few days after his majesty's coming into Spain, yond the conditions which had been formerly whilst he had that great honour to have bis ma- agreed upon in point of religion; and to inako jesty lodge in his house, and to have so royal his conditions the worse for the great obligation a guest: finding, by the Spanish ministers, that he had laid upon them, by putting himself into there was a general received opinion in that their hands; whereat they took such offence court, that his majesty's coming thither was that they estranged themselves from him for a with intentions to become a Roman Catbolic; long time after. And that the said earl did thus and the conde Gondomar having that very proceed with the condes, and that this is not morning pressed the earl not to hinder so a vew-framed Answer to satisfy the present pious a work (as he termed it) of his majesty's objection, but that which really and indeed conversion, and seeming to be assured of the passed, will appear by his dispatches sent unto duke of Buckingham's assistance therein: his his late majesty before his majesty that now is majesty being all alone in a withdrawing room came out of Spain; and were first ibere shewed in the said earl's house, the said earl kneeled unto his majesty, bearing date the 9th Sept. unto him and told him, That he had business 1622 ; so that although it be true that the said to impart unto him which bighly imported his earl did not dissuade his majesty (for there was majesty to know, so he might be sure his bold- no cause for it) yet without expecting bis maness therein might be pardoned, which his jesty's Answer, he first made a true and clear majesty graciously promised; and thereupon profession of his own religion ; and when his the said earl told his majesty, That the general majesty had declared unto him his zeal and opinion in the court was, that his majesty's com- constancy, he humbly besought him that the ang tither was with intention to be a Roman Spaniards might not, for any respect, be held Catholic, and there to declare it; and con- longer in any hopes in that point. —And befesseth that, at the same time, in regard of cause a point of religion is that which all men those things which he bad heard, he humbly of honour and honesty should chiefly desire to besought his majesty to deal freely with him, as clear, especially having imputations of that oa. with a servant of whose fidelity he might be ture laid upon them, as the said earl hath in confident, or words to that effect; but he was the said Article; he humbly beseecheth your so far from persuading his majesty to be a Ro- lordships that he inay not seem to digress from man Catholic, that, without expecting his ma- the Charge, in tendering to your lordships sajesty's Answer, he declared himself to be a Pro- tisfaction in that particular, not by the aforetestant, and so should always continue; yet, said verbal discourse only, (which he protesteth he said, he would serve his majesty, and la- was with much zeal to religion, and dutiful bour to advance his and the king his father's care to the prince, in that kind) but by some affairs, with as much fidelity and honesty as written testimony of his former opinion ; both any Catholic whatsoever; and his majesty to the Match and Religion, wben he was first was pleased then to make unto the said earl employed into Spain for the treating of this a full and clear declaration of his religion, Marriage in 1617 : for bis late majesty having and of his constant resolution therein; and commanded him to give an Account thereof seemed to be much displeased that any should unto his majesty that now is; he, at his dehave so unworthy on opinion of him, as to parture towards Spain, presumed to give unto think he would, for a wife, or any earthly his majesty his opinion in writing, signed with respect whatsoever, so much as to waver in his own hand, to be kept as a testimony of his his religion : whereupon the said earl besought future actions; the copy whereof is this that his majesty to pardon his boldness, and then followeth : intreated him not to suffer his business to be overthrown, by permitting that conceit of his

The said Opinion. conversion any longer to remain in the Spani SIR; The opinion which I have ever preards, nor to dú any thiog that might give them somed humbly to offer unto his majesty conhope therein, alledging, that it was impossible "cerning your highness's marriage, hath been, the Marriage could be without a dispensation, that both in regard of conscience and satisand so long as the Spaniards, who were to pro- faction unto his majesty's people and allies ; cure this dispensation, should have the least likewise for the security and quiet of your hope of his conversion, they would rather clog majesty's estates, your highness might take the dispensation than hasten it ; for whilst they for wife some protestant princess, although should have any hope at all of his conversion, she neither were daughter to a king, nor had they would never content themselves with the so ample a portion as might relieve the king's part to which they were tyed by the articles present necessities and wants; for then there agreed upon with the said earl and sir W. ' might be many ways found to help the king's Aston. At which time his majesty was pleased wants, either by some few years providence to approve of his opinion, and said, he would and frugality, or by winning the affections of expect the dispensation : and did thereupon af- the people to the supplying of his majesty by terwards send Mr. Andrews to Rome to hasten way of subsidies in parliament; whereas conit. And the next day the said earl dealt very trariwise, if the number and power of the paroundly with the said conde d'Olivares and pists shall be increased, as undoubtedly they Gondoinar, telling them, It was a discourteous will be by your bigbness matching with any manner of proceeding, to press his majesty be-catholic princess, through the concession which

