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return I will blot out your name, and put him | St. Thomas's, with divers crucibles, and other rein for a fool. The application is easy and ob fining instruments: yet, uuder favour, that might pous: But the world wonders extremely, that be, and the benefit not countervail the charge, so great a wise man as sir Walter Raleigh for the richest mines that the king of Spain hath would return to cast bimself upon so inevitable upon the whole continent of America, which a rock, as I fear he will; aud much more, that are the mines of Porosi, yield him but six in the such choice men, and so great a power of ships, hundred, all expences defrayed. You write should all coiue home and do nothing." how K. James sent privately to sir Walter, be

ing yet in the Tower, to intreat and command To the Honourable Master Car, Ra.

him, thitt be would impart bis whole design to "S:Whereas you seem to except against some him under his hand, promising Opon the word thing in one letter that reflects upou sir Walter of a king to keep it secret; which being done Raleigh's voyage to Guiana, because I term accordingly by sir Walter Raleigh, that very the gold mine he went to discover, an airy and original paper was found in the said Spanish suppositious mine, and so infer, that it couch- governor's closet at St. Thomas's : whereat, as eth bis honour; truly, sir, I will deal clearly you have just cause to wonder, and admire the with you in that point, that I never harboured activeness of the Spanish agents about our in my brain the least thought to expose to the court at that time, so I wonder no less at the world any thing ibat might prejudice, much less niscarriage of some of his late majesty's minisuadre in the least degree that could be that ters, who notwithstanding that he had passed rare renowned knight, whose fame shall contend bis royal word to the contrary, yet they did in borigevity with this Island itself, yea, with help Count Gondomar to that paper; so that that great World which he historiseth so gal- the reproach lieth more upon the English than lanıly, I was a youth about the town when he the Spanish ministers in this particular. Whereuodestook that expedition, and I remember as you alledge, that the dangerous sickness of sir most men suspected that Mine then to be but Walter being arrived near the place, and the an imaginary politic thing; but at his return; death of (that rare spark of courage, your broand missing or the enterprize, these suspicions ther, upon the first landing, with other circumturned in inost to real beliets that it was no stances, discouraged capt. Kenys from discoverother. And K. James, in that Declaration ing the mine, but would reserve it for another which he commanded to bo printed and pub- time; I am content to give as much credit to lished afterwards, touching the circumstance of this as any man can; as also that sir Walter, if this actin, lupou which muy letter it grounded, the rest of the fleet, according to bis earnest and which I have sull by me) çerms it no less. potion, had gone with him to revietual in VirAnd if we may not give frith to such public re- ginia, (a country where he had reason to be gal instruments, what shall we credit? Be-ides, welcome unto, being of bis own discovery) he there goes ano: her printed kind of remon bad a purpose to return 10 Guiana the spring grance annexed to that declaration, which in following to pur:ue his first design. I am also tmates as much; and there is a woʻthy cap- very willing to believe that it cost sir W. Ratuu is this iowa, who was co-adventurer in leigh much more to put himself in equipage for that expertition, who upon the storming of St. That long iniended Voyage, than would have Tunas, beard young lír. Raleigh encouraging paid for lis liberty, if he had gone about to purlis men in these words : Come on, my noble chase it for rewaid of money at home; though berasts, this is the mine we come for; and ihey | I am not ignorant that many of the co-advenubo tisink there is any other are fonls. Add lurers made large contributions, and the forbereuntis

, that sir Richard Baker, in his last tunes of some of them suífer for it at this very historici collections, intimates inucb. 1 day. Kut alıbouzh Gondomar, as my letter Tl.eret re, it was far from being any opinion mentions, calls sir Walter Pirate, I for my part brorbed by myself, or bottomed upon weak ain far fróin thinking so; because, as you give an TOURS; for I was careful of nothing more, unanswerable reason, the plundering of St. Thothan thit those letters being to breath o, en mas was an act done beyond the equator, where ar, shuuid relate nothing but what should be the articles of peace betwixt the two kings do derived from good fonntains. And truly, sir, n't extend. Yer, under favour, though he toaching that apology of ir Walter Raleigh's not the peace, he was said to break his you a riie of. I never saw it, I ani very sorry I paient by exceeding the bounds of his commisdidn't; for it had let in more light upon me of sion, as he foresaid declaration relates : For K, the carriage of that great action, and then you James had inade strong promises to Count might have been as-u ell, that I would have done Gondomar, that this fleet should commit no that noble knight all the right that could be. outriges upon the king of Spain's subjects by

