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(Dec. reception which the King of the French has | Then welcome to the stronghold of the brave; received at the hands of the Englieh people Valor and worth shall twine the wreath for thee. will be perused by posterity with pride and We hail thy passage o'er the bounding wave, pleasure, and will" fill one of the brightest And hymn thee to the Island of the Free! pages in the history of this country.
H. B.K. There is but one drawback to the general satisfaction wbich has been experienced in the manner of his Majesty's sojourn in this country. The absurd and ridiculous canı of a por. tion of the French press cannot but have given pain to the illustrious Monarch now in England. It is true that these records of AKERMAN'S NEW TESTAMENT. fancied insulis to the honor of France are put forth, not because they are believed,
Fron the Literary Gazette. but from a desire to keep alive those feelings The New Testament of our Lord and Sariour of hostility to England which no doubt exist
Jesus Christ. The text from the Authoramongst a certain class in France. We are
ized Version. With Historical Notes and so far sorry for this, as it may be a maiter ol
Numismatic Illustrations, by J. Y. Akerman, annoyance to the King; but we have full
F.S. A. l'art I. 8vo. J. Russell Smith confidence in the assurance of his Majesly that, in the preservation of the friendly rela- ular explanatory notes has long been a deside
An edition of the New Testament with poptio between the two countries, he will be assisted by the right-thinking and the majority added to the text, are generally of a docrinal
ratum. The notes which have hitherlo been of the people of his own. The warmth with which "his Majesty has been greeted must
character, and for ihe larger class of readers, be an assurance to him of the respect in are, to say the least, of very little use. There which he is held in Great Britain, and that the is much in the New Testament, which the feeling of the great bulk of our countrymen is ordinary reader is totally unable to understand with lim in his determination to preserve abounds with allusions and expressions bor
without the help of historical notes; for it peace between France and England.
rowed from the manners and passing events of
the day. No passages are more difficult than TO LOUIS PHILIPPE
those which relate to the money of the time:
they are translated either by words which
give no exact idea of the original, or by the We bid thee welcome to our friendly shore, general expresion, a piece of money, when the Lord of the vintage bowers of sunny
word in the original conveys a more exact and And call the Magnates of the Isle io pour definite idea. There is no person more cape Their greetings forth, with sestal song and dance. ble of explaining this part of the subject than
Mr. Akerman : and we are rejoiced to see Not that thou art entlıronéd, do we sing The votive lay, or sweep the breathing lyre;
that he has entered upon the task with zeal
. Holy and pure the Muses' offering,
His numismatic illustrations are not confined Nor diadems their plaudits can inspire !
to the explanations of the direct allusions to
different kinds of money in the sacred text; But thine the gifts which sanctify and raise
but he brings his ni mismasic knowledge not The peasant's cottage or the kingly throne; only to explain historical difficulries, but to furThine the just tribute of the warmest praise, nish new and most decisive evidence of the From hearts with feelings kindred to line own! authentici'y of holy writ. In fact, he has done
as much (ii not nore) for the New Testament Nestor of Monarchs ! o'er thy thoughtful brow, as the Gronovii and Grævii of former days did If ruthless 'Time with furrowing hand hath past, in this deparıment of criticism for the classical Still lingers there the in perishable glow Which worth and wisdom round their votaries explanatory and he has carefully avoided en:
writers of antiquity. His noies are entirely cast.
tering into all subjects of a controversial or A Patriot King! 'tis thine, with steady hand, doctrinal nature ; eo that we can safely reThe lawless rage of faction to control;
commend his edition of the New Testament To shed the light of science o'er the land, to all classes of readers, to whatever religious And waft thy France's fame from pole to pole.
sect they nay belong. We will only add one Thou smilest calmly at th' assassin's knife ;
or two specimens of his notes and illustrations
On our Saviour's denunciations against Tyre No dastard fears thy steadfast soul can know; Nor mortal guilt shall touch thy guarded life,
and Sidon (Matt. xi. 21), it is observed: For round thee Heaven its Ægis bright shall
“ Tyre and Sidon. Of these great and fathrow.