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must be of necessity for the exercise of her | lege in Oxon, (all of whom were his majesty's. religion for herself and family, within your chaplains in Spain) as well for the frequent use highness's courts, and thereby by degrees of the sacrament, and constant profession and these two different religions shall grow to an exercises of religion; and the testimony also

equality of power; it will be great hazard of such catholics as are known to have been * and disquiet to the state, and not to be re- his ancient acquaintance and friends, and to

dressed without great danger, and courses of examine them upon oath, whether either pubda, 's more violence, than is usual for this state to licly or privately, in Spain or in England, they 22 * put in practice. But in case bis majesty out have known him in any kind to make shew, or

Oy of his wisdom and consideration best koown so much as forbear upon all occasion, avowedb. to bimself, hold it fittest that your bighness ly to declare the religion that he professeth;

match with France or Spain or any other ca- and that the said Mr. Frewen and Mr. Wake, 45 tholic, either for that the present time afford- his now chaplains, may be also examined, whe

eth no protestant princess, who is for years ther in extremity of several sicknesses, wherebiks' or blood suitable for your highness, or that unto he hath of late years failen, he hath not Es can in any considerable measure by the por- ever settled his conscience with them towards

tion, supply his majesty's present wanis, I Gıd, and made a confession of his faith, re. then conceive that the match by which this solving as befitted a Protestant and a good

• state shall suffer least inconveniency and cum- Christian.

at bers, and whereby his majesty's necessities “ VIII. To the Eighth Article the said earl steeds shall by the greatness of the portion be the saith :-That he did not at any tiine, or in any

• most relieved, is with Spain, if such a match place, endeavour to persuade the prince to

may be made with such conditions of religion, change his religion, and to become a Ro-san • as other catholic princes will contract them- Catholic, or to be obedient to the usurped au•selves withal.—Thus much I thought fit hum- thority of the pope of Rome; neither did the • bly to present unto your highness, for that I said earl, to that end or purpose, or otherwise, « see my employment liable to the censure of use unto bis majesty, then prince, the words in many worthy persons, with whom, though I the Article mentioned, viz." That the state of

concur in my opinion, yet I seem much to England did never any great thing, but when
• differ from them many ways; for that it is they were under toe obedience of the pope of

more proper to me to be true to my master's Rome, and that it was impossible they should
• ends and services, than by the declaring this, do any thing of note otherwise," as in the said
• to procure their satisfaction : Only to your Article is charged: but the said earl acknow-
• highness I thought fit to make this declara- ledyeth, that upon occasion of a letter, which
• tion, and shall be a suitor to you for your fa- came to his majesty then prince, putting his
• vour, as you shall see me really labour to put majesty io mind of the great actions of his
• this in effect. And if bis majesty shall, ei- royal progenitors in the lloly Wars; and that
*ther upon motion of parliament, or any other the great kings of those times did not only em-
* proposition that can be made unto him, think ploy their forces, but, in their persons, went
• fit to proceed with a protestant match, as I into the Holy Land; the earl believeth, that,
• shall wish as well unto it as any man living, by way of discourse only, and not otherwise,

so, I hope, in such sort to manage the present he may have said, that in regard of the diffe-
• business that I have in hand, that it shall ra rence of religion, it were of more difficulty to
• ther much further, than any way cross or hin- undertake such great actions now than in for-
• der it. But in case his majesty shall not be mer ages; and it might well be instanced in
• drawn to any proposition for a protestant the present Treaty of Marriage, wherein the
' match, I then conceive, that your highness pope's consent was to be obtained ; and to this
í both doth, and will approve, that I really effect, and upon the like grounds, he was con-

and eilectually labour to procure a match for fident there were very many that have, nay your bighness in Spain, upon such conditions, few of nearness about his late majesty that in point of religion and portion, as to bis ma- have not often heard his majesty say, that he * jesty shall seem fit.'

