of man's power stop for a moment to think over what we to raise his life above that of the brute have just been speaking about. beasts, who do not know their ancestry or We are apt to think that the age in their period of life and death, lies in his which we live is the most marvelous in the command of self-expression. He reflects history of man because people, or most of about things, can communicate his them, live so much more comfortably than thoughts to his fellows, can set down his in earlier times. In Shakespeare's England, ideas of beauty and right action. His life, to go no farther back, travel was slow and like that of animals, is concerned with dangerous; houses were cold, badly lighted, wbat goes on in his immediate presence, inconvenient; terrible diseases devastated with food and shelter and comfort. But whole provinces. Yet great men lived then, he not only has found out how to insure and great things were done then. The his food and his comfort to a higher degree point is that unless we are careful we shall than the animals; he has also found be in danger of thinking that the greatness joys and powers that animals know nothing of man in this twentieth century consists about. He finds enjoyment not only in his merely in material comforts and enterprises. immediate surroundings, but in a world of An office boy can use the telephone, travel fancy and imagination. He can forget on fast trains, run an automobile. Shakethe present, his weariness of the struggle for speare knew nothing of these things, knew food and life, his sorrow-for his very nothing of a thousand wonders that are superiority to animals in love and sense commonplace to us. But does the office of beauty makes him more subject to boy tower above Shakespeare because of suffering than the beasts—he can forget these things? all that surrounds him, if he will, in a The fact is that the most vital difworld of imagination into which he can ferences between men and animals consist pass instantly. The animal, confronted in things quite apart from what we call by a crisis, can draw on no inspiring past the conveniences of modern life. These in which his race has triumphed, but must things are memory and imagination. meet it for himself alone. But man finds Through memory men make use of their new powers born in him from his knowledge own past experiences and of the past exof how his fellows in far distant ages met periences of the race. This means not life's difficulties bravely, or rejoiced in its only that great deeds live on, great achievebeauty, or had faith in the future of the ments for human welfare, the victories of soul. What is more, the animal knows no the human spirit, but also that whatever law of relationship besides the instinct of of progress toward greater human comfort



and efficiency has been achieved by one one day a discoverer of new truth. He generation becomes so much capital on may become the head. of a great busiwhich a new generation may build. ness organization, or a great painter or

Through imagination men conceive new dramatist, or a statesman able to bless wants and find means for satisfying them. mankind. He may be a source of comfort Both memory and imagination are the or strength to generations that will live a roots of progress.



after he is dead. Even if John Milton studied the great achieve- such high destiny is not in 'store for him, he ments of men in earlier times, became may so enrich his own life that he crowds inspired to write a poem that the world into it experiences of past generations, exwould not willingly let die, and through periences drawn from distant countries, the power of his creative imagination contacts with all that the mind of man brought his dream to reality. When the has accomplished, imaginations destined Norman hosts marched to battle a minstrel to raise him, and his descendants, to a sang to them of the great deeds of Roland, higher scale of living. Charlemagne's knight, so that all the Or, he


live the life of an animal. soldiers were set on fire with the determina

III tion to perform valorous deeds. When Galileo saw the swaying lights suspended What has all this to do with Literature from the ceiling of the church he con- and Life? To put it more definitely, what ceived the idea of the pendulum, from has it to do with your reading and study of which clocks came into being. The mind this book? of Isaac Newton leaped from the observa- Literature is one form of the expression tion of the fall of an apple to the formula- of life. It is not the only form. Men tion of the laws that control the universe. express themselves in many ways: through In all of these incidents, and in thousands the language they speak, the homes they like them, memory and imagination prove live in, the cities and great industries their power.

which are the sources of their wealth and The same thing is true of all science and their means of existence. All that coninvention. For thousands of years plagues cerns the material part of life, therefore, is swept men off like flies. Whole regions of an expression of some of the ideals about the earth were uninhabitable by white life that men and women hold. It is not men. But typhoid and other fevers have less true that some part of the meaning of been conquered. Men live as securely life may find expression through a beautiin India or in Panama as in the most ful painting, or a statue, or a song. A highly civilized country. In the Grand story may sum up in a few hundred words Central Terminal in New York you may an ideal that thousands of men would like see the first train of cars to make regular to live by, or, if need be, to die for. A trips on an American railway. It is in- poem may sing itself into the heart of a teresting to compare the tiny engine with regiment, or comfort those who are disthe mighty locomotive of today, and the couraged, or translate the beauty of birdlittle open carriage with the modern song or flower or of the setting sun into Pullman. Yet only a few years separate words that will never die. Literature is the “Rocket” and its carriage from the the expression of the meaning and beauty “Twentieth Century Limited.” Men have of life, and if men could not find in life won these, and thousands of other secrets beauty and meaning, they would not care from Nature through their ability to build to live. on past experiences and to visualize the In this book you will find illustrations of thing they wished to create.

the way in which literature is related to life. Animals cannot do these things.

Many collections of literature are merely Neither can the office boy, unless he is collections. They are like magazines. alive to what is at the basis of progress. You may read here and there, paying at

But the office boy has within him the tention only to what interests you, and hidden possibilities that may make him with no thought of any relation between

the selections. This book, of course, may be used in just the same way. But it is not intended for such use, as the program will show you.