" Hut, -ir, the several arguments that you urge land, unle-s they began first; and I believe
in yous Letters are of that strength, I contess, that wis the main cause of his death, though I
that they are able to rectify any indifferent man think if they had proceeded that way against
in this point, and induce hii io believe that it him in a legal course of trial, he might have de-
was n.) chineray, but a real mine ; for you write fended himself well enough.
of d vers pieces of gold brought thence by sir " Whereas you alledge, that if that action
Walter himself, and capt. Keinys, and of some had succeeded, and afterwards been well pro-
inns that were lound in the governor's closet at secuted, it might have brought Gondomar's


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aster to have been begged for , tence. Touching his return, I must confess I at the church-doors by friars, as be was once was utterly ignorant that those two noble brought in the latter end of queen Elizabeth's earls, Thomas of Arundel, and Williain of days: I believe it had much damnified him, Pembroke, were engaged for bim in this partiand interrupted him in the possession of his cular; nor doth the printed relation make any West-Indies, but not broughi him, under fa- mention of them at all: Therefore I must say, vour, to so low an ebb. I have observed, that that envy herself must pronounce that return it is an ordinary thing in your popish countries, of his, for the acquitting of his fiduciary for princes to borrow from the altar, when they pledges, to be a most noble act; and waving are reduced to any straits; for they say, The that of king Alphonso's Mour, I may more proriches of the church are to serve as anchors in perly compare it to the act of that famous Rotime of a storin. Divers of our kings have man commander, Regulus, as I take it, who to done worse, by pawning their plate and jewels. keep his promise and faith, returned to his Whereas my letter makes mention that sir W. enemies where he had been prisoner, thougła Raleigh mainly laboured for his pardon before he knew he went to an inevitable death.

But he went, but could not compass it; this is also well did that faithless cunning knight, who bea passage in the foresaid prioted relation : But trayed sir W. Raleigh in his intended escape, I could have wished with all my heart he had being come a-shore, fall to that contemptible obtained it; for I believe, that neither the end, as to die a poor distracted beggar in the transgression of his commission, nor any thing isle of Lundey, having for a bag of money falthat he did beyond the Line, could have short- sified his faith, confirmed by the tie of the holy ened the line of his life otherwise ; but in all sacrament, as you write; as also before the probability we might have been happy in him year came about, to be found clipping the to this very day, having such an heroic heart same coin in the king's own house at White as he had, and other rare helps, by his great hall, which he had received as a reward for his knowledge, for the preservation of health. pertidiousness; for which being condemned to I believe without any scruple what you write, be hangedd, he was driven to sell himself to his that sir Win. St. Geon made an overture to shirt, to purchase his pardon of two knights. him of procuring his pardon for 15001. but “ And now, sir, let that glorious and gallant whether he could have etfected it, I doubt a cavalier sir W. Raleigh (who lived long enough little, when he bad come to negotiate it really. for bis own our, though not for his country, But I extremely wonder how that old sentence as it was said of a Roman consul) rest quietly which had lain dormant above sixteen years in his grave, and his virtues live in his posterity, against sir W. Raleigh, could have been made as I tind they do strongly, and very eminently use of to take off bis head afterwards, consider in you. I have heard his enemies contess that ing that the Lord Chancellor Verulam, as you he was one of the weightiest and wisest men write, told him positively (as sir Walter was that this island ever bred. Mr. Nath. Carpenacquainting him with that proffer of sir Wm. ter, a learned and judicious author, was not in St. Geon for a pecuniary pardon) in these the wrong when he gave this discreet character words, Sir, the knee-timber of your voyage is of him : : Who hath not known or read of this money; spare your purse in this particular, for “ prodigy of wit and fortune, sir Walter Raupon my life you have a sufficient pardon for · leigh, a man unfortunate in nothing else but all that is passed already, the king having under in the greatness of his wit and advancemnent, his broad-seal made you admiral of your feet, whose eminent worth was such both in doand given you power of the martial law over mestic policy, foreign expeditions, and disyour officers and soldiers. One would think coveries in arts and literature, both practick ihat by this royal patent, which gave him power and contemplative, that it might seem at once of life and death over the king's liege people, to conquer example and imitation !!” sir W. Raleigh should become rectus in curia, and free from all old convictions. But, sir, to See also “ A Declaration of the demeanour tell you the plain truth, count Gondomar at and carriage of sir Walter Raleigli, kot. as well that time had a great stroke in our court, be in his Voyage as in and sithence his return), and cause there was more than a mere overture of the true Motives and Inducements which of a match with Spain; which makes me apt occasioned his majesty to proceed in doing to believe, that that great wise knight being justice upon him as hath been done. Printed such an anti-Spaniard, was made a sacrifice to by the kings printers in 1618;" republished, 3 advance the matrimonial treaty. But I must Ilarl. Mis. 1745: and “ A Brief Relation of sir needs wonder, as you justly do, that one and Walter Raleigh's Troubles, with the taking away the same man should be condemned for being a the Lands and Castle of Sherbourn in Dorset, friend to the Spaniard, (which was the ground from bim and his heirs,” 4 Harl. Mis. 57; and of his first condemnation) and afterwards lose for farther particulars, the 2d Volume of Cave bis head for being their enemy by the same sen- ley's Life of Sir Walter Raleigh may be consulted.