was the true martyr, that suffered more for his “ Besides which declaration of the said earl's religion than all the princes of Christendom beopinion, he hath all his life, in all places, lived sides; instancing in divers particulars, but esand avowed himself a Protestant, never having pecially in that he could not match his children done the least act that was not suitable to the with kings of their own rank, without the same profession; and that in all his foreign pope's leave. · But the said eari saith, That he employments, for the space of fourteen years, bever alledged any such thing to other purpose, of more than 500 persons of all qualities that than to shew that only conscience and love to have attended him, there was never any one truth, in which regard protestants suffered perverted in his religion, sare two Irish foot much) and not any temporal respects, made us men, who in Ireland had been bred Papists : constant and zealous to the profession of our and he humbly desireth the testimony of Dr. religion ; by which discourses he ever attributed Mawe and Dr. Wrenn, and of Mr. Sampford, much to the sincerity and honour of the proone of the prebends of Canterbury, Mr. Bos- testant religion ; but never used it as an arguwell, parson of St. Lawrence in London, and ment to persuade, as in the accusation is insiMr. Frewen, divinity-reader in Magdalen-Col-nuated. 'Besides, he conceiveth, that, by way

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of Answer thereunto, the same question may | sepposed with honour, to accommodate those
be asked which his majesty was pleased to ask great businesses; and wrote to that purpose to
of the said earl in the 7th Article, viz. “What his son-in-law, the prince Palatine, by bis let-
the said earl saw in his majesty that he should ter, dated 19th Oct. 1623, a copy of which
think him so unworthy as to change his religion letter together with a copy of Mr. secretary
for a wife, or any earthly respect whatsoever?' | Calvert's relation, the lord Conway by his late
So why should it be thought, that the becom-majesty's commandment, sent unto the said
ing more fit to undertake great actions in the earl, the tenor of which, translated out of
world, (being a mere moral temporal respect) French, is as followeth :
should be an argument to persuade, in consci * We have thought good, that we may pro-

ence, so religious and wise a prince, and so vide best and most soundly for your affairs,
well instructed as his majesty is ; as though the not only to procure, but also to assure your
soul of a Christian prince was to be wrought peace, were to cut up by the very roots that
upon, in point of truth and belief, by temporal evil which hath been seitled in the heart of
and worldly respects of conveniences and great-the emperor, by the great displeasure and
ness. It were necessary, for proof of this as- ' enmity he hath conceived against you. For
sertion, « The earl's persuading his majesty the removing and quite extinguishing of which,
touching his religion,' to produce some argu- it seemeth to us no better or more powerful
ments that he used out of the scriptures to sa 'means can be used, than a good alliance,
tisfy him, in point of conscience, in some tenet * which may be proposed by us between your
of the Ron'ish church; or that he procured ' eldest son, and the daughter of the said em-
any conference with learned men for his satis- peror, upon the assurance we have, we shall
factoon in point of religion; otherwise, the ar not be refused in this nature, if you on your
gument used in this Article against the said part will give your consent. And for the
earl doth, as he conceiveth, carry little strength more surety of the good success thereof, we
to prove the charge of persuading of his ma- are determined, before any such proposition
jesty either in regard of itself, or indeed in re 'be made to the emperor, to interest the king
gard of bis majesty's piety."

