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The immortals to a contest with the bow.
Therefore was mighty Eurytus cut off.
Apollo, angry to be challenged, slew
The hero. I can hurl a spear beyond
Where others send an arrow. All my fear
Is for my feet, so weakened have I been
Among the stormy waves with want of food
At sea, and thus my limbs have lost their

strength." He ended here, and all the assembly sat In silence; King Alcinoüs only spake: “Stranger, since thou dost speak without

offense, And but to assert the prowess of thine arm, Indignant that amid the public games This man should rail at thee, and since thy wish Is only that all others who can speak Becomingly may not in time to come Dispraise that prowess, now, then, heed my

words, And speak of them within thy palace halls To other heroes when thou banquetest Beside thy wife and children, and dost think Of things that we excel in-arts which Jove Gives us, transmitted from our ancestors. 305 In boxing and in wrestling small renown Have we, but we are swift of foot; we guide Our galleys bravely o'er the deep."

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Gifts that may well beseem his liberal hests. Twelve honored princes in our land bear sway, The thirteenth prince am I. Let each one

bring A well-bleached cloak, a tunic, and beside Of precious gold a talent. Let them all Be brought at once, that, having seen them

here, Our guest may with a cheerful heart partake The evening meal. And let Euryalus, Who spake but now so unbecomingly, Appease him both with words and with a gift.” He spake; they all approved, and each one

sent His herald with a charge to bring the gifts, And thus Euryalus addressed the king:

“O King Alcinoüs, mightiest of our race, I will obey thee, and will seek to appease Our guest. This sword of brass will I bestow, With hilt of silver, and an ivory sheath New wrought, which he may deem a gift of

price.” He spake, and gave the silver-studded sword Into his hand, and spake these wingéd words:

“Stranger and father, hail! If any word That hath been uttered gave offense, may

storms Sweep it away forever. May the gods Give thee to see thy wife again, and reach Thy native land, where all thy sufferings And this long absence from thy friends shall

end!” Ulysses, the sagacious, thus replied: "Hail also, friend! and may the gods confer On thee all happiness, and may the time Never arrive when thou shalt miss the sword Placed in my hands with reconciling words!” He spake, and slung the silver-studded

sword Upon his shoulders. Now the sun went down, And the rich presents were already brought. The noble heralds came and carried them Into the palace of Alcinoüs, where His blameless sons received and ranged them

all In fair array before the queenly dame Their mother. Meantime had the mighty king Alcinoüs to his palace led the way, Where they who followed took the lofty seats, And thus Alcinoüs to Aretè said:

“Bring now a coffer hither, fairly shaped, The best we have, and lay a well-bleached

cloak And tunic in it; set upon the fire

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Alcinoüs called his sons Laodamas
And Halius forth, and bade them dance alone,
For none of all the others equaled them. 455
Then taking a fair purple ball, the work
Of skillful Polybus, and, bending back,
One flung it toward the shadowy clouds on high;
The other springing upward easily
Grasped it before he touched the ground again.
And when they thus had tossed the ball awhile,
They danced upon the nourishing earth, and oft
Changed places with each other, while the

youths
That stood within the circle filled the air
With their applauses; mighty was the din.
Then great Ulysses to Alcinoüs said:

“O King Alcinoüs! mightiest of the race For whom thou hast engaged that they excel All others in the dance, what thou hast said Is amply proved. I look and am amazed.”

Well pleased Alcinoüs the mighty heard, And thus to his seafaring people spake: "Leaders and chiefs of the Phæacians, hear! Wise seems the stranger. Haste we to bestow

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A brazen caldron for our guest, to warm
The water of his bath, that having bathed
And viewed the gifts which the Phæacian

chiefs
Have brought him, ranged in order, he may sit
Delighted at the banquet and enjoy
The music. I will give this beautiful cup
Of gold, that he, in memory of me,
May daily in his palace pour to Jove
Libations, and to all the other gods."

He spake; Aretè bade her maidens haste
To place an ample tripod on the fire.
Forthwith upon the blazing fire they set
A laver with three feet, and in it poured
Water, and heaped fresh fuel on the flames.
The flames crept up the vessel's swelling sides,
And warmed the water. Meantime from her

He saw

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Around it, lest, upon thy voyage home,
Thou suffer loss, when haply thou shalt take
A pleasant slumber in the dark-hulled ship.”