The program is the Table of Contents. If you will look at it for a moment you will see that the book contains ballads, epics, dramas, short stories, lyrics, and prose selections of various sorts. You will find a part of one of the oldest poems in the world, the Odyssey of Homer, some ballads that belong to a very early and primitive type of English culture, and some poems that were written only the other day. You have, then, a considerable amount of literature at your disposal. We may omit, for the present, any discussion of the difference between literature and ordinary printed matter. The definition of literature given in the Introduction to Junior High School Literature, Book Two, will serve us here equally well: “The expression of the facts of life, or of the interpretation of life, or of the beauty of life, in language of such enduring charm that men treasure it and will not let it die.” Facts, interpretation, beauty—the selections in the following pages are built upon this relationship between literature and life.

But this is not all. You will observe that the book is divided into four parts, and that these parts deal with adventure, legend and history, the relations of man to his fellows, and the relations of man to Nature. The Introduction prefixed to each of these parts will bring out the meaning of these divisions.

Just now only one thing is necessary, and this idea you should carry with you throughout your study. The general purpose of the book is to show how, through literature, men have put on record their ideas about this great adventure of living. No one who is worth anything is satisfied with mere existence. Such a life is mere prose. Man wants adventure, because through adventure he finds a means of realizing some of his ideals of what makes life interesting. Therefore, the first part of this book is devoted to some stories about adventures of all sorts. There is nothing serious here. They are just snapshots of scenes in all sorts of lives in all sorts of times, like the snapshots that you take

with your kodak on a summer vacation trip. They are to be added to the collection you have been making ever since you read with amazement of Jack Horner's exploits with the Christmas pie. You will continue to add to your collection as long as you live.

In the second part of the book, legend and history-also forms of adventurebecome means through which we may enter into the experience of the race. In many of these we see how men have sought to realize their fullest powers. through some heroic deed.

In Part III of the book, man's effort to realize his ideals finds a different definition. It is not alone through the spectacular deed that a man comes to himself. He may bring out the best within himself through sympathy, through service, through coöperation. Democracy rests on this idea of coöperation of all for the good of all. It is not necessary to be a knight of Arthur's court in order to find the fullest expression of one's powers.

And finally, in Part IV the intimate relationship between man and Nature is brought out in a series of selections that show, on the one hand, how man interprets in terms of beauty the world in which he lives, and, on the other, how he makes use of the forces of Nature to give him enjoyment and safety.

For literature is the record of the adventures of the soul of man as he struggles to understand himself and the world in which he lives. It is one of the chief sources of right enjoyment and of right thinking. In it we find not merely a subject to be studied in school as a series of lessons, but a means of satisfying our curiosity about life, of living more lives

It opens a world of fancy and imagination into which we go at will, just as Ali Baba or Aladdin could enter the world of magic by using a charm. It opens a world of heroic action, through which the desire to do worthy things may be born in us. It opens a world of sympathy and service because it shows how men have sought for realization of their highest ideals through service to their fellows. And it brings enrichment through knowledge of the world of Nature,

than one.

a perception of the beauty of Nature and of the way in which Nature serves man as the genius of the lamp served Aladdin. Poetry, drama, story, all writing that men have preserved because of its beauty or its enduring, worth, these are means for

recreation and for growth. By reading, man is lifted far above the realm in which animals pass their lives, and is taught how to crowd into his brief years enjoyment and experience that make rich his life and multiply his powers.


1. What evidence can you find that animals and speaking? Why is the addition of words to possess the power of communicating with each your vocabulary an important element in your other? Give some illustrations from your per- education? sonal experience. What is language? What

4. Sum up the results of your work by making can you find of its origin? (Try an encyclopedia,

a brief statement of the differences between an or use some book on the history of language.

intelligent animal and an intelligent man so far There is a fascinating chapter on this subject in

a Words and Their Ways in English Speech, by

as language, writing, vocabulary are concerned. Greenough and Kittredge, pp. 1-6). What is 5. Name several ways in which men have rethe difference between the language of an un

corded their past history. In what way may a civilized man, such as an Indian when the poem be such a record? Name several poems white men first came to America, and that of that seem to you to have historical value. an educated man? What is the difference be

6. In what ways are the telephone, the ocean tween the language used in a conference of

liner, and the electric light illustrations of man's technical experts, such as a group of engineers,

"power to ask questions of life and to get answers and that used by a group of men who are discussing a national baseball championship?

to his questions"? Show that these and other

forms of what we call “progress” depend in part 2. What was the origin of writing? Give a upon some sort of “records” or previous atdefinition. Look up the article “Writing" in the tempts to find answers to man's questions. Encyclopedia Britannica or in some other similar work. Define some primitive means of com

7. Does “progress"—that is, the possession of munication, such as message-sticks, marked

greater wealth, greater command over Nature, pebbles, picture-writing, and any others that

more conveniences-necessarily mean a higher

state of civilization? What is the point of com3. One of the most widely used dictionaries

parison between Shakespeare and the office boy? defines four hundred thousand words. What 8. How does memory enter into language, does this fact suggest to you? Shakespeare used written expression, the progress of invention and about fifteen thousand words. How many words discovery? How does imagination enter in? Is does an untrained man use, do you suppose? imagination a characteristic only of the poet or What is the difference between recognizing the the novelist, or is it characteristic also of the meaning of a word when you are reading a selec- inventor? Is it necessary in building up a great tion in a book and using it in your own writing business?

you find.



Dreams, books, are each a world; and books, we know,
Are a substantial world, both pure and good.
Round these, with tendrils strong as flesh and blood,
Our pastime and our happiness will grow.


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