of Spain with us in the business, who, we “ IX. To the Ninth Article the said earl saith, trust, will lend us his helping hand, as well That there was a discourse in Spain, of the way for the effecting of it, and bringing it to a of accommodating the prince Palatine's affairs; good conclusion, as in procuring likewise, and, by way of discourse, it was moved, That that the condition be duly observed. Amongst the marriage of his eldest son with a daughter which conditions, if it happen that the emof the emperor, and his son to be bred in the peror should demand, that your son, during emperor's court, would be the fairest way for his minority, should be brought up in his court, pacifying and acccomodating those businesses; we shall tell you, that we, for our own part, and the earl, by way of such discourse, and not see no reason why you should stick at it, upon otherwise, did say, That he thought his late ma such conditions as he might be tied unto, to jesty would not be averse, either to the said wit, That the young prince should have with Match or the breeding of the prince Palatine's him such governor, as you shall please to apson with the emperor: so as thereby the whole point him, although he be no Roman Cathopatrimonial estate of the prince Palatine, with lick; and that neither he, nor any of his, the dignity electoral, might be fully restored; should be any way forced in matter of their that his son might be brought up in his own conscience. And our meaning is, so to order religion and have such preceptors and such a our proceeding in this Treaty, that before family as his said late majesty and his father, your said son be put into the hands of the (meaning the prince Palatine) should appoint, emperor, he will have a clear and certain asand they to have free exercise of their religion; surance of an honourable, entire, and puncfor so his late majesty had often declared himself tual restitution of all whatsoever belonging to to the said earl, and wished him to lay hold of you : As also we will take care to provide acany occasion for entertaining of any such pro cordingly, as fully and exactly for the asposition; and otherwise than so; and upon the surances requisite for the liberty of conscience, terms aforesaid, and by that way of conference for him and his domesticks, as they have done and discourse only, he delivered not any opi- here with us touching those that have been nion to his majesty at his majesty's being in granted them for the Infanta. And therefore Spain; for the said earl is very confident that seeing there is no inconvenience at all, that his majesty was returned out of Spain, before may cause your averseness or backwardness any proposition was made for the said Marriage, in this business, which we, for our parts, think other than by way of discourse as aforesaid; to be the best, shortest, and most honourable the same as the said earl believeth, being first way that you can take, for the compassing of moved and debated on, by way of proposition, the entire restitution, and making your peace here in England betwixt Mr. Secretary Calvert sure with the emperor, we hope your opinion and the ambassador of the king of Spain, about will concur with us therein, and shall intreat the 2d of Oct. 1623 ; and his late majesty upon you, by the first, to send us your answer.' relation made unto him by a letter of Mr. Secre By which letter, written after his majesty's tary Calvert, approved of the proposition, and coming out of Spain, it appeareth unto your declared the same to be the only way, as he lordships that there was no proposition of the


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,ta Marriage betwixt the son of the prince Palatine explained. And for the better manifestation

23, and the emperor's daughter when that letter of the truth of his proceedings in and conCine was written: for therein his majesty saith, he cerning the same, he saith, That on the day .was determined to interest the king of Spain of the departure of his majesty, then prince,

in the business before any such proposition from the Escurial in Spain, his highness deis should be made to the emperor: and it will livered unto him, in the presence of the ceu, also thereby appear, what his late majesty's commissioners on both sides, the powers, with a opinion was of the conveniency thereof, which public declaration taken in writing by Serica,

bre, the said earl, hopeth will acquit him, if, by secretary to the king of Spain, of the prince's Betr way of discourse only, he declared what he pleasure, and how he, the said earl, should use

knew was his majesty's inclination; which them, viz. That he should deliver them unto

with honesty, he could not have concealed. the king of Spain, upon the coming of the disCph And the said earl saith, That he doth not re pensation cleared from Rome, according to

meinber what answer sir Walter Aston made that which had been agreed, which was to have ents upon that discourse which he then delivered, been within ten days after the coming of the

nor what replies the said earl made; but sure said dispensation. . And he further saith, That he is, that whatsoever the said earl said, or what it is true, that the prince afterwards, by bis answers or replies soever were made, as it was letters, sent by one Mr. Clark, commanded by way of discourse, and not otherwise, so it him, the said earl, not to deliver the said powwas according to that which he then truly con ers till he should have received security that ceived to be the best and easiest way to accom the Infanta, after being betrothed, should not modate the business, and to be his majesty's enter into any religious order ; and that before pleasure, which the said sir W. Aston might be he proceeded, he should send unto his majesty ignorant of, as he is confident he was; and not then prince, such security as should be offered, out of any disaffection to our religion, or any that he might judge whether it were sufficient sinister respect or regard to the house of or not ; whereupon the said earl, as became a Austria, as by the said articles is intimated; faithful servant, presented unto his late majesty for he did not conceive the breeding of the Pala- and to his majesty that now is, then prince, such tine's son with the emperor, having a governor