Ulysses, the sagacious, heard, and straight
He fitted to its place the lid, and wound 546
And knotted artfully around the chest
A cord, as queenly Circé long before
Had taught him. Then to call him to the bath
The housewife of the palace came.
Gladly the steaming laver, for not oft
Had he been cared for thus, since he had left
The dwelling of the nymph with amber hair,
Calypso, though attended while with her 554
As if he were a god. Now when the maids
Had seen him bathed, and had anointed him
With oil, and put his sumptuous mantle on,
And tunic, forth he issued from the bath,
And came to those who sat before their wine.
Nausicaä, goddess-like in beauty, stood
Beside a pillar of that noble roof,
And looking on Ulysses as he passed,
Admired, and said to him in wingéd words:

“Stranger, farewell, and in thy native land Remember thou hast owed thy life to me.” 565

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Areté brought a beautiful chest, in which
She laid the presents destined for her guest,
Garments and gold which the Phæacians gave,
And laid the cloak and tunic with the rest,
And thus in wingéd words addressed the chief:

“Look to the lid thyself, and cast a cord 541

NOTES AND QUESTIONS

EXPLANATORY NOTES

you answer the question implied in lines 316 1. Some translators of the Odyssey use

to 318, Book VII? What is your opinion of the Greek names throughout: Odysseus, Zeus,

Euryalus? How do the sports described in Hera, Pallas Athena, Poseidon, Artemis,

Book VIII compare with the events in a modern Hephaestus; but Bryant in his translation pre

athletic meet? fers to use the Latin names: Ulysses, Jupiter or

2. In his translation Bryant tried to preserve Jove, Juno, Minerva, Neptune, Diana, Vulcan. some of the qualities of the original poem; one He gives as his reason for doing so the fact that of these is the double adjective, such as, brightChaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, and eyed, lusty-limbed. Find others that you other early writers used these forms and made think are striking. Another characteristic of the them familiar to English readers.

Odyssey is the use of appositives; find examples 2. The Odyssey was composed originally in that you think interesting. the Greek language, but many translations,

3. You will find it interesting to compare both verse and prose, have been made into the some particular passage in as many different modern languages. Among the best-known translations as you may have access to (see translations in English are those of Bryant, list under Explanatory Notes, above.) Choose Palmer, Butcher and Lang, Morris, Pope, and a passage of your own selection or use one of the Chapman.

following: description of Olympus, Book VI,

lines 53 to 62; the wish of Ulysses for Nausicaä, QUESTIONS AND TOPICS

Book VI, lines 227 to 234; Nausicaä's reason 1. Find a passage that shows the treatment for thinking war cannot come to the Phæacians, of strangers in Homeric times. Read lines Book VI, lines 256 to 259; “The bold man ever 347 to 364, Book VI; what is your opinion of

is the better man,” Book VII, line 58; greeting gossips two thousand years ago? Find a to the guests, Book VII, lines 181 to 185; passage that gives reasons for the high regard in Homeric athletes, Book VIII, lines 182 to 185; which Areté is held by the Phæacians. Try ideas of hospitality, Book VIII, lines 260 to 265. to make a sketch of the hall and garden of 4. In his wanderings Ulysses had twelve Alcinoüs from Homer's description. How do adventures. If each one of twelve pupils pre

pares himself to tell one of these adventures to himself known to his son Telemachus, to his the class, all the members will have an oppor- wife Penelope, and to his father Laertes. One tunity to become acquainted with the whole of the most interesting incidents of the poem story of the Odyssey. Select one of the follow- is the story of how the dog Argus recognizes ing: the Ciconians, Book IX, lines 49 to 76; his former master, Ulysses, Book XVII, lines 355 the Lotus-eaters, Book IX, lines 102 to 129; to 398. The poem ends with the slaying of the the Cyclops, Book IX, lines 130 to 670; Aeolus, suitors and the reëstablishment of Ulysses as Book X, lines 1 to 99; the Laestrigonians, king of Ithaca. Book X, lines 100 to 160; Circe, Book X, 5. Show how the adventure with the Cyclops lines 161 to 692; visit of Ulysses to the land of and the curse of Neptune form the plot of the the Dead, Book XI; the Sirens, Book XII, lines story. Which adventure resulted in the loss 185 to 240; Scylla and Charybdis, Book XII, of all the ships except that of Ulysses? In which lines 241 to 311; the Oxen of the Sun, Book XII, adventure was Ulysses's ship lost? How do lines 312 to 517; Calypso, Book XII, lines 518 you account for seven out of the ten years of to 556 and Book VII, lines 289 to 357; among Ulysses's wanderings? Where did he spend the Phæacians, Book VI to line 150 of Book one year of his wanderings? XIII.

Class Reading. Select a unit of the narraBooks XIV to XXIV describe the return tive that particularly appeals to you and be of Ulysses to his home in Ithaca, how he makes prepared to read it in class.

