« VorigeDoorgaan »
the Chinese in all those principles which are necessary to be understood by them, in order to their finding, in the conventional signs which he employs, the pronunciation of the English words; a thing which he does almost as accurately as if he had availed himself of the sounds of the French language to give expression to them. In this publication, which is merely the first part of the work, all the words and all the phrases are arranged according to an order the most methodical. Each Chinese word is followed by Chinese phonetic signs, which give the pronunciation of an English synonyme placed opposite. The second part will contain the rules of English syntax. We may add, that Mr. Thom has published this work at his own expense, and that he has distributed copies gratuitously to foreigners who reside in China, as well as to the native merchants at the new ports, henceforward to be brought into constant intercourse with Europeans, and requiring the assistance which such a work affords.-Asiatic Journal.
RoMAN ANT10 Uiti Es.—Several medals and Roman coins have lately been discovered at Bavay, in France. There was also a statuette in bronze of Harpocrates, represented as a half-naked child, having a scarf falling from the right shoulder over a part of his body to the left side. On the head is the lotus, on the back a quiver, and on the shoulders wings. On the right arm is a small cruise suspended by the handle, while the forefinger is placed on the lips. With the left hand he leans on a knotted staff, round which a serpent entwines. Near him is a bird resembling a goose, at his feet a hare or rabbit, and on his left a hawk.-Athenaeum.
THE EARL of Rosse's TELEscope —Though not perfectly finished, it is stated by Sir J. South, in a letter to the Times, that this mighty engine was on Wednesday week directed heavenward for a view of the stars. The noble owner, whose labors in forming every part of it, cannot be too much eulogized, writes that the metal just polished, is of a pretty good figure; and that with a power of 500, the nebula known as No. 2 of Messier's Catalogue was even more magnificent than the nebula No. 13 of Messier when seen with his lordship's telescope of 3 feet diameter and 27 feet focus. Cloudy weather prevented farther observation. The diameter of this metal is 6 feet and the focus 54.—Lit. Gaz.
Polish for PLATED WARE.—The means used for cleaning and polishing plated ware cannot probably be improved ; but it is nevertheless certain that the most judicious cleaning only hastens the period when the under-surface, with its coppery hue, must be discovered; and then, the only resource hitherto, has been the expensive one of replating by the old method. A physician has obviated this. The powder which he prepares from pure silver, chemically combined with other substances, is called by him Argyroseum. After being moistened by water, it is applied to the surface requiring to be coated, and the result is a layer of pure silver in intimate adhesion, with an exceedingly high polish. In the trumpery imitations of this discovery quick-silver is employed, which not only affects the health of those who
use it, but substitutes a black hue for a coppery one, and in variably destroys the original covering. The invention is the fruit of two years' experiments on the part of Dr. Dods. The cost is stated to be only one-fortieth of that incurred for replating in the usual way: and to restore articles with the Argyroseum appears to be quite as easy as merely to clean them.—Court Journal.
The MoA, or Gig Antic BIRD of New ZEALAND.—[From a Correspondent.]—In relation to this extraordinary creature, of which several species have been determined by Professor Owen, from the bones sent from New Zealand to Dr. Buckland, Professor Hitchcock (of Massachusetts) suggests, that the enormously large birds' nests discovered by Captains Cook and Flinders, on the coasts of New Holland, may have belonged to this gigantic biped. Capt. Cook's notice of these colossal nests, is as follows: “At two in the afternoon, there being no hope of clear weather, we set out from Lizard Island (on the N. E. coast of New Holland, and in about 15° S. lat.) to return to the ship, and in our way landed upon the low sandy island with trees upon it, which we had remarked in our going out. Upon this island we saw an incredible number of birds, chiefly sea-fowl, which we killed; and the nest of some other bird, we knew not what, of a most enormous size. It was built with sticks upon the ground, and was no less than 26 feet in circumference, and 32 inches high.” Capt. Flinders found two similar nests on the south coast of New Holland, in King George's Bay. “They were built on the ground, from which they rose above two feet, and were of vast circumference and great interior capacity : the branches of trees and other materials of which each nest was composed, being enough to fill a cart.” We have no known bird but the Moa that would require so enormous a nest; and it therefore appears possible, that if these gigantic birds are extinct in New Zealand, still they may be at the present time inhabitants of the warmer climate of New Holland. At all events, the facts above stated are too remarkable not to be worthy the attention of naturalists who may visit New Holland. In connexion with this statement, it may be well to mention that the gigantic birds' tracks on the new red sandstone of Connecticut, indicate that at a very remote period, species equally colossal existed; and we may add, that there has very recently been placed in the Gallery of Organic Remains in the British Museum, two large slabs with the imprints of numerous birds' tracks, obtained through the agency of Dr. Mantell, from Dr. Deane, of Massachusetts, by whom they were discovered in a quarry near Turner's Falls. These specimens are the finest examples of these extraordinary “footsteps on the sands of Time,” hitherto observed.—.7thenaeum.