assurances as were offered unto him for secur. appointed by his late majesty and his father, ing of that point, together with such reasons and he and his domestics to have the free use of as, he conceived, were fit to be offered to their their own religion, to be a matter of impos- considerations; which gave unto his late masibility, or, of such dangerous consegence in jesty and his majesty that now is, then prince, point of religion, as to imply bis conversion, as such satisfaction, as they were pleased to disby the articles is intiinated; well knowing that, patch a post presently unto him, absolutely disin the emperor's court, all princes there, though charging him of that commandment; as by his prisoners, and others his counsellors and their several letters, dated the 8th of Oct. 1623, servants about his person, and of great com will appear: as followeth, mand in his armies, being avowed protestants,

“ We have received your letters by Grisley, have the free use of their religion : and it is and the copy of them to our dear son ; and not to be supposed that the son of the prince we cannot forbear to let you know, how well Palatine, grand-child to the king of Great • we esteem that dutiful, discreet, and judicial Britain, should be matched, and no care taken relation, and humble advice to our son : to capitulate for the use of his religion, it being whereupon, having fully deliberated with ourever granted to the meanest princess that is self, and communicated with our dear sor, bestowed; and his majesty's special care in we have resolved, with the good liking of our this point is fully seen in the said letter." son, to rest upon that security, in point of

« X. To the Tenth Article the said earl • doubt, for the Infanta's taking a religious saith, That by comparing the above Article, of order, which you, in your judgment, shall his too much forwardness, with the second, think meet.' whereby he is charged with continuing the “ And by that other Letter of his majesty that Treaties upon generalities, without reducing now is, then prince, as folioweth ; viz. them to certainties and direct conclusions, • Your letter to the king and me, concerning your lordships will perceive how impossible it that doubt I made after I came from St. was for him to avoid exception : but for direct • Laurence, hath so satisfied us both, that we answer to the present Charge, he saith, That " think it fit no longer to stick upon it, but he did not presumptuously, nor to his yet • leave it to your discretion to take what secuknowledge, break his instructions, nor set any rity you shall think fitting.' day at all for the desponsories; but was therein Hereby the said Earl was absolutely freed merely passive, in admitting the day nominated from that commandment; and being so freed by the king of Spain, according to the capitu- thereof, he then remained under the order lation long before made; nor did he presump- which his majesty then prince, had left with tuously, wittingly, or willingly, disobey any him at his departure ; which was to proceed commandment or direction of his late majesty according to the capitulations, and his highor his majesty that now is, then prince, which ness's declaration when he delivered the said. he could understand not to be countermauded, powers unto him; and so he intended to have or, by precedent or future instructions, otherwise done, till, by his higbness's declaration, of the