mous cities of antiquity we have many numis
matic monuments, the iypes of which show that Not here thy full reward ! yet even here idol-worship reigned in them. Though often The sacred 'ties of social love are thine ; in the neighborhood of both, our Lord appear Ties which can hallow sorrow's gushing tear, not to have entered within them. In the med And o'er affliction breathe a calm divine. tion of these
cities in the same sentence with
Bethsaida and Chorazin, he seems to allude the empire, until the denarius, once a very to the idolatrous practices of the people. beautiful medalet, became a coin of very inEven an outline of the histories of Tyre and ferior execution, low relies, and reduced thickSidon could not be comprised within the limits ness and weight. On the model of these deof a note. Specimens of their earliest known generated coins some of the types of our coins are here given; bu: these are not ante. Anglo-Saxon money were struck, under the rior to the days of the Seleucidæ, who struck Jenomination of penny,' and of the weight money in both these cities on the same model of twenty-four grains; hence the term 'penny. The first is a terradrachm of Tyre, with the weight. The weight of these pennies delaureated head of Hercules, the Baal or lord clined before the Norman Conquest; and, in of their city (see Arrian. Exped. lib. ii. 16), subsequent reigns, they were gradually rereverse, an eagle standing on a rudder. duced until the time of Elizabeih, when the Legend : TYPOY IEPAS KAI AS AYOY; penny in silver was a mere spangle, as it is at i. e. (money) of Tyre the holy and inviolable. ihis day. The term "denarius? is yet preThis is probabiy an example of the pieces served in our notation of pounds, shillings, and mentioned by Josephus (Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. pence, by £. s. d. The relative value of 21, B. 2) as coins of Tyre, containing four money in ancient and modern times is a subAttic drachmas. The titles of holy,' orject oi' much difficulty of illustration, and need sacred and inviolable, boasted by many not be discussed in this note; but it is worthy Greek cities, and pompously inscribed on their a passing observation, that, in this country, in coins, were probably of service to Tyre and the middle ages, a penny-a-day appears to Sidun at a later period, when Cleopatra en- have been the pay of a field-laborer. Among deavored to persuade Antony to give her the Romans the denarius was the daily pay those cities (Joseph. Ant. lib. xv. c. 4, s. 1). of a soldier (Tacit. Ann. lib. i. c. 17)." The other coin is of Sidon, and of the sanie denomination. The obverse bears a turreted female head, personifying the city; the reverse has the eagle and palin-branch, with the legend, ΣΙΛΟΝΙΩΝ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥ ΛΟΥ. i.e. (money) of the Sidonians the holy and inviolable ; Ol., i. e. the year 19 of the era of the Seleucidæ." In the translation of Matt. xvii. 24, “Doth
Chain BRIDGES.— The Liverpool Albion renot your master pay tribute ?" under the word ports as follows, of a scheme so gigantic, that it tribute is concealed the nanie of the coin which needs all our modern faith in the miracles of sciin the original indicates the sum paid; Mr.ence to believe in its success.—“We have heard
that the practicability of connecting the opposite Akerman observes :
shores of the Mersey by a stupendous chain “Doth not your master pay tribute? O diddo- bridge, is under consideration. It is said, that, xaloz i pūv oú tehei tà didampia; the didrach. by the formation of a viaduct, on the principle of ma here mentioned was the half-shekel which an inclined plane, on arches, commencing at the the Jews were commanded to pay yearly for top of James-street, to the margin of the river, a the support of the Temple (see Exod. xxx sufficient elevation may be obtained. A similar 13). On the taking of Jerusalem hy the Ro erection on the Woodside bank of the river mans, they were compelled to pay this sum to would, of course, be requisite. Our active and Jupiter Capitolinus (see Xiphilin's Abrid. ol enterprising Cheshire neighbors would, no doubt, Dion. Cassius, lib. ix ; and Josephus, Bell. readily assist in promoting a project bo magnifiJud. vii. 6, § 6). The hemi-staters current in cent. Such a work would throw all other sus
pension bridges into the shade, and be a world's Syria at this time, in all probability were oc wonder."-To this notice, we may add, that an casionally used for the half-shekel. the stater iron bridge is about to be thrown over the Neva, being equal to the shekel, as ver. 27 shows."
at St. Petersburg, to replace the Bridge of Boats, We only add another example, shewing the Isaac's bridge—the ironwork for which has how the editor sometimes, in explaining his been contracted for by a Liverpool house, and the text contrives to convey more general iuforma- piles are to be of the granite of Finland. Tho tion of an interesting nature. The text is Matt. bridge will be 1078 feet in length, and will havo XX. 2.