St ATU E of LAPLA ce.—The statue of Laplace, for his native town of Caen, is to be of bronze, and placed in the Collège des Arts, now the seat of the Faculty of Sciences of that town, and the place in which the illustrious author of the Mécanique Cé. leste commenced his scientific studies. Government has promised a contribution to the amount of one-half the cost, estimated at 11,000 francs; and the municipal and academic councils are en
gaged in raising the rest.—Athenaeum.
John Dalton, D. C. L., F. R. S. — July 27. At Manchester, in his 78th year, John Dalton, D. C. L. Oxon., F. R. S. London and Edinburgh, President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Dr. Dalton was born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, in Cumberland, on the 5th of September, 1766, of respectable parents, members of the Society of Friends. He gave early indications of mathematical ability. In 1781 he became a mathematical teacher in Kendal, from whence he contributed largely upon mathematical, philosophical, and general subjects, to the two annual works called the “Gentleman's” and “Lady's Diary.” In 1788 he commenced his meteorological observations, which he continued throughout his life. In 1793 he published an octavo volume of “Meteorological Observations and Essays.” In the same year he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the New College, Mosley-street, Manchester, and continued to hold his . e until the college was finally removed to York. In 1808, he published “A New System of Chemical Philosophy.” and a Second Part in 1810. He also frequently contributed to Nicholson's Journal, the Annals of Philosophy, and the Philosophical Magazine, as well as to the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, of which, for half a century, he was an active member, having, together with his friend Dr. Edward Holme, M. D., F. L. S., been elected on the 25th of April, 1794. Indeed they were the oldest surviving members of the society, with the sole exception of Sir George Phillips, Bart., who became a member in 1785. Dr. Dalton had been President of this society since 1817. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1821 or 1822, and was also a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and of several foreign colleges. In 1826, he was presented with a gold medal by the Royal Society, for his scientific discoveries; and in 1833 the sum of £2000 was raised by his friends and townsmen for the erection of a statue to perpetuate his remembrance. The task was intrusted to Sir Francis Chantrey, who brought to the execution of his subject a warm admiration of the man, and a proportionate desire to do him justice; and the statue when completed, was deposited in the entrance hall of the Royal Manchester Institution. The University of Oxford did itself high honor in conserring on the septuagenarian philosopher the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. During Dr. Dalton's visit to London, about 1833, it was
thought by his friends that it would be proper (if
not inconsistent with his private feelings,) that he should be presented to the King, and in that case that the robes to which his academic degree entitled him would be the fittest costume for him at the levee. The Lord Chancellor (Brougham) being made acquainted with these feelings, not only immediately approved of them, but offered himself to present Dr. Dalton to the King Dr. Dalton having been made acquainted with the usual forms, agreed in the propriety of the view taken by his friends, and attended the levee. King William received the philosopher very graciously, and kindly relieved the little embarrassments of such an unusual position, by addressing to him several questions respecting the interests of the town of Manchester. The mortal remains of this highly-esteemed individual were interred on the 12th August in a vault in Ardwick Cemetery, about a mile and a half distant from Manchester. The body lay in state at the Town Hall, on Saturday, Aug. 10, and the public were allowed to pass through the room during the greater part of the day. At 11 o'clock on Monday, the procession moved from the Town Hall in the following order:—About 500 members of various societies, 22 carriages, 300 gentlemen, 10 carriages, 100 members of the various institutions, 36 carriages, the last of which contained the Mayor of Manchester. The hearse, drawn by six horses. Six mourning coaches, drawn by four horses each, containing the relatives and friends of the deceased, followed by the members of the Philosophical Society. The procession moved through the principal streets of the town, and was joined near the cemetery by a large body of the Society of Friends. Most of the mills and workshops were closed, as were also the whole of the shops in the principal streets of the town. The vault in which the body was laid was allowed to remain open until five o'clock in the evening, during which period many thousand persons viewed the coffin.-Gentleman's Magazine.