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13th Nov. 1623, he was directly commanded , will also appear to be so understood ; and that the coutrary; which commandment he readily if he had proceeded to the execution of the and punctually obeyed: and for such his intens desponsories, before he recented direct and tion, till he was so countermanded, he con express commandment to the contrary, by the ceived he had not only suiticient warrant, but ativresaid letter of the 13th Nov. 1023, which had highly ollende , ji be iind done o:berwise : he readily and punctually obeyed, he had not for, 1. För bis proceeding to consummate the under tavour, bruken his instructions, nor deMatch he had warrant and instruction under served any blame for lack of assurance of restihis late m jesty's hand. 2. It was the main tution of the Palatinate, or temporal articles : scope of bis ambassage. 3. He was enjoined and first, of the Palatinate, his majesty did not to that by the king and prince's commission, send unto the said earl express direction not to under their great seals. 4. Ile lind positive dispatch the dt sponsories until a full conclusiou orders, under his late majesty's hand, by letter be had of the other Treaty of the Palatinate, since. 5. It was agreed, by capitulation, that together with that of the Marriage, as by the it should be within 10 days after the coming said Article is alledged ; only his late majesty of the dispensation. 6. liis late majesty and by the aforesaid letters of the 8th Oct. required his majesty that now is, then prince, sigintied the said eari so to endeavour, that his majesty unto him by their letters, at the same time might bave the joy of both at. Christinas; when they discharged him of his command wereds luis instructions of the 11th March, ment, touching the Infantia's entering into a 1021, were express, that he should not make religious order, that they intended to proceed thip business of the Palatinate a condition of the in the Marnages as by los majesty's letter of'! Varriage ; and his late majesty's letters, of the the 8th Oct. 1023, will appear. 7. Tie powers | Coth Dec, 1023, were fully to the same etect : were to that end ieft in his band, and renewed yet did the said earl according to what was intiayain after bis majesty's ret'in into England. mated by the said letters of the Biis Oct. 50 8. He had overthrow in the Marriage without carefully provide, that before the poworder ; for althouglisir W. Aston and himself ers were to have been executer, le bad an abused all possible means for the gaining of time, solute Answer in the busineas of the l'alatinate, and deferring ortie desponsories, yet the hing that the same should be really restored, accordof Spain cause it formirally to be protested, I ing to bis late majesty's desire; and the conde That in case the sound earl should insist upon i D'Olivares, both in his master's name and luis the deterring of the de-porsories, he would own, desired the said earl and sir W. Aston, hold himselt treed trom thie Treaty by the said | that they would assure his majesty of the real earl's intringing of the capitolution. And, in performance thereot'; and increated them, if truth, although the king oi Spain should have need were, they shouid engage their honours Condescended to have prorogved the desponso- and lives for it, as by their joint dispatch, of ries until one of the days of Chustmas, as by the 23rd Nov. 1023, will appear; and so mucha the letter (which is by this Article acknows I the said sir W. Asion and the said earl agreed ledged to be mistaken) was required, yet the should be delivered unto them in writing before prince's powers had before that time been ex- they would have delivered the powers, and so pirti. 9. lle durst not, without a precise ile said earl declared it; the which answer in warrant, put such a scorn upon so noble a lady, writing should bave been the same, which whom he then conceived likely to be the since was given them of the 8th Jan. 1624 : prince's wife, as to nominate a day for, the and both the said sir W. Aston, and the said Marriage when the powers were out of date. earl, were so cantident therein, as they, by their 10. He was himselt suorn to the treaty. Lastly, said letters of the 23rd of November, wrote to lle could oot, in honour and honesty, but en his late majesty as tellowcthi, vil.--" That liis deavour to perform that trust reposed in ban, majesty might according to his desire signified when the powers were deposited in his hands, to them by his letters of the Eth of October, with public and legal declaration taken into an give as well to his majesty's daughter, that instrument by the secretary of State to tie Christmas, the comfortable nervs of the wear king of Spain, leading and direcuing the use of expiring of' her great troubles and suitering, them ; for the same being then instrumentum as to his son, the prince, the congratulation stipulatum, as well the bing of Spain was inter of being married to a most worthy and excelested by the acceptance of the substitution, as lent princess."-By which it will evidently the prince by the granting of the powers, and appear, he meant not to leave the business of he could not in honesty tail that public trust, the Palatinate loose when he intended to prowithout clear and undoubted warrant; which, ceed to the Marriage : but he contesseth be as soon as he had, be obeyed : so the case was ever of opinion, the best pawn and assurstanding thus, the said earl is very contident, ance bis late maje-ty could bave of the real that the supposed countermands, or directions proceedings in the said business of the Palatiof restriction, when they shall be perused and nate, was, that they proceeded really to the considered of, will appear to bave been a very etlecting of the Match: and of the same opia slender and insufficient warrant against the nion was his late majesty also, and the lords aforesaid orders and reasons, berein before commissioners here in England, as appeareth specified : and is also as confident, that what by his instructions, dated the 14th Narchi, is assumed out of the said earl's dispatches, 1021; which opinion still continued in them,

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