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June 1626, being exactly one week after the attention to the duke of Buckingham. They Duke hud put in his Answer. Such an inter- roted that Buckingham's excessive power was ference on ibe part of the king to prevent (and the cause of the evils and dangers 10 the king that at the expence of four Subsidies and three and kingdom. On the 13th of June they voted
Fistiepths, which the Commons had voted a lemonstrance to his majesty for the purpose , without perfecting the Bills for them, and ot of obtaining the removal of Buckingham from which the king bad very great need) an inves- his othces, and from the king's councils and rigtion of the matters imputed as crimes to person. On June 26th, parliament was prothe duke of Buckingham-one of those matters rogued; and, on Aug. 23d, the Duke was killed being the death of the king's father-was un- by Felton, who seems to have been stimulated questionably an act of the greatest indecency to this act by the Votes of the bouse of comand folly. Hume, atter Franklyn, says, that See 1 Rushw. 638. May, Book 1, “the king thought Buckingham's great guilt | p. 10. Whitl. Mem. 11. See also Felton's was the being his friend and favourire," and he Case, post. tells us “ that all the other complaints against The following free epistle of advice from him were mere pretences." The most male. James Flowell to the duke of Buckingham is volent rancour could scarcely have devised ain“ Howell's Letters." It has been already obmeasure more hurtful and more injurious to served in lord Bacon's Case, that the dates the character of an innocent friend and favou- printed to the letters in that book are not to rite, than the king's violent interference to pre- be depended on : vent an examination into the conduct of Buckingham, upon such charges as those alleged To my Lord Duke of Buckingham's Grace at
Newmarket. against him, and before such a tribunal as the house of lords in the year 1626. “ Shortly “ May it please your grace 'to peruse and
Rushworth, an information was pardon these few advertisements, which I would preferred, by the king's special command, in not dare to present, had I not hopes that the the Star-chamber, against the duke of Buck- goodness which is concomitant with your greatingham, for higli otiences and misdemeanors; ness, would make them venial. wherein he was charged (amongst other things) “ My lord, a parliament is at hand; the last with the particulars mentioned in the last Ar was boistrous, God grant that this may prove ticle exhibited against him by the house of more calm: a rumour runs that there are commons, concerning the plaister applied to clouds already ingendered, which will break king James. To which the Duke put in bis out into a storm in the lower region, and most Answer, and divers witnesses were examined. of the drops are like to fall upon your grace. But the Cause came not to a judicial hearing This, though it be but vulgar astrology, is not in the court."
altogether so be contermed; though I believe Wbitelocke's account, as usual of matters that his majesty's countenance reflecting so during this period, is merely (Memorials, p. 7) strongly upon your grace, with the brightness an abridgement of Rushworth. Bishop Ken- of your own innocency, may be able to dispel nett expresses himself thus: “ Soon after, an and scatter them to nothing. information was preferred by the king's special “ My lord, you are a great prince, and all command in the Star-chamber, against the eyes are upon your actions; this makes you duke of Buckingham for high offences and mis more subject to envy, which like the sun-beams demeanors, and in particular for the plaister beats always upon rising-grounds. I know applied to king James, according to the last your grace hath many sage and solid heads Article preferred against bim by the commons about you; yet I trust it will prove no offence, The Duke put in his Answer, and divers wit- if out of the late relation I have to your grace nesses were examined. But it came to no ju- by the recommendation of such noble perdicial hearing, and was therefore suspected to sonages, I put in also my inite. be an evasion of justice rather than a prose " My lord, under favour, it were not amiss, cution of it.” And in the margin he puts, “ A if your grace would be pleased to part with sham information against the duke of Bucking some of those places you hold, which have ham in the Star-chamber.”
