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condition of forgiveness, and as thus trammelling the freeness of gospel grace,. 186 In regard to certain statements of Erskine and his friends, three things are to be observed,. ......188 FirstIs it, or is it not the case, that pardon, in the word of God, is connected with believing the Gospel,..... Secondly-The representations proceed upon the assumption, that there is no difference between a thing's being a sine qua non, and its being a ground or meritorious condition,.. Thirdly-It is forgotten that faith or believing is as indispensable in the scheme of universal pardon as in the other,........190 8. The alleged selfishness of the doctrine which connects forgiveness with believing,....

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9. Nature and extent of the curse pronounced by God against the transgression of his law,.

....

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.200

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Extract from Erskine,.
Remarks upon it. First-The doctrine of
universal pardon is, so far at least, con-
sistent with itself, in the answer which
is given to the question, "What is the
meaning of a man being pardoned, and
condemned after all,”.
Secondly-Difficulty arising from those texts
where forgiveness is promised to those
who repent, &c...
Thirdly-The objection made to spiritual
death being a part of the penal conse-
quences of the first transgression, is not

.203

a new one,. . . . .

...207

Fourthly-Inconsistency of Mr. Erskine's

statements,.

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Fifthly-It is too low an estimate of the evil
of sin on the one hand, and of the re-
demption by Christ on the other, to con-
sider temporal death the full amount of
the curse,.
Sixthly-Farther inconsistency in the state-
ment of Mr. Erskine,
Seventhly Admitting that temporal death is
the penalty, and that resurrection is the
reversal, and that all partaking of re-
surrection are pardoned, still the scrip-
tures represent that which comes to the
sinner by Christ as a benefit,..
Eighthly-Resurrection and resurrection of
the dead are sometimes used to denote,

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not the resurrection generally, but the
resurrection to life,.

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.215

1 Cor. xv. 20-23, considered,.

(1.) It is unfair and illogical, to consider it as any proof of temporal death being the amount of the curse,..

(2.) What is the "resurrection of the dead," of which the apostle speaks here,.... .216 (3.) By comparing verses 20-23 with verses 44-49, we learn what the resurrection is,...

(4.) What is the proper meaning of the 22d

verse,.

10. EXTENT OF THE REDEEMER'S ATONEMENT,.......

....ib.

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11. The scripture represents the extent of
the atonement as general and unquali-
fied,....
12. Dissatisfaction with the method adopt-
ed by some of interpreting certain
texts,...

First-It is forced and unnatural,.

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223 ..ib.

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Secondly-It makes the sacred writers express themselves inconsistently and absurdly,....

§ 13. Divine influence indispensably necessary in conversion,..

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14. In providing the atonement, there is a double object to be gained,.... 15. Another principle, the peculiar state of things before the coming of Christ and the introduction of the New Testament dispensation, which influences the phraseology of the gospel, and which demands a few remarks,. ..236 First-The words all and all men are frequently used where that which is affirmed is not true of all men without exception, but is true of all men without difference,. Secondly-The parallelism between Adam and Christ ought to be understood as having reference to the really efficacious influence of their respective actings,....245 Thirdly-By considering the universal phrase in the sense suggested, accords well with the Apostle's object,... Fourthly-Death and the curse do actually

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come upon all men without exception,.....ib. 16. The advocates of universal pardon allege that no other scheme of doctrine holds out sufficient encouragement to sinners to return to God,... First-If we hold out the same encouragement that is held out in God's word, we hold out enough,........ Secondly-Is there not sufficient encouragement when we tell sinners of a God who delighteth in mercy,.

.ib.

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Thirdly-Is not their encouragement pre-
cisely the kind of encouragement which
sinners ought not to have,.
17. The practical tendency of the doctrine
of universal pardon,..

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First As it regards believers,.
Secondly-As it regards the world at large,..258

PREFACE.

same

THE first of the two following Essays owes its publication, partly, to the request of christian friends in a neighbouring town, referred to in my preface to a volume of Sermons published in June last year. A similar application has more recently been received from the quarter, with respect to a Discourse preached there on the subject of the second. It would not be consistent with truth, were I, in either case, to say, that I had no previous thoughts of the press but these solicitations, signed by names so numerous and respectable, couched in terms such as it would be equal affectation and incivility not to own as gratifying and urging considerations, which a regard to the interests of truth did not leave me at liberty to resist, settled the half-formed and fluctuating purpose

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