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the question may relate to something (such, for example, as at what time the patient did a particular act) of which all present were ignorant, and in solving which they could render no mental assistance. The only solution, then, is that the tactual impression rouses the patient a little and brings him nearer the waking condition, or that it mechanically arrests or concentrates the attention in one direction. There is assuredly nothing singular in this tactual prompting of a sluggard or jaded imagination. There are examples without end perpetually oc
was nearing the port to which he was bound. A single gun was fired from the battery, and before the sound had died away he was awake. The shot, however, had suggested a battle-scene to his mind, and in the short period (not more than a few seconds) between the report and his awakening, he had dreamed through a most elaborate naval engagement, in which several ships had been dismantled, taken, or sunk, and he awoke amidst the shouts of the victors, probably the voices of the people on deck above him, which struck upon his ear just as he was emerging from the last stage of waking. This, however, by the way. We will concede thus much to Mr. Colquhoun, that there is an analogy between dreams and clairvoyance, when in either case, or in both cases, the mind reverts to some thought or to some act upon which it has previously dwelt, or where the mind is affected by something which has acted externally on the physical organization; but in neither case is it possible for the mind to be exact as to time, place, association, and circumstance, touching matters which have not previously occurred, or which one had no reason to expect would occur. Another observation or two, which though, perhaps, not quite strictly applicable to the subject of the note, we will add here. In the waking condition the attention is diffused or dissipated by impressions on the various senses, the recollection of past impressions and ideas created by the activity of the imagination, or drawn in by the perceptive powers; in fact, we stand, as it were, in a circle of ever-varying external agencies. . In nervous sleep conception is hard at work; there seems to be an intense concentration of the attention to the subject with which the mind is engaged, whether it happen to be of a mental or physical nature, and hence the vigor and perfection of the function or manifestation. The state of the circulation and condition of the blood also o an important part in the induction of a higher state of excitability of the whole nervous system. The mesmerizers tell us with an air of triumph that Baron Cuvier has successfully tried the magnetic operation upon young children and upon brute animals, where the will and imagination of the subjects could effect nothing. Our answer to this is, that monotony and the fixing of the attention will effect every thing where the reason does not interfere. You may solve the difficulty by merely stepping into your poultry-yard. It is well known that, if you cause a fowl to look at a chalk line, he will soon become entranced. Whence the magnetism here *
curring around us, and which we ourselves, we have no doubt, are constantly contributing to, of the influence of contact, or muscular action aiding memory and concentrating attention during the waking state by the pressure of the finger or hand against some part of the body, generally the forehead or chin, sitting in a particular posture, laying hold of a button, twisting a thread, twirling a pen, and so forth, all of which are familiar, every-day illustrations of the kind of influence which may be brought to bear upon patients in the soundest state. And thus we establish the important practical fact, that any idea excited in the mind may be fixed and almost indefinitely or instantaneously recalled by establishing contact with any part of the body. We have spoken of “double consciousness.” By this term the neurhypnotists mean it to be understood that a patient may be taught any thing during the nervous sleep if impressed upon the mind at the proper stage, and that he will be able to repeat his task with verbal accuracy whenever he be thrown into that state again, but shall have no consciousness or knowledge whatever of the act performed when in the ordinary, waking condition. This interesting and important fact is proved by many cases mentioned by Mr. Braid, almost every attempt to produce the phenomenon having proved successful. One or two instances may be mentioned by way of illustration. “A letter was written in the operating room and read to a patient of the name of Jones two or three times whilst he was in the sleeping condition; by this time he was enabled to repeat it verbatim without prompting of any kind; the letter was then deposited in a drawer before he was roused. The following day whilst asleep he was asked to repeat the letter which was read to him the day previous, which he did with verbal accuracy. When roused he was totally unconscious of having repeated any thing. Two weeks afterwards he was put to sleep again and requested to write a copy of the letter, and he did write it correctly with the exception only of two unimportant words. Another patient, an Oxford student, in the presence of his brother, repeated accurately, whilst in the sleeping condition, a verse of the New Testament in English, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Greek, besides a few lines from a poem; and