least relation to the court; and it would take In March, 1628, the king called a third par-away the mutterings that run of multiplicity liament. The coinmons soon directed their of vifices; and in my shallow apprehension,
your grace might stand more firin without an functions, as affected by dissolutions and proro- anchor : the office of high-admiral, in these gations, is established in it on the grounds of times of action, requires one whole man to exprinciple of analogy and of authorities; and it ecute it; your grace hath another sta of busiis fully proved as a most indisputable proposi-ness to wade through, and the voluntary retion of clear constitutional parliamentary law, signing of this office would fill all wen, yea, that Iinpeachments do not abate upon a disso even your enemies, with admiration and attec lution of parliament. It may be noticed, that tion, and make you more a prince than detract Mr. Selden's Speech, cited larther on in the from your greatness. If any ill successes haptext, seems to treat the continuance of an Im- pen at sea (as that of the lord Wimbledon's peachment, notwithstanding a dissolution, as lately) or if there be any murmur for pay, your an undisputed point.
grace will be free from all imputations; be
sides, it will afford your grace more leisure to opinion of virtue and wisdom : I know your look into your own affairs, which lie confused grace doth nut (nor needs not) affect popuand unsettled. Lastly, (which is not the least larity. It is true that the people's love is the thing) this act will be so plausible, that it may strongest citadel of a sovereigo prince, but to much advantage his majesty in point of sub- a great subject it bath often proved fatal; for sidy.
he who pulleth off his hat to ihe people, giveth . Secondly, It were expedient (under correc his head to the prince; and it is remarkable tion) that your grace would be pleased to allot what was said of a late unfortunate earl, who, some set hours for audience and access of a little before queen Elizabeth's death, had suitors; and it would be less cumber to your-drawn the axe upon bis own neck, · That he self and your servants, and give more con was grown so popular, that he was to dantent to the world, which often mutters for
for the tunes, and the times for him.' difficulty of access.
“ My lord, now that your grace is threatened “ Lastly, It were not amiss that your grace
to be heaved at, it should be bove every one would settle a standing mansion-house and fa- that oweth you duly and good-will, to reach out mily, that suitors may know whither to repair his hand some way or other to serve you : constantly, and that your servants, every one among these, I am one that presumes to do it, in his place, might know what belongs to his in this poor impertinent paper; for which Í place, and attend accordingly: for though con- implore pardon, because I am, my lord, your fusion in a great family carry a kind of state grace's most humble and faithful servant, J. H. with it, yet order and regularity gains a greater London, 13th Feb. 1626."
126. The Case of George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, for
refusing to licence a Sermon preached by Dr. Sibthorp, in order to promote the Loan, and to justify the King's imposing Public Taxes without consent of Parliament: 3 CHARLES I.
A. D. 1627. [1 Rushw. Coll. 422—131.] KING Charles finding himself much straiten- don, who did approve thereof, as a Sermon ed by not obtaining the four Subsidies and lear:vedly and discreetly preached. It was dethree Fifteenths voted to him in his second par- dicated to the king, and expressed to be the liament, which he rashly dissolved before the doctor's meditations, which he first conceived bills for raising that supply were perfected, en upon bis majesty's instructions unto all the bideavoured, as is well known, to relieve his ne-shops of this kingdom, fit to be pat in execucessities by means of forced loans from his sub- tion, agreeable to the necessity of the times; jects (many curiors details concerning which and afterwards brought forth upon his majesty's are to be found in Rushworth)). For the ad. commission, for the raising of monies by way vancement of this project, one Dr. Sibthorp, of loan. His text was, Rom. xiii. 7, • Render (who appears to have been an eager seeker of therefore to all their dues. Among other preferment by an injudicious bustling course passages he had this, “ -And seriously consider in recommending the measures of the court), how as Jeroboam took the opportunity and published in print * a Sermon preached by bim • breach betwixt Rehoboam and his subjects, at Northampton, February 22d, 1627, at ' to bring idolatry into Israel ; so the papists Lent assizes, intituled, “ Apostolical Obedience.' • lie at wait, if they could find a rent betueen This book was licensed by the bishop of Lon- our sovereign and his subjects (which the Lord
* This matter is thus mentioned in Kennett: scope of it was to advance the Loan, and to “ Another great unhappiness was this ; the bi-justify the king's imposing public taxes with shops at the king's request were most of them out consent of parliament; and to prove that zealous to promote this Supply of the public the people, in point of conscience, were bound necessities ; and earnestly pressed their clergy to submit to the regal will and pleasure. For to contribute their best assistance in it. Hence, which he was afterward called in question, and some were more officious than became their censured by the parliament : But yet he gained function in such a secular affair : Aud others his ends at court, being made Chaplain in Orwere so indiscreet as to make it a doctrine of dinary to his majesty, prebendary of Peterbotheir pulpits to urge the duty of answering rough, and rector of Burton Latimers in Northwhatever the king demanded. In particular, ' amptonshire; from which he was ejected in Dr. Sıbthorp, vicar of Brackley, preached upon the Civil Wars, and enjoyed them again at the this subject at Northampton on Feb. 22, 1627, Restoration, dying in April 1662. One who at the Lent assizes ; and having his Sermon li- speaks most favourably of the royal party, censed by the bishop of London, he published says, He was a person of little learning, and of it under the title of • Apostolic Obedience,' few parts, only maile it bis endeavours, by his with a Dedication to the king. The whole forwardness and flatteries, lo gain preferment."