Rev. Thom As Gill Espie, L.L. D. Sept. 11.At Dunino, N. B., the Rev. Thomas Gillespie, L.L. D., Professor of Humanity in the University of St. Andrew's ; an individual well known to the literary world for his many beautiful contributions to the poetry of his country, and known also to the classical world as an author and a teacher.
Dr. Gillespie was formerly minister of Cults, in the Presbytery of Cupar, where, after the manner of the s. adventurer, he had the words of the Roman poet carved over the portal—
“Inveni portum, spes et fortuna valete; Sat me ludistis, ludite nunc alios.”
His immediate predecessor in the ministry at Cults was the Rev. Mr. Wilkie, father of the late lamented Sir David Wilkie ; and we have heard Dr. Gillespie condemn his own want of taste in having, upon his entering to the manse, unconsciously, in the cleansing process, washed away many rude drawings from the walls of the nursery, the work of the infant painter. Like a kindred spirit, the Doctor had a great admiration of the genius of Wilkie; and, in the course of his pilgrimage in Cults, he collected many interesting anecdotes of Sir D. Wilkie's juvenile efforts and encouragements, and which were communicated by him to Allan Cunningham, and hold a place in his last work, “The Life of Sir David Wilkie ''
Dr. Gillespie having been appointed assistant and successor to his father-in-law—that distinguished classical scholar, the late Dr. John Hunter, Professor of Humanity in St. Andrew's—in the year 1828, vacated the living of Cults, and settled in the city of St. Andrew's.
Very few men had greater versatility of imagination or power of satire; and few indeed could commit their overflowing thoughts more easily to paper, ready for the eye of the printer and the critic. There is a vast amount of his writings, both in poetry and prose, extant in the magazines of the day, as well as in the newspaper press of Scotland, particularly in that of #. and Dumfries.
Dr. Gillespie was twice married, his former wife being a daughter of Dr. Hunter, already mentioned ; and his second, who survives to lament his loss, a daughter of the late Rev. Dr. George Campbell, of Cupar-Fise, and sister of the Right Hon. Lord Campbell.—Gentleman's Maga2true.
CApt. BAs IL HALL, R. N.—With sincere sorrow we record the death of this accomplished and gallant officer, at Haslar, on the 11th, in his 56th year. At present we have not had an opportunity of writing such a notice as his naval character and literary celebrity demand. He was of an ancient Scottish family, and entered the service early in life. In 1818 he published his voyage to China in the Lyra; and his visit to Corea and Loo-Choo on his return from Lord Amherst's embassy, was full of the most novel and interesting matter. Since then his literary publications have been numerous and exceedingly popular. No writer ever excelled him in vivid description: and especially at sea. He was also a i. and liberal contributor to several of our best periodicals. Unfortunately his constitution gave way under excitement of mind, after being severely tried by foreign climates; and it is remarkable that he was the last person to bid farewell to Sir Walter Scott, when in a similar condition, his account of which was affecting in the extreme—Lit. Gaz.
FRANcis BAily.—It is with regret that we announce the death, on the 30th ult., in the 71st year of his age, of Mr. Francis Baily, President of the Royal Astronomical Society. Mr. Baily, whose scientific attainments are well known, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1821, was a member of the Royal Irish Academy, a Corres
iponding Member of the French Institute, the
Royal Academy at Berlin, and other learned and scientific bodies. Mr. Baily, we believe, was, in popular phrase, the architect of his own fortune. In early life his struggles were great, and we have heard that he emigrated to America. Be this as it may, we find him at the beginning of this century resident in London, employed in the office of a stockbroker, and for many years eking out his small salary by a series of useful publications, generally on insurance, annuities, and like subjects; the last an ‘Epitome of Universal History,’ published in 1813. Eventually his talents were discovered and appreciated, and he soon obtained what only he desired, a sufficient fortune to justify his retiring altogether from business, and devoting himself wholly to science; and nobly did he employ his leisure and his fortune, as the records of the Astronomical Society bear honorable testimony.—Athenaeum.