15. The Trial of Sir GRIFFIN MARKHAM, knt. Sir EDWARD PAR

esq. Anthony Copley, WILLIAM Watson, Priest; WILLIAM
CLARKE, Priest, for High Treason, at Winchester: 1 Jac. I.
Nov. 15, A. D. 1603. [From a MS. in the Bodleian Library,
Rotulæ in Archivo. A. 3033. 44. 8.]

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The Commissioners were, the earl of Suffolk, • should be thought to hinder this designment,

' for which purpose Watson named Veale, Heary lord Howard, Robert lord Cecil, Secre • alias Cole, to alledge sufficient matter against Liry ; Edward lord Wotton, Comptroller; John them.—And for the better effecting of this Stanhope, Knight and Chamberlain ; Lord their purpose, Watson had devised under Chief Justice of England, Lord-Chief-Justice writing an oath should be administered for of the Common-Pleas, Justice Gawdy, Justice the preservation of the king's person, for the Walpesley, Justice Warburton, sir" William (advancement of the catholic religion, and for Wade, knight.

the concealing of all secrets that should be On Tuesday the 15th of November, were revealed unto them. That all the actions arraigned at Winchester, George Brooke, esq. should be proceeded withal in the king's sir Griffin Markham, knight, Bartholomew' name, and they meant to send for the lordBrookesby, esq. Anthony Copley, gent. Wm. mayor and aldermen of London, that the king Watson, priest; Wm. Clarke, priest, and sir would speak with them: whom they meant Edward Parbam, knt.

to keep in safe custody, till they had deliver

ed hostages to them not to withstand their The Effect of the INDICTMENT.

' assignments, and to furnish them with all For consulting with the lord Gray and such necessaries as they should require from • others, traitorously to surprize the king and them. Watson was the villainous hatcher of • young prince at Greenwich, to carry them to • these Treasons; and Brooke, upon the learn. the Tower guarded with some, that after the ing of them, was as eager a prosecutor; and • slaughter of many of the guards, should put the lord Gray more eager and violent than

on the guards coats, and so bring them, send 'he, purposing to make a suit to the king for • ung the Lord-Admiral before to signify the carrying over a regiment for the relief of • distress where the king was, and escape be • Ostend, which he would bave ready for the 'made hy the guards from Greenwich; and defence of his own person in this action, feartherefore desired to be taken in there for ing the greatness of the catholic forces ac