when roused he had no recollection of any thing beyond a confused idea of having repeated some poetry, but upon being put to sleep again he repeated every thing as before. Now this is not only an interesting but a valuable phenomenon, since it is a provision under Providence against the villany which might be perpetrated by causing persons to sign deeds, &c., during this peculiar sleep, in the hope that in the waking condition they would be ignorant of the circumstances under which the signature was procured; simply by being hypnotized they would at once be able to expose the fraud which had been practised upon them.” This phenomenon, too, be it remarked, is precisely in accordance with what has been recorded of natural somnambulists. With respect to the comparative quickness with which effects are produced by the mesmeric and hypnotic methods, we rather think that the verdict must be in favor of the latter. We have more frequently seen M. Lafontaine fail than succeed with new subjects, whereas at Mr. Braid's conversazione in London, at which many professional men were present, in March 1842, we saw him hypnotize a deaf and dumb man aged thirty-two, an adult who had entered the room only a few minutes before the operator proposed to try him, and who could consequently know nothing of the proceedings; and, as the last experiment of the evening, eighteen sat down at once, most of them entire strangers to the operator, and sixteen of them were speedily in the hypnotic condition, Mr. Mayo himself testing the reality of the phenomenon. Besides this greater expedition and certainty in producing the desired effect, neurhypnotism has this additional advantage over mesmerism—an advantage, we take it, which will scarcely fail to recommend itself to the public—and, be it remarked, we take the mesmerists upon their own showing: they allege that any disease with which the operator may be afflicted is liable to be transferred to their patients, and therefore hold out a general caution to the former not to operate unless they be in the enjoyment of health and strength. It is not for us to determine what grounds there may be for this injunction; we are bound, we suppose, in common courtesy, to take it upon trust. But for hypnotism, we may say, that no such risk attends it; at any rate, its professors don't hint any thing of this kind. Then the mesmerized patients are liable to the perils and distresses of what is called “cross magnetism,” which is being magnetized by other persons than
the original operator, the consequence being that patients are sometimes so firmly locked in magnetic sleep that they cannot be released for hours; or, as experience would prove, even for days . It is true that similar cases have occurred when patients have not been “cross magnetized,” and consequently it is not impossible that these long-enduring trances are not the effect of “cross magnetism” at all; but it is certain that the mesmerists have occasionally very great difficulty in releasing their patients, which, as far as we can learn, has never yet occurred to the hypnotists. But let the gentle reader steel his nerves and prepare for a startler' What would be his emotions if we were gravely to assure him that the mesmerists claim a power over their patients equivalent (within worldly limits) to that which his Satanic majesty is said to have gained over Goethe's hero? And yet it is even so! The mesmerists allege that, having operated upon a patient (the number of times is not specified 1) they thereby acquire henceforward a perpetual power over him—that from that time forth for evermore he is subject to be governed by the mesmerizer's will instead of his own ; in a word, that, by submitting to be mesmerized, he voluntarily surrenders his liberty, and becomes the slave of his mesmerizer for life / Now only follow out this extravagant conceit to its effects. If the mesmerizer be a burglar or highwayman, or a murderer (and why shouldn't he 7), the patient becomes any of the three, or all three, as the case may happen, by sympathy, for what is to prevent his becoming particeps criminis what is to prevent his aiding and abetting? and at the close of the drama what is to prevent his sharing the same cart at Tyburn? Beyond this we will not attempt to follow him, even in imagination, for the contemplation becomes too hot even for the heated conception of the mesmerist! As for the hypnotists, we are not aware that they yet claim any such curious attributes; at any rate, Mr. Braid does not hint any thing of the kind. Now, if we are not much mistaken, these outrageous extravagancies will eventually ruin mesmerism and blot it out of the list of accepted sciences. None will regret this more than ourselves, for we see in the science much that is valuable, much that may be turned to profitable account as a new and independent therapeutic remedy; indeed much has already been accomplished in this respect, and incalculably more will be accomplished if its professors do not crush the rising agency under a weight of folly and extravagance, alike a mockery of the understanding and a violence to the feelings of humanity. With regard to neurhypnotism, though it does not stretch so far into the marvellous as mesmerism, nor produce any of the higher manifestations of coma, it produces sufficient for all safe and useful purposes. It is an efficient curative agency in a certain class of diseases, and it is a perfectly harmless one if properly conducted, but it should be only resorted