GRANville PENN, Esq., F. S. A., died last week at his seat, Stoke Park, Berks, at the patriarchal age of eighty-two, and for nearly half a century occupied a marked place in the literature of England, especially as connected with sacred subjects. Of a name and family of great note, both in the old and new world, his i. years were passed in great retirement, amid some of the most lovely scenery in our isle. The following works are from his pen:— 1. Critical Remarks on Isaiah vii. 18.4to. London. 1790. 2. Remarks on the Eastern Origination of Mankind and of the Arts of Cultivated Life. 4to. Same ear. y 3. Three copies of his Greek Version of the Inscription on the Stone from Egypt, containing a Decree of the Priests in honor of Ptolemy the Fifth. 8vo. 1802. 4. A Christian Survey of all the Principal Events and Periods of the World. 2d edit. 8vo. 1812. 5. The Bioscope; or the Dial of Life explained. 8vo. 1812. 6. The Prophecy of Ezekiel concerning Gog, the last Tyrant of the Church; his Invasion of Ras, his Discomfiture, and Final Fall examined and in part illustrated. 8vo. 1814. 7. Original Lines and Translations. 8vo. London. 1814.
In a later work, Mr Penn opposed the rising science of Geology on somewhat similar religious grounds to those taken up by the Dean of York. —Lit. Gaz.
THE REv. Rob ERT TAylor, so notorious as the sacred ally of Carlile in the preaching of infidelity, and the contracted husband of the no less notorious Miss Richards of the Rotunda, now Mrs. Dorey, died last month at Tours, in France, whither he had gone to avoid paying damages for his breach of promise to the lady, and where he practised as a medical man. He was fifty-two years of age, and has left a widow and a lot of manuscripts Taylor received a university education, and rather distinguished himself at college; he was dis-priested for his pestilent doctrines, and afterwards fell into that train of bold atheistical license which procured him the unenviable distinction of being called “The Devil's Chaplain.” —Lit. Gaz.
Dr. Wall was the first who directed the attention of Biblical students to the important fact, that most of the discrepancies between the Septuagint version and the existing Hebrew text, have arisen from the efforts of the Rabbins to introduce a system of vocalization into their language, the want of which was of course felt when Hebrew ceased to be generally spoken. According to this theory, Hellenistic influence may be traced not merely in the Greek translation of the Bible, but even in the Hebrew text itself, as it is now #. o the Jews; and the pointed Hebrew ible must be regarded as a translation, not as an original record. The Septuagint and the pointed Hebrew are thus placed on the same level as rival versions. Dr. Wall's theory goes further, for it impugns the originality of even the unpointed text, for the attempt to vocalize it by the introduction of the letters Aheri must, from the nature of the Hebrew language, have led to many perversions of the sense. It has been announced that Dr. Wall's work, minutely examining the internal evidence in support of this theory, will be published in the course of the present year. Sir Lancelot Brenton's translation suggests some historical inquiries which may throw light on the external aspect of the question, and we shall very briefly state the outlines of these investigations. The great question to be decided is, the extent to which Hellenization was carried in Central and Western Asia under the Macedonian empire of Alexander and his successors. Egypt, under the Ptolemies, is the portion of that empire of which we have the most perfect account, and there can be little doubt that the language and literature of that kingdom became perfectly Greek. There is evidence that the Selucidae endeavored to bring about the same change in their Syrian kingdom ; and though they were not equally successful, we find, from the New Testament, that Greek was the common spoken language in Palestine itself; so that when Christ on the cross made an exclamation in Syrian (Eli, Eli, lama sabacthani), the bystanders did not understand his words (they said, “He calleth for Elias.") It is noticed as a remarkable circumstance, that St. Paul on one occasion addressed a Jewish mob in the Hebrew tongue, and far the greater part, if not the whole of the New Testament was written in Greek. To this may be added, that the quotations made from the Old Testament in the New, are taken from the Septuagint or some other Greek version, but not in any demonstrable case from the original Hebrew. It is not necessary to extend this inquiry further, else it would be easy to show that the Jews who settled in Alexandria exercised a very decided influence over their brethren in Palestine, and that this influence increased the tendency to Hellenism, which it was the policy of the Macedonian rulers to establish. Nothing but a very minute and critical examination of the internal evidence would justify a decision in favor of the present Hebrew text or of the Septuagint in the passages where they differ, and Sir Lancelot Brenton has done good service to
the cause of Biblical Criticism, by rendering the Septuagint accessible to general readers; for, until public attention is directed to the issue, scholars are not likely to undertake the labors necessary to lead to a right decision.—Athenaeum.
Description of the Skeleton of an Extinct Gigantic Sloth, Mylodon robustus, &c. By Richard Owen, F. R. S., &c.
