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he was,

certain national type, 299—it revealed no Druids, 24-most learned and distinguished
negatives, ib.-Rome the pioneer of modern authors give credit to the Druids, ib.-Cæsar
civilization, ib.—Marius a type of the lowest eulogizes the Gauls, ib.—The Druids did good
grade of Roman character, ib.-character of in their time, 26.
Cicero marked strongly by Celtic traits, 301
-this has helped to develop his real character, Debt, National, of the United States, article
ib.-his letters convict him of vanity and the

on, 321-our ability to pay been demonstra-
weaker passions, 302– in morality he stands ted, 323--plans to liquidate,' 324–statements
higher than his contemporaries, ib.-in youth on the debt of England, 325—her national debt
he was undecided till selfishness ruled, ib. the cause of war with the colonies, 328—the
in his prime he was equally wavering, ib. debt of France injurious to the nation, 329–
in advanced life still irresolute, 304_wept the cause of the wars of Louis XIII. and XIV.
for his country, ib.-acted as mediator be ib.—and aided that of Louis XVI., ib.-national
tween the factions, ib.--can be justly viewed

bonds of France depreciated, ib.-she becomes
only from his own standpoint, 305—Cæsar bankrupt, ib.- great suffering, 330—the Eng-
tries to entice him, 306—he lacks faith in

lishman, or American pays a heavier debt
Pompey, 307—his deficiencies arose for want

than the Russian, 331 et seq.-our resources
of a high principle, 308_compared with

constitute our wealth, 332-sinking fund of
Cæsar and Pompey, ib.-both positive char no advantage, ib.--means of restraining the
acters, 30 et seq.-neither could tolerate a

national debt, ib.-sinking fund considered,
rival, 310.-Pompey feared the trouble of

ib.-raising loans and increasing taxes, ib.
ruling, 10.-Cicero's centre was his vanity,
314—three distinct views of the world, ib.

et seq.- our seven-thirty bonds safe because

our resources are great, 337—the national
first thought on returning from exile, 316—his

debt a political tie, ib.-bonds the only basis
letters show his private life, 320 et seq. for currency, 338-uniform national banking
distinguished for what he was not than what

currency a bond of union, ib.-effect of in.
321.

crease of population and manufactories, ib.

payment of the debt by subscription regarded
Commencements of Colleges, &c.,article on,366– impossible, ib.
criticism, 367–plans of education, 368 et seq.
study of Latin, 370_translating, 371.00 Homer, Lord Derby's translation of, article on,
many rules, 372_importance of composltion,
373-4-system of the Jesuits, 374 et seq-Ba-

205-it requires a poet to translate poetry,
con's opinion, 375–Georgetown Collegē, 377–

ib.-other qualifications indispensable, 206-7

-Homer superior to all other poets, ib.
380—Holy Cross College, 380-82–Fordham

a thorough knowledge of Greek necessary to
College, 382-4 St. Xavier's, 384_Manhattan

understand the ib.—the laws of nature
College 385-388-Columbia College, 388-
Harvard, ib.-Rockland Female Institute, 389

never stationary, 208_beauty not the same
-Deer Park Female Institute-a comparison,

in all lands, ib.-language constantly chang-
390 St. Mary's Academy-391-2-Ferris Fe

ing, ib.-one language powerless to reproduce

what is sublime in another, ib.-Greek lan-
male Institute, 393.

guage superior, 209–different translations of

Homer, Derby's translation inferior to most
Cape Cod, noticed, 194-5

others, 210_deficiency in poetic spirit, ib.-

poets admired most in their own tongues, ib.
Druids, The Celtic, article on, 1-unwillingness -Homer in all countries and ages, 212-taste