* forbid) to introduce superstition in England. | more generally, by several persons nominated “I speak no more than what I have heard from and authorised by him, being learned in the
themselves, whilst I bave observed their for- ecclesiastical laws of this realm, in those several 'wa dness to vifer double, according to an act' places where unto they are deputed and ap
of parlia'nent :0 providing; yea, tv profess, pointed by the said archbishop: which several that they would depart with the ball of their places, as we are informed, they severally huld
And how, or wly can this forward- by several grants for their several lives; as ness be in them, but in liope to cast the impu- namely, sir Henry Martin, knight, hath and "tation of forwardness upon us? And so tv | boldi th by the grants of the said archbishop, them, that which the Jesuit will not sutier the ottices and places of the Dean of ibe Arches, them to be, loving and loyal subjects.' and Judge, or Master of the Prerogative Court, Also the said Sermon holds forib, · That i he for the natural life of the suid sir Henry Martin. prince, who is the head, and makes his court -Sir Charles Cæsar, knight, hath and boldeth and council
, it is his duty to direct and make by the grant of the said archbishop, the places 6 laws, Eccles, vi, 3 and 4, lle doth whatso- or othces of the Judge of the Audience, and
ever pleases him. Where the word of the Master of the Faculties, for the term of the na• king is, there is power, and who may say unto tural life of the said sır Charles Cæsar.—Sir • him, What does thou?' And in another Thomas Ridley, knight, hath and holdeth by the place he saith, • If princes command any thing grant of the said arcubishop, the place or othce which subjects may not perform, because it is of Vicar General to the said archbishop.-- And
against the laws of God, or of nature, or im- Nathaniel Brent, doctor of the lans, hath and • possible: Yet subjects are bound to undergo boldeth by grant of the said archbishop, the • the punishment, without either resisting, or office or place of Commissary to the said arch• railing, or reviling, and so to yield a passive bishop, as of his proper and peculiar diocese of obedience where they cannot exbibit an active Canterbury.- And likenise the several Regisone.
I know no other case,' saith he,.but ters of the Arches, Prerogative, Audience, • one of those three, wherein a subject may ex- Faculties, and of the Vicar General, and the •cuse himself with passive obedience; but in Coimissary of Canterbury hold their places by • all other he is bound to active obedience.' grants from the said archbishop respectively.