The researches of geologists, or rather paleozoologists, have, within the last few years, brought to light the relics of a series of animals, of a size immensely beyond that of any previously known, and not confined to the class of reptiles. The gigantic bones recently brought from America } Mr. Koch, and exhibited at the Egyptian Hall, are now deposited in the British Museum, where they have been scientifically put together, and form (notwithstanding the somewhat diminished size compared to the fictitious height given to them by Mr. Koch) one of the most extraordinary subjects in our National Museum, being, moreover, unique in Europe. The immense bones of birds, lately sent from New Zealand, belong to a (or, in fact, to several) species far larger than the largest ostrich; whilst it is only during the past season that zoologists and geologists have been startled by the discovery of the bones of a tortoise which must have measured 18 or 20 feet in length. One of the bones of this creature is now placed in a case in the British Museum, and by its side the corresponding bone of the Indian tortoise, which latter animal measures about two feet in length, and the relative proportions of the bones are nearly similar to those of a wren and a turkey. The memoir before us contains a very elaborate description of another of these gigantic animals, belonging to the family of the sloths, but which, when living, was a perfect Titan compared to its present representatives. With a trunk shorter than that of the hippopotamus was combined a pelvis equalling in breadth, and exceeding in depth, that of an elephant! and a tail equalling the hind limbs in length, and proportionably as thick and strong, whilst its ribs were equal in breadth to those of the elephant, and its feet (especially of the anterior extremities) of enormous power. The bones of this creature were discovered in 1841, near Buenos Ayres on the fluviatile deposits constituting the extensive plain intersected by the great Rio Plata. A memoir on such an object from the pen of Prof. Owen, needs no praise at our hands. The subject, as the title-page notices, is treated not only with reference to the precise determination of the abstract structure of the various portions of the skeleton, but also with especial reference to the various habits indicated by each bone; and the whole is illustrated by a sé. ries of plates of great precision and delicacy.— .3thenaeum.
of transcription, and, unlike first attempts in general, almost attaining perfection. The plates have been obtained by the mere action of light upon sensitive paper, the representations of the objects being “impressed by Nature's own hand.” Mr. Fox Talbot has the merit of having discovered, so long ago as 1833, the rudiments at least of this very curious and extraordinary art, which employs Nature herself in the capacity of an artist. In a “ Brief Historical Sketch of the Invention of the Art,” he has developed the successive stages of its progress, from a rude idea of the possibility of rendering permanent the images transmitted through the instrument absurdly called the Camera Lucida, to “the important epoch of the announcement of the Daguerreotype,” at which period he had succeeded in fixing the images of objects upon sensitive paper. The present number contains five plates, or pictures –1. Part of Queen's College, Oxford; 2. The Boulevards at Paris; 3. Articles of China —that is, a view of the inside of a closet or cabinet of porcelain; 4. Articles of Glass; 5. Bust of Patroclus. These pictures possess all the beauty of tinted drawings or plates, in conjunction with a fidelity of outline and truthfulness of character which no human artist's hand could reach. The book is luxuriously printed.—As atic Journal.
Vollstandige Grammatik der Englischen Sprache, vorzūglich für jene bestimint, welche nicht allun die Regeln derselben gründlich Kennen lernen, sondern auch in ihren Geist eindringen ihre besten Klassiker Kritisch wilrdigen, und sich einen natürlichen, genauen und eleganten Sly in dieser Sprache aneignen wollen. Von S. Hirst, Graduirtein Mitgliede der Universitat zu Cambridge. [This lengthy title-page declares that Mr. Hirst's Grammar is intended for those Germans who, not contented with a profound study of grammatical rules, wish also to penetrate into the spirit of the English language, attain a critical knowledge of its best classics, and acquire a natural, accurate, and elegant style. Title-pages of this kind are apt to reinind one of the pictures outside of wild-beast caravans, raising expectatious the interior cannot gratify. An examination of Mr Hirst's quarto (!) has convinced us that in his case the suspicion was just. It is the substance of Lindley Murray and Walker broken up into analytical tables, in which the excessive subdivision and classification which is the besetting sin of one school of German writers is exagge ated beyond all bounds. It would require as long a tino to master Mr. Hirst's distinctions and definitions as a foreigner usually requires to master our language ; and after they were learned, the study of the language would still have to be begun. The wo, k is commonplace in its matter, with an affectation of originality and scientific arrangement in its form, that renders it, if not unintelligible, at least useless as a grainmar.]—Spectutor.