to enlighten the world, 2-the Druids ob the result of unalterable laws, ib. —Lord Der-
jected to writing, ib.-misrepresented in by's translation compared to Mumford's and
history, 3—German writers favor the Druids others, 214 et seq.-ungallant style of Derby,
as much as Irish, Welsh, or French, ib. 216 et seq.--Achiīles approaching Hector, ib.
Cæsar's opinion, 5-they do not go to war, ib. translation of, ib.--the same by Mumford,
cultivated memory and diligence, ib.--im 218--shield of Achilles, ib.-Pope's version of
mortality of the soul, 6-astronomy and phil the same, 220-injury to literature by false
osophy taught, ib.-Magi and Druids com translations, 222-the Homeric speeches, 226
pared, 7—Bards and Eubages inferior to the -difference between a poet and one who is
Druids, ib.—the learned men of the age, 8— not manifested in lamentation of Briseis for
influence of Bards during civil war, ib. Patroclus, 227-war condemned in the Iliad,
deserve both honor and credit, 9-cruelty of üb.-proof of the fact, 128.
Edward I., ib. Druids repair to the moun-
tains of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, 10-
fine specimens of architecture, ib.-the Humboldt, William von, as a comparative phil.
groves their temples, ib.-sacrilege to use ologist, 228-his investigations co-extensive
tools on temples to the Deity, 11-the cross a with the globe, 229_his system has rendered
sacred symbol in most countries from earliest him illustrious, ib.-study of language, ib.
records, 12-the oak regarded as a sacred origin and affinity of European languages, 230—
tree, ib.-human sacrifices, modes of offering his history in three distinct periods, 231-his
them, ib.-eminent writers deny the cruelty

first view of the study of languages, ib. essay
of thé Druids, 15—their leading maxims, ib.

on the basis of the Basque language, ib.--cor-
-origin of transmigration of souls, 16%

rections and additions to Adelung's article,
different kinds of beasts offered in sacrifice,

ib.-second step commenced with the Sanscrit,
ib.-elevated notions of the soul, 17-male-

ib.--contributions to the Prussian Academy,
factors not the innocent sacrificed, ib. 233_transformed ideal points to the order
modes of despatching their victims for and consistency of universal science, ib.-
sacrifice, 18—the fairies, 19—the greatest

his celebrated letter, 234-nature of writing,
nations offered human sacrifices, ib.-the ib.-its relation to language, ib.-important
Jews of more modern times, ib.-sacrifices to desertations, ib.-minor treatises between
Saturn, 21-instruments and vessels used for 1827 and 1829, 236-grand link connecting
sacrifices, 22-a sculpture, ib.-a sacrifice in the sciences with the nature of man ib.
the tenth century, 23—ańcient laws of the -origin, definition, and nature of lan.

the

guage, 237

et seq.-Humboldt's answers, Congreve, a brilliant young wit, 264-hig
ib.-man's reflection converted the sounds talents acknowledged, ib. —his comedies
of nature into significant signs, ib.-lan · bright and witty, 265—Dean Swift, the
guage neither the product of organization greatest wit of the age, ib. character in
nor the manifestation of emotion, 238—theory youth, i6.- Secretary to Sir. W. Temple, ib.
of a divine origin no longer a question with -access to his library the foundation of his
Humboldt, ib. speech flows spontaneously, ib. greatness, 266min 1708 he joins the Tories, ib,
-opposes the idea of divine interven -the Queen and her advisers refuse him a
tion, 239—this energy the totality of bishopric, ib.-his ambition for political
man's powers, ib.-language is the con power and notoriety, ib.Bolingbroke ib.
necting link between the finite and infinite
nature of man, 240—not the work of an Revolution, American, Historical View of, re
individual, ib.-apparent contradiction con-

viewed, 183 et seq.
stitutes the peculiarity of language, 241–
our ability to speak referred to a universal Rebellion, Lessons and Results, article on, 157–
element, ib. attempts to analyse the process

civil tribunals more judicious than 'courts
of speech, 242—manner of the action, of
instinct, ib._speech closely linked with in-

martial, 158-object of execution of crimi-
tellect and senses, ib.-man represents him-

nals, ib. martial law subordinate to cvil,

158 — the
self through speech, ib.--constitutive elements

assassins, ib.not acording

to laws nations to execute
of speech, ib. - affinity and analogy between

leader of a rebellion, ib. nothing to be gained
thought and sound, 244-articulation belongs
to the internal as well as external, ib.

by executing Davis, 160—his wife justified
articulation the connecting link between

in assisting him, ib. --leading English journals
thought and sound, 245—three distinct

regard the resuscitation of the Union impos-
modes of designating objects, 248 et seq.

sible, it -Lee's manner of surrender entitles
remarks on the phenomena of language, 249–

him to his liberty, 168—confiscation next to

capital punishment, ib.-injudicious to deprive
every language maintains an individual

the rebel states of their rights, ib.-denying
character, 250—the character of a lan-

the rights of the rebel states would be ac-
guage variously manifested, ib.-poetry and
prose the two grand divisions of speech,

knowledging the dissolution of the Union,

169—Slavery abolished forever, ib. all these
251.

questions settled—the Union enters on a more

glorious career, 169.
Insurance Report. State Superintendent's, re-
viewed, 412, et seq.