more safety. Which, if they could have ef cording to the promises of George Brooke, • fected, the treasures and jewels in the Tower • Markhan and Watson, and knowing not • should serve the turn for the effecting of their • how he might be dealt withal amongst them.' further purposes; that some of those of the Mr. George Brooke said little or nothing in privy-council, viz. the Lord-Chancellor, trea- his own defence, only he made a ridiculous arsurer Cecil, Chief-Justice, should be removed gument or two in the beginning : viz. that, and cut off : and Mr. Watson should be that only could be the judge, and examiner of chancellor, Brooke lord treasurer, and Mark- any action, which was the rule of the action : 1 hamn secretary; Gray lord marshal and mas but the Common Law was not the rule of the ter of the horse, if the now master of the action, ergo, it could not be judge or ruler of * hore were otherwise preferred; but for the the action : and therefore appealed to the perlord-chief-justice no man named. If their son of the king. 2. That the Commissioners project for bringing them to the Tower failed, or Common Law had no authority over them ; then to convey the king to Dover, where because it is a maxim in the law, ejus esse conGeorge Brooke presumed upon his interest demnure, cujus est absolvere : but the Common with Thomas Vands; but Mr. Attorney jus. Law could not absolve him, being guilty, there. titied his assurance of the lord Cobbai, Infore could not condemn him. one of these places they meant to have kept Mr. Attorney to this would have answered

the king for the space of three months, and particularly, but was by the Commissioners * at their first entrance, they should require and Judges willed to reduce himself to his own

three things. 1. A general pardon of all element. their purposes and intentions against the king Lord Henry Howard undertaking to have

and prince. 2. The king should yield to a answered him, mny L, C. Justice told him, that *wvleration of religion ; with an equality of all the king, by reason of his many causes, bad counselors and other officers, as well papists inany under him to execute the law of justice; as protestants, within his court or otherwise. but he kept in his own hands the key of mercy, 3. That he should re love and cut off the either bind or loose the proceedings, Sure-mentioned counsellors, and others who his own princely wisdom be should think fit.

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Therefore said Mr. Attorney, you, Mr. , Scotland and England in combustion ; and so Brooke, professing vourself to be learned,cannot upon Cobham's return out of Spain, to meet be ignorant that both your ancestors have been, Raitist at the isle of Jersey, and so to put on and you must be liable and subject yourself to foot both title, both within and without the the trial of the law of this nation, wherein you land. were born, and under which you live, f igno Mr. George Brooke, after his first arguments, ranlia juris non excusut. These treasons were spake little or nothing for himself, more than terined by the lord Cobham · The Bye,' as Mr. bis own Confession led bim otherwbiles to George Brooke confessed to Watson and the excuse or quality his own otsence; only he lord Gray ; but, said he, Walter Raleigh* and gave cast of a Letter, which, he said, be reI are chanced at the Main Whereupon Nr. ceived froin his majesty, wherein he had liberty Attorney gave a touch of the Treasons of the and authority to deal in the sounding out of Lord Cobhain and Raleigh, who had procured these practices; but neither at any time befrom Aremberg five or 600,000 crowns, to be fore nor at his Arraigninent, could shew the disposed by the lord Cobham, who should said leiter. And the king being by sume of the there with rivise forces for the extirpation of Lords Commissioners questioned withal on that the King and bis Cubbes, and putting both point, requireih bis Letter to be produced,