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PRONUNCIATION OF PROPER NAMES

Achaian (A-ka'yản)

Erymanthus (ěr'l-măn'thůs) Olympian (7-11m'pr-ån) Achilles (A-kll'ēz)

Eubea (ů-bē'å)

Olympus (0-lim'pås) Acroneus (a-krõn'ūs)

Euryalus (ll-ri'á-lús)

Pallas (păl'as) Agamemnon (åg'a-měm'non) Eurymedon (ll-rim'e-dồn) Peleus (pē'lus) Alcinoüs (al-sin'ö-us)

Eurymedusa (ll-rsm'é-dū’så) Peribæa (pěr-1-bē's) Amphialus (ăm-floa-lts) Eurytus (ll-ri'tås)

Phæacia (fe-ā'sha) Anabasineüs (ån--bäs'l-nē'ús) Hades (hā'dēz)

Phæacian (fé-ā'shăn) Anchialus (an-ki'á-lus) Halius (hā'li-ūs)

Philoctetes (fil-ok-tē'tēz) Apollo (d-pol'o)

Hercules (hûr'kû-lēz)

Phæbus (fē'bůs) Aretè (d-rē'tē)

Hypereia (hi-pê-rē’å) Polybus (pol'l-bús) Argus (är'gůs)

Ilium (Iloi-ăm)

Polyneius (pol-l-nē'us) Athens (ath'ěnz)

Jove (jov)

Ponteus (põn-tē'ús) Atlas (åt'lăs)

Jupiter (jūp'l-těr)

Pontonoüs (pon-to-nö'ús) Calypso (ka-lip'ső)

Laertes (lå-ur'tēz)

Proreus (prõ'rūs) Circé (sûr'sē)

Laodamas (lå-od'å-más) Protonoüs (pro-to-no'ts) Clytonian (kli-to'ni-án) Latona (lå-to'na)

Prymneus (prỉm-nē'ús) Cyclops (si'klops)

Marathon (măr'a-thon) Pythia (přth'I-) Delos (dē'lds)

Mars (märz)

Rhadamanthus (rad-a-măn’thus) Demodocus (de-mod'o-kús) Minerva (mi-nür'vå)

Rhexenor (rėx-ē'nor) Diana, Dian (di-šn'à, di'ăn) Naubolus (noobs-lbs) Scheria (skē'ri-á) Dymas (di'măs)

Nausicaä (nô-sikos-d) Taygetus (tá-Ij'é-tås) Echeneus (e-kē'nūs)

Nausithois (no-sithob-xs) Tecton (těk'tón) Elatreus (e-lăt'rūs)

Nauteus (nô-tē'ūs)

Thoon (thỏ^^n) Epirote (e-pi'rõt)

Neptune (něp'tün)

Tityus (tyt'1-ús) Epirus (e-pi'růs)

Ocyalus (0-si'á-lús)

Ulysses (û-lis’ēz) Erectheus (e-rék'thūs)

Echalian (ē-kā'li-án)

Vulcan (vůl'kån) Eretmeus (e-rět'mūs)

Ogygia (o-jij'1-8)

THE BALLAD

AN INTRODUCTION

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The similarity between the ballad plot The word “ballad” usually suggests a and the plot of the short story is apparent. short story in verse, just as an epic may A single incident is related, from a single be thought of as a verse-novel. This is a point of view. Nothing is told that is not very incomplete definition, however, as necessary to give this effect. Indeed, the there are many short narrative poems very things that one would expect to be which we do not call ballads. Sometimes told in detail are left to the imagination. the name is applied to a sentimental song, We are not told why the King wished to and it is true that a ballad is always a song. send his men on such a mission, or what If we look up the word in a dictionary we was the truth about the grudge which led find that it comes from an old French word the King's counselor to choose Sir Patrick meaning “to dance.” At one time, there- for a journey that meant death; or what fore, the ballad seems to have been a song Sir Patrick did, or the cause of the wreck. for a dancing chorus. Story, song, dance- The main incidents seem to be suppressed. here are three ingredients that appear to Rather, they stand out more significantly be mixed up in that form of composition because they are merely suggested by the which is called a ballad.