Savage, John, his Sybil reviewed and criticised,

405-9.
Michelan', M. H., his Voyage de Cartier noticed,
335.

Smith, Francis 0. J., his Grant to aged indigent
Muller, Max, bis Lectures reviewed, 169 et seq.

mothers noticed, 396-7.
National Academy of Design, criticised, 177 et Science, medical, ancient, and modern discover-
seq.

ies in article on, 131-á skilful physicians, 132
-restrictions placed on human dissections, ib.

-effect mistaken for cause, ib.-ignorance of
O'Conor, Charles, article on, 73 et seq.

sound physiology and anatomy, ib.-10. im-

provement down to the times of the Ptolemies,
Poetry, the, of the Orient, reviewed, 409.

ib.-dissection the true means of shedding

light on disease ib. -discoveries of the
Perry, R. Ross, his poem noticed, 399.

Alexandrian doctors, 133—noted physicians,

ib. -system of empiricists led to valuable
Persians, ancient civilization of, article on, 340

discoveries, ib. — benefits resulting from
-Persia the centre of Asia, ib.-greatness of

change in the medical mind, ib.--systems of
the early Persians, 341 - basis of the Per medicine connected with religious supersti-
sian religion, i.- the dual principle, ib.

tions, 134—the Italians gave little attention
Persian language, its earliest elements, 344– to medicine, ib.--temples dedicated to deities,
spirit of the Persian language shows the tone of ib.-slaves first practice medicine in
mind and character. 347-mechanical arts now

Rome, ib.-Mahometanism forbade dissection,
known, 348—botany among the Persians, ib.

137-modern medicines preventive of disease,
—they were behind the Hindoos in medical 152-enlightened sentiment more necessary
sciences, ib.

to the community than drugs, 156, et seq.

Queen Anne, Wits of the Reign of, 251—most Statesmanship, English, Phases of, article on,

splendid in the annals of literature, i. 96_essays, 98–English history, 100_Macau-
Addison's life, 250, et seq.-his Cato criti. lay and Lewis contrasted, ib.-our states-
cised, 26.-resorts of the wits at this time, manship bears & close resemblance to Great
257-Pope, at the age of twenty-one, appears Britain, 101-whig aristocracy, ib.-tory
as a poet, ib.-rising glory dims the reputa administration, 102-reform bili, '103—whigs
tion of Addison, 259-sets up a rival court, ib. progressive, ib.—tories supporters of the royal
- his associates there, ib.--commences his prerogative, i.--conservatives, 104—promi.
translation in his twenty-fifth year, 260_ nent leaders of the party, 105-prominent
Pope views Tickell as his rival, ib.-a whigs, 106—the five prominent statesmen
pamphlet appears reflecting on Pope, i-his of England, ib.-Lord Castlereagh, 107–
triumph complete, ib.-he determines to be emancipation of Roman Catholics, 108—Can-
avenged, ib.—the Dunciad, 262 - his life ning as a statesman, 110–Lord Grenville as-
in danger, ib.-struggle between him and the pires to the premiership, 111-character of
Dunces, 263_his epistles, satires, and moral Lord Grey, 112—his failure as a statesman,
essays, ib. - the Dunciad concluded, ib. 113—Sir Robert Peel and Lord John Russell,

ib.—Peel's administration, i. et seq.-Russell
as a debater, ib.—his parliamentary talents,
115—Lord Derby not of highest repute as a
statesman, 116-Lord Palmerston, 118—his
power of inspiring confidence, ib.

Trollope, T. A., his History of Florence noticed,

194-5.

Wise, James A., his Address reviewed, 397-9.

Wallenstein, article on, 27-played a conspicu-

ous part in Europe, ib.-his career a most
brilliant one, ib. --was of ancient noble fam-
ily, 29-early left an orphan, ib.-only the
coarse and illiterate are beyond the control of
feminine influence, 30-campaign in 1617, 31
-Europe disturbed by religious disputes, 32-
Ferdinand of Austria, 33—his reign opens
with war in the Palatinate, ib.—he enjoys a
momentary peace, i.-resources of the king
uncertain, ib.-the King of Denmark called
to aid the Union princes, 34—Wallenstein
proposes to raise an army at his own expense,