and denie h he wrote any such leiter. Sir John Hawles (Solicitor-General temp. Sir Griffin Murkham answered exceeding Will. 3.) in his reply to sir Bart, Shower's well, and truly to ail things; denying nothing “ Magistracy and Government of England vin- | for his fault of Treason; but that he deserved dicated, &c.” pag. 32, says, the king came to death upon the persuasion of Watson, by whom London in May, and in Joly following was the he was inisled, and a-sured that the king before pretended plot discovered ; and in November | his coronation was not an actual, but a political following, the pretended delinquents were tried hing: only be desired to avoid the imputation at Winchester, together with Watson and of effusion of blood in that enterprize, and (if Clarke. Their Accusations were in general, it were possible) the brand of a Traitor for his 1. To set the Crown on the lady Arabella's house and posterity, protesting how carele-s he head, and to seize the king. 2. To have a was of his own life, which he desired to be toleration of Religion. 3. To procure Aid and exposed to any bazard or sacrifice (though it assistance fro:n foreign princes. 4. To turn was never so desperate;) which if the king out of court such as they disliked, and place would not (in mercy) yielu birn, yet he desired themselves in offices.-Of these the first Arti- their lordships to be intercessors, that he might cle is Treason; what crimes the rest are, is die under the axe, and not by the halter. doubtful. What of them was proved against Watson spake very absurdly and deceivingly, the lords Cobham and Gray, Watson and without grace, or utterance, or good deliverClarke, or how their Trials were managed, doch ance; which (added to bis foresaid villainy) not appear : but sir Walter Raleigh's Trial inade him more odious and contemptible to all does appear, and is much like the lord Ru-sel's, the hearers. and therefore of some circumstances of it, I Clarke, the other Priest (an excellent nimthiok, it is fit to take notice. Instead of Con- ble-tongued fellow), of good speech, more sults, &c. in the lord Russel's Trial, the cant honest in the carriage of the business, of an exwords of the surprizing the Bye, and the Main, cellent wit and memory, boldly, and in wellwere made use of in sir Walter's, interpretable beseeming terms, uttering his mind, not unwilas the Council thougfit fit; at least it was asto- ling to die, but desireth to avoid the imputanishing to the Jury, which was all that was de- tion of a traitor. signed by the Council, and fatal to the pri Copley, a man of a whining speech, but a sovers. I have no mind to run through all the shrewd invention and resolution. ramble of sir Walter Raleigh's Trial, as it is Browkesby drawn in merely by Watson to printed before his History of the World, be take the Oath before-mentioned, for some of the cause the parallel is too exact, and sticks too particularities, as the bringing the hing to the close to the memory of persons gone: only I Tower for the advancement of Religion ; but will say, That if sir Walter Raleigh was guilty spake with nobody to incite them to the busiof t'e thing he was accused of by the Witnesses, ne-s nor carne himself according to his time apthough the accusation did not amount to a legal pointeil by Watson, the 23rd or 24th of June, proof, it was High-Treason; but if the lord | but at that instant attended upon the queen. Russel was guilty of the thing he was accused Sir Eduard Parhum was also by that villain ot, he was not guilty of Higli-Treason."—And Watson dealt withal after he had iendered him the same author, says, p. 35, “ I think it is the oath to this purpose : that he understood plain at this day, that of sir Walter Raleigh's the lord Gray meant with forces to set upon is thought a sham Plot; what the lord Russells the king, and to surprize him, that against that is thought, let the author say, I am loath to enu-time, whether he would not draw his sword merate all, but if any person will give himself against the lord Gray with the king's servants the trouble of reading and comparing the and friends? And if the king's servants were Trial of the lord Russel with that of sir Walter discomfited, whether with the rest of the CaRaleigh, they will find them exactly parallel in tholics he would not encounter the lord Gray, A number of other particulars."

and if he could bring him to the Tuner for his

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relief and the advancement of the Catholic as their peers, or sitten as high Commissioners Tei oon!

vpon the gentlemen) were called before bis Puthan told him, that he would so, if he was majestie (in his Priue chamber, at Wilton, perseded that his intendment of the lord where he commanded them to deliuer (without Gray were true, which at that time Watson respect to any person) the true narration onely; coad uut assure him of; for he did but hear of the order in the Triall of these persons that ci so much : but said he, when I have befter had beene condemned by the lawe, and of the assurance thereof, which will be within these nature and degree of their offences, as had apthree days, you shall further hear of me. He peared in every one of them, by their seueral string the time, Watson came not, and so answeres.-All which being cleerely and justly Paitan's proceedings went no further : but reported by them (each speaking in the hearing teing tryed in the point for bringing the king of the rest) bis majestie for his part, used iw the Tower, for the advancement of the Ca- bimself so gravely and reseruedly in all his tunic religion, he said, be made no doubt, but speeches, as well to themselues at that time, as that be with others, adventuring their lives for also to all other persons after, in priuate or live rescuing the king from the lord Gray, and publique, as neither any of his priue-counsell, traging him for his safety to the Tower; this nobilitie, or any that attended deerest to his then would not but merit some grace from the sacred person, durst presume to mediate for la for the advancement of the Catholic any, or so much as to enquire what should