“ Whereas the said Archbishop, in some or The Commission to sequester Archbishop Ab- all of these several places and jurisdictions, bot from all his Ecclesiastical Offices.
doth or may someumes assume unto his perArchbishop Abbot having been long slighted sonal and proper judicature, order, or direcat court, now fell under the king's high dis- tion, some particular causes, actions, or cases pleasure, for refusing to licence Dr. Sibthorp's at his pleasure. And forasmuch as the said Sermon, as he was commanded, intituler, archbishop cannot at this present, in his own “ Apostolical Obedience;" and not long after person, attend the services which are otherwise he was sequestered from bis ottice, and a com- proper for his cognisance and jurisdiction, and mission was granted to the bishops of London, which, as archbishop of Canterbury, he might Durham, Rochester, Oxford, and doctor Laud, and ought in his own person to bave performed bishop of Bath and Wells, to execute archiepis- and executed in causes and matters ecclesicopal jurisdiction. The Commission was as astical, in the proper tunction of archbishop followeth :
of that province : we therefore, of our regal
power, and of our princely care and providence, Charles, by the grace of God, king of Eng. that nothing shall be defective in the order, land, Scotland, France and Ireland, de
discipline, government, or right of the church, fender of the faith, &c. To the right rev. father in God, George, bishop of London; I learned and reverend bishops, to be named by
have thought fit by the service of some other and to the right rev. father in God, our
us, to supply those things which the said archtrusty and well-beloved counsellor, Richard, bishop ought or might in the cases aforesaid to lord bishop of Durham; and to the rigt
hare done, but for this present cannot perform rev, father in God, John, toid bishop of
the same. Rochester; and Jolin, lord bishop of Oxu
“ know you therefore, That we reposing spee ford; to the right rev. father in God, our cial trust and confidence in your approved right' trusty and well-bel ved counsell, r, wisdoms, learning, and integrity, have pomiWilliam, lord bishop of Bath and Wells, nated, authorized, and appointed, and do, by greeting;
these presents, nominate, authorise, and ap. " Whereas George, now archbishop of Can- point you the said George, lord bishop of Lonterbury, in the right of the arcı, bish spric, hath don ; Richard, lord bishop of Durhuin; John, several and distinct archiepiscopiil, episcopal, lord bishop of Rochester; John, Jord bishop and other spiritual and ecclesiastii al powers of Oxford; and William, lord bishop of Bath and jurisdictions, to be exercised in the goverin- and Wells, or any four, thee, or two of you, ment and disciplme ,f the church within the to do, execute, and perform all and every those province of Canterbury, an 114 the adminis-, acis, matters, and things, any way touching or tration of justice in causes ecclesiastical uiti in concerning the power, jurisdiction, or authority that province, which are partly executed by, of the archbishop of Canterbury, io cau-es or himself in his own person, and partly, and, matters ecclesiastical, as amply, fully, aud
effectually, to all intents and purposes, as the place and years, who have done some service said archbishop himself might have done. in the Church and Commonwealth, so deeply
“ And we do hereby command you, and laden with some furious infirmities of body, every of you, to attend, perform, and execute should be removed from his ordinary habitation, this our royal pleasure, in, and touching the and hy a kind of deportation should be thrust premisses, until we shall declare our will and into one end of the island (although, I must pleasure to the contrary.-- And w do further confess, into his own diocese) that I hold it fit, hereby will and command the said archbishop that the reason of it should be truly understood, of Canterbury, quietly, and without inter- lest it may someways turn to the scandal of ruption, to permit and suffer you the said my person and calling.–Which Declaration George, bishop of London ; Richard, bishop potwithstanding, I intend not to communicate of Durham, John, bishop of Rochester; John, to any, but to let it lie by me privately, that it bishop of Oxford ; and William, bishop of being set down impartially, whilst all things Bath and Wells, any four, three, or two of you, are fresh in memory, I may have recourse to it to execute and perform this our conimission, hereafter, if questions shall be made of any according to our royal pleasure thereby signified. thing contained in this relation. And we do further will and command all and And this I hold necessary to be done, by every other person and persons, whoin it may reason of the strangeness of that, which by way any way concern, in their several places or of censure was inflicted upon me, being then offices, to be atiendant, observant, and obe- of the age of 65 years, incumbered with the dient to you, and every of you, in the execution gout, and afflicted with the stone, having lived and performance of this our royal will and so many years in a place of great service, and, command, as they and every of them will an- for ought I know, untainied in any of my swer the contrary at his utmost perils. actions, al hough my master king James, who