to as a remedy under the direction of a professional man. It is too powerful an agency to be trifled with by ignorant people for mere idle curiosity, since it can be made to excite or depress the force and frequency of the circulation, or the state of sensation; or excite or depress the function of any organ of sense to an extent and with a celerity almost incredible. There have been a sufficient number of interesting cases lately recorded in the Medical Times and the Zoist, besides other periodicals, to convince any unprejudiced mind of the importance of both the mesmeric and the hypnotic methods of cure—cases where every resource of the healing art had been tried in vain by eminent medical men, and yet where the improvement under these new methods, and especially under neurhypnotism, was so marked as to leave no doubt that the operation and cure stood in the relation of cause and effect. In proof of what we have advanced we might quote a numerous list of cases successfully treated by Dr. Elliotson in the mesmeric method. We do not happen, however, to have the periodical in which they appeared at hand. Mr. Braid's book literally abounds in interesting cases of a most varied character, but we preser selecting one of a more recent date which we find reported in the Medical Times of the 13th of January:
“On the 28th of March, 1843, I was requested by a philanthropic gentleman to extend my jo. sympathy to a poor woman of the name of Barber, and by the power of hypnotism to relieve her of a severe rheumetic affection from which she had been suffering for several months. She was forty-four years of age, and a most pitiable object, suffering severely from pulmonary affection as well as rheumatism. With the latter she became afflicted about the beginning of winter; about the end of December 1842 had been entirely confined to bed for five weeks, after which she was able to get up, but the flexors of the legs and toes were so
contracted that she could not extend them, and it was with great pain, as well as with difficulty, that she moved about her apartment. Her hands and veins were also much affected, so that she was very helpless. o was not only severe, but unremitting either by day or night. After being hypnotized the first time, during which I endeavored to regulate the irregular condition of the muscles, she was enabled to straighten her legs and toes, and move her wrist and fingers, could walk with great freedom, and expressed herself almost entirely free from pain either of legs or arms before I left the house. After five operations, as is well known to many, she was so well as to be able either to walk or run across her room, and even to step on a chair with either foot first, without assistance. I operated on her thirteen times altogether, and she has remained free from rheumatism up to this date, 18th December, 1843.”
This must suffice. We have now worked our way to the end of our subject, at any rate, to the limits to which we deem it expedient to carry it for the present. Mr. Colquhoun, if we may judge from the tenor of his book, is much more of an enthusiast than Mr. Braid, who handles his subject with the delicacy and caution that would probably characterize him with a scalpel in his hand. They are both extremely interesting books, and will well repay perusal; especially that of Mr Colquhoun, who lets loose a flood of learning and research, interspersed with anecdote such as we do not very often encounter. If we mistake not, he is a kind of hero amongst mesmerists, having been one of the earliest revivers of it in this country, and we must do him the justice to say that from the first he has fought his way through the besetting prejudice and hostility (perhaps not always disinterested) of the age with a spirit and determination worthy of his race.
KING CHARLEs's BiblE.—At Broomfield, near Chelmsford, is a Bible which belonged to King Charles the First, the date A.D. 1529, Norton and Bill, printers. It is a folio, bound in purple velvet; the arms of England richly embroidered on both covers; and on a fly leaf is written, “This Bible was King Charles the First's, afterwards it was my grandfather's, Patrick Youngs, Esq., who was library-keeper to his Majesty, now given to the church at Broomfield by me, Sarah Atwood, August 4th, 1723.” The Bible is perfect, but there is no signature to sheet I, the pages run from 84 to 87, there being no 85 and 86. I do not find the book mentioned in Morant's Histor of Essex or any modern publication, and I thin it is a relic little known.—Athenaeum.
EXHIBITION OF THE ENGLISH IN CHINA.
From the Charivari.
MR. F.Risby, our friend and correspondent, late Anglo-Chinese pundit of Canton, has favored us with a most particular and lucid account of an exhibition now opened at Pekin; a show which has attracted all the mandarins and gentry, their wives and families, of the “flowery kingdom.” Little think the sagacious English public who visit Mr. Dunn's Exhibition, Hyde Park Corner, to marvel at the igtails and little feet of the Chinese, that a #. from Pekin—Li Li by name—has sojourned many years in England, for the express purpose of showing to his countrymen the faces and fashions of the barbarian English. But so it is. At this moment there is in Flying Dragon Street, Pekin, an exhibition, open called “The Barbarian English in China.” There we all are, from high to low; numbered in cases as at Hyde Park Corner, and a catalogue of our good and bad qualities illuminates the darkened mind of the curious.