be the conclusion of this proceeding. Sir Francis Darcy being Foreman of the In the meane time, wbile the Court was full Jury, and excellently commended for this day's of variety of discourse, some speaking out of carriage and behaviour, made two or three probabilitie, others arguing out of desire, what doabis concerning sir Edward Parham's Case, was like io be the fortune of all, or of any of these and receised resolution from the Bench in some Offepdours, bis majestie hauing concluded puusts, and the rest left to his conscience and onely in his own secret heart (which is the true uzderstanding, ivent with the rest of the Jury, oracle of grace and knowledge) in what manner and found all Guilty, saving Parhain, and so to proceed ; and that without asking counsel be was di-charged; and upon the rest Sentence of any earthly person it pleased bim to resolue of death was pronounced Ly the Lord-Chief- betweene God and himselfe, that their execuJustice.

tion should be stayed, cuen at the instant

when the axe should be layde to the trees The Copie of a Letter written from master

rootes. For the secret and orderly carriage 1. H. neere Salisbury, to Master H. A. at

whereof, bis majestie was careful to preuent all London, concerning the Proceeding at Win

cause or colour of suspicion, of that judicious, chester; where the late lord Cobham, lord royall

, and vnexpected course which followed. Gray, and sir Grittin Markham, all attainted and therefore, after the two Priests were exeof bie Treason, were ready to be executed, cuted, on Tuesday the 29th of Nov. and master on Friday the 9th of Dec. 1603. At which George Brooke on Monday following, his matime his majesties Warrant, all written with his own hand, (whereof the true Copie is je tie on the same day, being the 1st of Dec.

signed three Warrants, for the execution of the here annexed) was delivered to sir Ben- late lord Cobbam, lord Gray, and sir Griffin jamin Tichbourne, High Sheriffc of Hamp. Markhain, knt. with particular direction to the shire, commanding him to suspend their Sheritte, to performe it on Friday after, befoie execution till further order. Imprinted at

ten a clocke in the morning.-All these direcLondon, 1603.

tions being now become notorious, both by Sir; I haue received a letter from you; by the Writs of Execution (which passed vnder which I perceiue bowe much you desire to be the great seale) and by the making readie the particularly enfourmed of the cause and man Scaffolds at Winchester, bis majestie uery ber of the stay of the late lord Cobham's, lord secretly (as now appeareth by the sequele) Grase's, and sir Grittin Markib:un's Execution, drewe himselfe into his cabinet, on Wednesday appointed at Winchester ; wherein, although before the day of execution, and there privately there are many better able to discourse at large franied a Warrant, written all with his own of such an action then myselfe, yet I conceiue band, to the Sherifle, by vertue whereof he aben you have perused this plaine and true countermaunded all the former directions, alrelation, of that which all men there behelde ledging the Reasons therein mentioned. Of that day, and many more since haue beard, which seeing no man's pen can so well expresse, from persons of the best qualitie and know as his owne, I send you the Copie verbatim, ledge, you will thanke me more, for suffering as I took it out of the originall, wbich many the trueth to shew itself vnclothed, then if I had read in my cousin sir Benjamin Tichbourne's laboured to haue deliuered you a tale well hand. painted with curious words and tine phrases. And now to come to the ordering of this buYou must therefore understand, that as soone sinesse; among many other circuinstances, it as the Arraignments were passed at Win- is uery remarkable, with what discretion and chester, his majesties Priue-counsel (to the foresight that person was elected, which must Dumber of 14 or 15, of which companie all of be vsed in carriage of the Warrant. First, his tiem bad either beene tryers of the noblemen majestic resolved 16 should be a Scottislunan ;


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