“ Nevertheless we do hereby declare our resteth with God, had boub a searching wit of royal pleasure to be, That they the said sir bis own, to discover his servants whom he put Henry Martin, sir Charles Cæsar, sir Thomas in trust, wbether they took any sinister courses, Ridiey, and Nathaniel Brent, in their several or n»; and wanted not some suggesters about offices and places aforesaid, and all other regis bim to make the worst of all mens actions ters, officers, and ministers, in the several whom they could misreport : yet this innocency courts, ottices and jurisdictions, appertaining and good tame to be over-turned in a month, to the said archbishop, shall quietly, and with and a Christian bishop suddenly to be made out interruption, hold, use, occupy and enjoy fabula vulgi, to be tossed upon the tongues of their said offices and places, wbich they now
friends and foes, of Protestants and Papists, of hold, by the grant of the said archbishop, or court and country, of English and foreigners, any other formir archbishop of Canterbury, in must nerds in common opinion, presuppose sucb muner and form, and with those bene- , some crime, open or secret: which being discofits, privileges, powers, and authorities, which 'vered hy the king, albeit not fully appearing to they now have, hold, and enjoy therein, or the world, must draw on indigation in so high thereout si verilly' and respectively, they, and every of them, in their several places, being I cannot deny, that the indisposition of my attendunt and ubedient u'to you the sand body kept me from Couit, and thereby gave George, bishop of London ; Richard, bishop occasion to maligners to traduce me as withof Durham ; John, bishop of Rochester; John, drawing myself from public services, and therebishop of Oxford ; and William, bishop of tore mistinig some courses that were taken; Bath and Wells, or to any four, three, or two ' which abstimog perhaps neither pleased the of you, in all things according to the tenor of king, nor the great man that set them on foot.this our commission, as they should or ought It is true, that in the turbulency of some things, to have been, to the said archbil. p himself, if I had no great invitements to draw me abroad, this commission had nii heen had or made. but to possess my soul in patience, till God
“ In witness wher: if, We have caused these sent fairer weather : but the true ground of my our letters to be matie patent. Witness our- abstaining from solemo and public places, was sdf at Westminster, the ninth day of October, the weakness of my feet, proceeding from the in the third year of our reign. Per ipsum gout; which disease being hereditary unto me, Regem. EDMONDS."
and ba ing possessed me now nine years, had
deliberated me more and more: so that I For a Memorial of these Proceedings, the could not stand at all, weither could I go up or Archbishop left to po-terity this following Nar- down a pair of stairs, but besides my staff, I rative, penned with his own hand.
must have th service of one, at least, of my ARCHBISHOP ABBOT'S NARRATIVE. place where I was to come.
men, which was not fit to be admitted in every Pars Prima.
And although I was ofi remembered, by the It is an example, so without example, that wisest of my friends, tivat I might be carried as in the sunshine of ibe gospel, in the midst of the old lord treasurer Burleigh was, yet I did profession or the true religion, under a yracions not think my service so necessary for the king, whom all the world must acknowledge ; commonwealth, as his lordship's, by long expeto be blemished with no vice ; a man of my rience, was found to be. I did not value
myself at so bigh a rate, but remembered, that now earl of E. and had so treated ber, that both it was not the least cause of overthrow to for safeguard of her honour, blemished by him Robert earl of Essex, that he prized himself scandalously, and for her alimony or mainteso, as if queen Elizabeth and the kingdom oance (being glad to get from him) she was could not well bave stood, if he had not sup- forced to endure a suit in the High Commission ported both the one and the other.