Our dear friend the aforesaid pundit has translated this catalogue for Punch ; and has, moreover, regardless of expense on our part, caused drawings to be made of our countrymen as they are presented by Li Li to the dwellers of the Celestial Kingdom. The rominent parts of this catalogue we lay beore the reader; they will be sound to beautifully harmonize with the skill which has displayed us in cases; wherein, sooth to say, we do appear with a certain Chinese air, which roves the national prejudices of the artist.
hether he has improved our looks or otherwise for the Chinese public, we leave to the opinion of the judicious and reflecting beholder. Our simple duty is now to lay before the reader the Chinese catalogue, translated and enriched with notes, by our indefatigable and profound correspondent. The exhibition is dedicated to the “Son of Heaven,” very vulgarly known as the Emperor. The dedication, however, we omit; as it tells us no more than that Li Li is, in his own opinion, a reptile, a dog, a wretch, a nincompoop, a jackass, when addressing the said “Son of Heaven;” that his “bowels turn to water” with dread, and his pigtail grows erect, with amazement. It will be conceded that, allowing a little for oriental painting, the dedication in no way dis. fers from many other such commodities of home manufacture. Leaving the preface, we begin with the
When your slave remembers that through the creamy compassion of the Son of Heaven, the Father of the Universe, and the Dragon of the World, the barbarian English were not, in the late war, seized, destroyed, and sawn asunder; that their devil-ships were spared, their guns respected, their soldiers mercifully
permitted to retain their swords, and their sailors allowed to return to their barbarian wives and litlte ones, when your slave remembers all this, his heart is turned to honey by the contemplation of your natural sweetness, whilst, in admiration thereof, his soul drops upon its knees, and, prostrate, worships. And when your slave further remembers, that in some leisure hour you may—with a benevolence that is as broad as the earth, and as high as heaven, vouchsafe to reign over and to comfort the asoresaid barbarians, your slave tremblingly takes hope that the samples of the people he has gathered together, with the subjoined faithful account of their manners and their doings, may find favor in the sight of Him, who when he sneezes, arouses earthquakes; and when he winks, eclipses the moon. CAse I.-An English Peer. He wears a garter about his leg; an honorable mark of petticoat government bestowed by the barbarian queen. The garter is sometimes given for various reasons, and sometimes for none at all. It answers to the peacock's feather in the “flowery kingdom,” and endows with wisdom and benevolence the sortunate possessor. The peer is represented at a most interesting moment. He has won half a million of mone upon a horse, the British nobility being . addicted to what is called the turf, which in England often exhibits a singular greenness. The nobleman, however, displays a confidence always characteristic of the highly born. By winning so much money, he has broken the laws of the country, by which more than his winnings may be taken from him; but it will be seen that he has pens, ink and paper before him, and is at the moment he is taken, making a new law for himself, by which he may, without any penalty whatever, E. his cash. It is the privilege of the nobility to have their laws, like their coats, made expressly to their own in easure. Case II.—Shakspeare. This is the national poet, which the barbarians would, in their dreadsul ignorance, compare to Confutzee. It is melancholy to perceive the devotion paid by all ranks of people to this man. He was originally a carcass butcher, and was obliged to fly from his native town because he used to slip out at nights, kill his neighbors' deer, and then sell the venison to the poor for mutton. (All this I have gathered from the last two or three authentic lives lately written.) He went to London, and made a wretched livelihood by selling beans and wisps of hay to the horses of the gentlemen who came to the play-houses. Thinking that he could not sink any i. he took to writing plays, out of which—it is awful to relate—he made a fortune. (It is, however, but justice to the barbarians to state that they give no such wanton encouragement to o: writers at present.) Shakspeare, or Shac speer, cr Shikspur—for there have been mortal battles waged, and much blood shed, about the proper spelling of his name—is now the idol of the nation. The house he was born in has been bought by the government, and is surrounded by a silver rail. Whenever his plays are played, the queen invariably goes in state to the theatre, and makes it pain of death to any of the nobility to stop away. All his relations are dead, or it is to be feared—such is the devotion of the court to Shakspeare—that they would be turned into lords, and have fortunes settled upon them, like retired ministers and chancellors. A man named Char Les Knite, for only publishing his works, received from the queen her portrait set in precious diamonds and was made Baron of Stratford-on-Avon. In a word, from the queen to the peasant, all the people worship Shakspeare. The first thing seen on approaching Dover is a statue of the poet, forty feet high, perched upon the Cliff. It is lamentable to record these things; but to fully show the moral darkness of the barbarians, it is necessary. CASE III.