35—a powerful ally to Ferdinand, ib.-his
army increases, ib.-he inspires them with
zeal, 36-invincible, ib.-he scorned divided
fame, ib.-his army cost him little, ib.-was
both hated and feared, 37-in 1627 he demands
the Duchy of Mecklenburgh, 38—peace con-
cluded at Lubec, 1819, i. -Wallenstein abso-
lute master in Germany, 39—hated by all but
his soldiers, ib.-Ferdinand relies upon him
as the strength of his empire, ib.-he orders
him to retire, 40—without murmur he leaves
the army, 41-lives in pomp and splendor,
42-soon rises in glory, 43—Ferdinand vainly
trusts Count Tilly; i.-the Austrians are
defeated, 44—Tilly' mortally wounded, i.-
the Austrian supremacy passing away,

ib.
Wallenstein refuses to hold the city. Fer-
dinand gives him chief command, 45_the
duke refuses to accept a divided command, ib.
-he makes his own conditions, wb.-he fights
a great battle near Lutzen, 46—Gustavus
slain, ib. his character, 47—Wallenstein in
a new character, 49—Ferdinand commissions
Count Galas to súpersede Wallenstein, 50—re-
garded as a traitor, ib.-falls by assassina-
tion, i.

THE

NATIONAL QUARTERLY REVIEW.

No. XXI.

JUNE, 18 6 5.

Art 1.-1. Celtic Researches on the Origin, Traditions, and Language

of the Ancient Britons, with some Introductory Sketches of Primitive Society. By EDWARD DAVIES, Curate of Olveston, Gloucestershire. London, 1804.

2. Histoire des Gaulois. Par AMEDEE THIERRY. Paris, 1845. 3. The Celtic Druids. By GODFREY HIGGINS, Esq., F. S. A, of

Skellow Grange, near Doncaster, Yorkshire. London, 1827. 4. La Religion des Gaulois. Par D. MARTIN. Paris, 1727. 5. Commentatio de Druidis. J. G. Frikius. Ulm, 1744. 6. Ueber die Druiden der Kelten. Von KARL BARTH. Irlangen,

1826. 7. The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Cymry. By J. WILLIAMS.

London, 1844. 8. Les Fées du Moyen Age. Par ALFRED MAURY. Paris, 1842.

It is impossible to estimate the amount of valuable knowledge the world has lost, by the unwillingness of certain sects of philosophers to commit the results of their researches to writing. And if this fact be admitted, it must follow that no argument can justify such a course. Few, if any, will dispute that those who avoid recording their discoveries, lest the public at large might have the benefit of them in common with themselves, are guilty of a most reprehensible selfishness; and yet it is to be feared that this has been the prevailing motive. That some have been influenced only by

VOL. XI.-NO. XXI.

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modesty in avoiding publicity is well known; others have brought valuable truths to the grave with them, rather than seem actuated by vanity or the love of praise. But each have seriously erred. Modesty is indeed a virtue, but when carried to excess it degenerates into a vice. Nor is vanity always culpable or pernicious in its influence; on the contrary, it often, if not always, prompts us to deserve the good opinion which we wish our neighbors to entertain of us. In short, vanity, as well as modesty, has been implanted in us by nature ; and it is the abụse, not the use, of her gifts which is injurious. Man is a social being, and as such he should not conceal from his neighbor any knowledge which would benefit him without injuring himself. If he persistently does so, he violates a law of nature, for which he will have to pay the penalty, in one form or other sooner or later.

In no instance:has this been more forcibly exemplified than in that of the sects of philosophers who have hoarded up their knowledge as jealously as the miser dues his gold. Thus the Druids, who form the subject of our present paper, would have occupied a very different position in history from what they do to-day had they committed their speculations to writing. Because they have failed to do so they are spoken of alternately with contempt and horror by all who lack either the ability or the disposition to investigate their history. The number who do this must ever be small, because all the knowledge we possess as to what the Druids really were is scattered over a wide field, and has to be carefully searched for in every direction. The authors who tell us most of what is reliable about them are seldom read but by the learned. This affords the unscrupulous halflearned an opportunity of blackening their character more and more from one lustrum to another, so as to pander to the prejudices of those who regard the Druids as belonging to a different race from their own. Thus, not only does the memory of the Druids suffer at this day more than it did centuries ago, because they failed to vindicate themselves by placing their ideas on record, but the people whose priests and philosophers they were are as much as possible made partakers in their odium.

What our object is in this paper is to show how grossly the Druids have been misrepresented. In doing so, however, we have no intention of representing them as models worthy of imitation. Far be it from us to deny that they had grave faults, or to assert that their system of theology, however superior it

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