sailor's forebodings, the grief of the ladies, To name some of the ingredients, how- and the tragic simplicity of the closing ever, or all of them, is not to give a defini- lines. Very likely these omissions are tion. In “Sir Patrick Spens," for example, due to the fact that the story was wellthe short story characteristic comes out known to the audience for whom the very plainly. There is an abrupt begin- ballad was composed, so that it was not ning, which puts you at once into possession felt to be necessary to give details. What of the necessary facts: the king sitting in the balladist wanted to do was to express his tower, calling for a good sailor to be the horror, the emotion, that those who sent on a dangerous mission; the naming knew all the details felt when they heard of Sir Patrick for this mission by an elderly of the fate of the brave sailor and his men. knight; the commission which the king Contrast this with the modern newspaper sent to Sir Patrick. All this is told in which gives every minute detail of a three stanzas of four lines each. The celebrated murder mystery. Edition after second part of the story, consisting of four edition appears, with pictures, conjectures, stanzas, tells us the character of Sir stories of the lives of the victim and his Patrick: his pride in being selected, suc- associates; no detail is too trivial. The ceeded by his realization that he is really ballad is reticent; it conceals more than being sent into a trap by an enemy; and it reveals; yet it gains tremendous effect by this is immediately followed by the fore- its very economy. bodings of a superstitious old sailor who

II fears that his master is going to his death. Of the voyage we are told nothing; a The ballad, then, is a tale. It is a single stanza suffices for the wreck for short story told with the utmost economy which we have been prepared by the in verse.

And yet, it differs from the previous part of the story; and the ballad short story in several very remarkable ends with three stanzas that tell of the particulars. For one thing, you get no grief of the wives and sweethearts of the impression of the author. It is impersonal. sailors, with a final stanza saying that the If you compare Poe's "Masque of the Red men were fifty fathoms under the sea. Death” with the ballad, you will see the

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difference. The horror inspired by the bits of talk, expressions of mood, not a tragedy of Sir Patrick Spens is like that story told in an orderly way or written up of some great catastrophe in actual life: for the newspaper. One member of the the fall of a theater roof upon a happy, group and then another adds his bit. laughing audience; the sudden destruction There are moments of silence between. wrought by a tornado. It is elemental. All are thinking of the horror, and deeply The horror inspired by Poe's story is moved. Then perhaps one, or two, or like that of a tragedy acted on the stage, three, begin to put the thing into words. where setting, lighting effects, speech, and The words fit some simple song that gesture, are all carefully designed to everyone knows. The group begins to produce the effect desired. It is not that sing the song. The ballad is born. one method is bad and the other good. Thus the ballad seems not to be a story It is just that the two things differ. at all but just the expression of the feelings

Another illustration of the impersonal of a whole group of people. It differs character of the ballad is even

from the story in that it seems to tell striking. In the stories by O. Henry, itself. It is not the work of an author for example, you are not conscious of who gives to the events an interpretation taking any part in the action. Your or who carefully chooses details so that a attitude is that of a listener or a spectator. definite impression is built up in the mind You cannot imagine yourself a part of a of the reader. It expresses the reactions group of men and women, all of whom are of a group. It is impersonal. brought into immediate relation to the It is a tale telling itself. action. In the ballad, on the other hand,

III this feeling that the reader or listener is one of such a group is present. The Very

fact The third characteristic of the ballad that you are not told exactly what hap- is that it is designed to be sung. There pened implies that this was not necessary; is abundant evidence of this. In certain you are already supposed to know these parts of the United States one may still things. You will see it clearly if you will hear some of these ballads sung to airs imagine that you are one of a group of that are themselves very old. This will people who have been powerfully moved not much longer be possible. The ballad by the tragic fate of Sir Patrick. You belongs to a way of life in which autoknew him or some of his men. In this mobiles, telephones, and victrola records group the tragedy is being discussed. were unknown. It cannot breathe the One man says he heard that Sir Patrick same atmosphere with the song from a suspected the hand of an enemy, but that Broadway musical comedy, stamped on he was too brave to draw back even though rubber disks and sent to every hamlet he knew the voyage meant death. An- in the nation. other says that an old sailor observed The ballad is a form of lyric poetry. portents and omens that promised a Like other lyrics, it may be read or recited, tragic outcome. A third adds that such but it is best when it is sung. This is omens ought never to be disregarded. true not only of the traditional ballads Others wonder how the wives and sweet- that were handed down for generations hearts of the dead sailors felt when they by word of mouth before they were ever heard the news, and they speak of the written or printed, but also of ballads unutterable sadness of their waiting at that were written like any other form of home, day after day, for tidings. And at lyric. For example, in one of Shakelast someone speaks of the dead men speare's plays a peddler comes to a country themselves, lying down there fifty fathoms festival with printed ballads to sell. He under the sea, their dead eyes open, their gives a list of these, telling something bodies gently rolling from side to side about the story and naming the airs, or with the motion of the water, or too far music, to which they are to be sung. below the surface ever to move.

Many of Burns's lyrics are very similar you have, in reality, a succession of broken to the ballads, and in any edition of his

You see

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