-An Actor. In England, playactors are very different to the players of the “flowery country.” They all of them keep their carriages. When they do not, they, like Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst, job a Brougham. An actor sometimes spends twelve thousand a year; or if he does n’t exactly spend it, he takes credit for the same. Actresses, too, like watches, to act well, must act upon diamonds: these are sometimes borrowed at the rate of a hundred and fifty pounds per annum. The present specimen off. actor is also a sample of the first fashions. He is allowed great priv. ileges beyond those of any vulgar tradesman. When he can’t pay his debts he is allowed to make a joke, which is taken by the judge (commissioner he is called) as a very handsome dividend to be shared among the creditors. . Three jokes and a fair intention at a fourth are generally received from the actor as satisfaction in full to any amount of thousands. Case IV.-A Sempstress. The women who live by needle and thread amount to many thousands; and are easily known by the freshness of their complexions and the cheerfulness of their manners. Indeed, nothing shows the humanity of the barbarians in a more favorable light than the great attention which is paid by the rich and high to the comforts of their milli. ners, dress-makers, and sempstresses. Women of noblest title constantly refuse an invitation to parties rather than press too hardl upon the time of those who have to make their dresses. Indeed, there is what is called a visiting committee of ladies, who take upon themselves the duty of calling, not only on the employers of the needle-women to inquire into the comforts of the workers, but of visiting the humble homes of the women themselves, to see that they want nothing that may administer to their health and reasonable recreation. Hence there is a saying in England, that “the life of a sempstress is as the life of a bee; she does nothing but sing and make honey.” CAse V.-The Literary Lord. Perhaps, nothing shows a greater laxity of the English
police than the fact that a literary lord is seldom taken up for robbery. The specimen here given is from the life. The fact is, the English love the name of a lord, and so the booksellers pay handsomely for a title wherewith to gull the poor barbarians. The novel of a literary lord is generally made after the following fashion: he obtains the works of half-a-dozen of the lower and laboring classes, and, like a Hottentot, dresses himself in their entrails. He has been known to rob a Lion, gut a Tylney Hall, and knock down an old unoffending Antiquary, and only that he might enrich a miserable Tuft-Hunter. He is here depicted with a portrait of the original scissors with which he stops books upon the highway, and makes them deliver. Case VI.-A Member of the House of Commons. This is a beautiful specimen of a member of Parliament for a place called Lin Con. He calls himself a true son of Bull, and when his voice is heard, there is no doubting the relationship. He is at home, surrounded by pictures of the painted Britons, and is drawing out a bill by which Englishmen may be carried back to their pictorial condition. . A cup of tea is beside him, which he drinks cold; his wholesome aversion to steam not permitting a kettle to boil under his roof. Members of Parliament—especially the members for Lin Con—are always chosen for the clearness of their heads. If a rushlight, held close to one side of the skull, will, in a dark room, enable the electors to read the written professions of the candidate, held close to the other side, he is immediately elected. In the present specimen, there was nothing to intercept the rays of light which shone through the head like the flame of a taper through a water-bottle. CAse VII-Literary Gentleman in Summer Costume. The literary men receive the highest honors. From their body are chosen ambassadors to foreign states, plenipotentiaries extraordinary, governors of islands, and other officers of great authority. All the barbarians, from high to low, pay them the greatest homage. The queen |. so fond of the literary character, that she never sits down to dinner unless surrounded by at least a dozen of poets, novelists, dramatists, and others. In the palace they receive almost royal consideration. Nobody can calculate the sum of money every year expended by the queen in presents of jewels, books, &c., to the authors of England. And it is the same with the painters and sculptors. . It need scarcely be added that all these people are immensely rich. CAs E VIII.—A Law Lord. This nobleman was a chancellor, which means an officer who sells the chances of E Qui Ty, an article of excessive luxury, very rarely to be indulged in by the lower classes. Indeed E. Qui Ty may be likened to our delicious swallows' nests;*
* Li Li here alludes to the nests of the hirundo esculenta, which nests are made into delicious soup