Court : So to strengthen his party, he was made Now for me, thus enfeebled, not with the known to the duke, and by means oi a depeftgout only, but with the stone also, and gravel, dant on his grace, he got a letter tiom the king, to wait on the king, or the council-table, was That the commissioners should proceed no furby me held a matter most inconvenient. In ther in bearing of that cause, by reason that it the courts of princes, there is little feeling of being a ditterence between a gentleman and his the infirmities belonging to old age, they like wite, the king's majesty would bear it bimself. them that be young and gallant in their ac- The solicitor for the lady, finding ihat the course tions, and in their cloaths, they love not that of justice was stopped, did so earnestly, hy men should stick too long in any room of great petition, move the king, that by another letter, ness, change and alteration bringing somewhat ihere was a relaxation of the foriner restraint, with it. What have they to do with kerchieves and the commissioners ecclesiastical went on: and staves, with lame or sick men ? It is cer- But now, in the new proceeding, finding hintainly true, there is little compassion upon the self by justice like enough to be pinched, he bodily defects of any. The scripture speaketh did publicly in the court refuse to speak by any of men standing before kings, it were an un counsel, but would plead his cause hiniseli ; couth sight to see the subject sit the day before wherein he did bear the whole business so disthe oor ination, when on the morrow I had orderly, tuo ultuously, and unrespectfully, that work enough for the strongest man in England, after divers reproofs, I was inforced for the bo. being weak in my feet, and coming into White- nour of tbe court, and repuiation of the High hall to see things in a realiness against the Commission, to tell him openly, That if be did next day; yet notwithstanding the stone and not carry himself in a better fashion, I would gout, I was not altogether an inutile servant in commit him to prison. the king's affairs, but did all things in my bouse Tuis so troubled the young gallant, that that were to be done, as in keeping the High- within few days after, being at dinner, or supCommission Court, doing all interior actions per, where some wished me well, he bolted inducing the reunto, and dispatching references it out, That as for the Archbishop, the duke from bis majesty that came thick upon me. had a purpose to turn him out of bis place, and
These relations which are made concerning that he did but wait the occasion to effect it. me, be of certain truth, but reach not to the Which being brought unto me constantly, by reason whereof I was discarded.
more ways than one, I was now in expectation To understand therefore the verity, so it is, what must be the issue of this great man's inThat the duke of Buckingham being still great dignation, which fell out to be as followeth. in the favour of the king, could endure no man There was one Sihthorpe, who not being so that would not depend upon him; among other much as a batchelor of arts, as it hath beta men, had ine in his eye, for not stooping unto credibly reported unto me, by means of docior him so as to become bis vassel. I that had Pierce, dean ot Peterborough, being vice-chane learned a lesson, which I constantly hold, to cellor of Oxford, did get to be coníerred upon be no man's servant but the king's (for mine him the title of doctor. This man is vicar of own royal master, which is with God, and mine Brackley in Northamptonshire, and hath anoown reason), did teach me su) went on mine own ther benefice not far froin it in Buckinghamways, although I could not lut observe, that stire. But the lustre of his honour did arise so many as walked in that path did suffer for from the being the son-in-law of sir John Lamb, it upon all occasions, and so did I, nothing chancellor of Peterborough, whose daugl ter be wherein I moved my master taking place : married, and was put into the commission of which finding so clearly, as if the duke had set peace. When the Lent assizes were in Feb. some ill character opon me, I had no way but last at Northampton, the man that preached be to rest in patience, leaving all to God, and fore the Judges there, was this worthy ductor; looking to myself as warily as I might. But where magnifying the authority of kings, (which this did not serve the turn, bis undertaking was is so strony in the Scripture, that it needs no so extraordinary, that every one that was not llattery any way, to extol it) he let fall divers with bin, was presently against him; and if a speeches which were distasteful to the auditors, hard opinion were once entertained, there was ald vamely, That they had power to put Pollno place left for satisfaction or reconciliation. money upon their subjects bears, when against
What betell the earl of Arundel, and sir those challenges men did frequen: ly mouri. Randal Crew, and divers others, I need not to He being a man of a low törtunt, conceived, report ; and no man can make doubt but he that putting his Sermon in print, he might gain blew the coals.
favour at court, and raise his fortune higher, For myself, there is a gentleman called s'r on he goeth with the ti anscribing of his Serinou, H. S. who gave the first light what should be fal and got a biship or two to prefer this great me : This knight being of inore livelihood than ervice to the duke; and it being brought unto wisdom, had married the lady D. sister to the the duke, it cometh in his head, or was sug