seven arches, the centre of 156 English feet, and “A penny a day. The penny here men- the others on each side respectively 143, 125, and tioned was ihe denarius, which, at the time of 107 feet. This great work will supply the means our Lord's ministry, was equivalent in value to of communication, in the very centre of the Rusabout sevenpence-halfpenny of our money.
sian capital, which the tides from the gulf, with a With the decline of the Roman empire the long been supposed to render impossible. The
west wind, and the ice from up the river, have denarius was, by degrees, debased; and, modern application of iron to bridges has lessened before the tiine of Diocletian, had entirely the difficulty ; and the Emperor, with his chardisappeared, or, rather, had ceased to be acteristic impetuosity, has ordered that the bridge struck in the imperial mints ; but this emperor shall be completed within a time impossible any restored the coinage of silver, and denarii where but in St. Petersburg,-and greatly in favor were again minted, though reduced in weight of the future operations of the gulf-tide and the This reduction went on after the division of Roating ice.-Athenæum.
BENEKE'S THEORY AND PRACTICE OF nasia or the great English schools are the EDUCATION.
best : but as a country, no man we suppose
of common information will be disposed to From the Foreign Quarterly Review.
deny that not Prussia ouly, but the whole Erziehungs und Unterrichts-lehre. Von of Germany, is much better supplied with
Dr. Friedrich Edward Beneke. (Theo- education, both as regards quantity and ry of Education.) 2 Bände. 8 vo. 2te quality, than Great Britain. This being Auflage. Berlin. 1842.
the case, it is only natural to expect that 'Tis now within a few months of a full German literature should exhibit ihe greatcentury, since 'on the margin of fair Zu- est number of original and standard works rich's waters' was born the great apostle on education : that these indefatigable of regenerated pædagogy in modern times workers in the prolific world of bcoks
- Henry Pestalozzi; and Pestalozzi, if should have reduced their manifold experiGerman Switzerland is a part of Germany, ence in this matter to some system of genewas a German. This man, indeed, was rally recognized and universally available not the first German, whose healthy instinct principles : that in fact pædagogy in these had brought him as an educator directly in latter days should constitute with them a contact with living nature, making a breach new science, as political economy does in the hard wall of separation between the amongst ourselves. Here, in England, inschool and the world, which the human- deed, where it has long been the practice ists' with their stone and lime classics so to make any body a schoolmaster, and to Jong doggedly upheld : the pious Francke make no very particular demands' on the in Halle, Salzmann, Rochow, and Baze- energy or eloquence of professors, the dow, had preceded him; but Pestalozzi was claims of the science of teaching a b c or the first who caused the word ' education,' alpha, beta, gamma, io a place in the learnlike a new gospel, to thrill through Europe, ed roll, may not be very distinctly underand made the little town of Yverdon, with stood; but a French stalesman, who knows its old castle, as famous in the moral world something about the matter, speaks in very as Paris, with its bastiles and butcheries, different language. “The science of eduwas in the political. Since his day much cation,' says he is an essential branch of has been done for the good cause in many moral and political philosophy, and, like places; but amidst all the echoing of fa- all other departments of science worthy of mous educational names at home and that name, it has need of being surrounded abroad, it requires no very nice-discerning by the light of experience; and to avoid judgment of the ear to know that Germany the danger of being misled by fantastic has been, and is, the key-note of the song theories, we must lose no opportunity of
Das paedagogische Deutschland' is the obtaining an accurate acquaintance with wame of one of Diesterweg's books; one the various systems of education that are might apply this appellation to the whole followed by all great civilized nations.'* country—pædagogic Germany,' — and, We shall therefore say that the Germans adopting an idea of Wolfgang Menzel, sug- have done well to erect 'paedagogik' into gest, that instead of an eagle, the arms of the dignity of a separate science; and that the nation (when the nation appears) should their voluminosity in this department is at be a goose, with a professor standing be once a sign of their past, and a prophecy side is a supporter, and plucking a quill of their future progress in the noble art of out of its wing; for truly, as a shrewd ob- which this science deduces the principles, server once said, when we rrace matters to and systematizes the rules. Let us now the fountain head, 'Deutschland is govern- see what Herr Beneke has got to say. ed by its universities much more than by The Berlin professor commences, as an its princes.' We do not here intend to stir English one would do, with a 'Vorrede' the discussion which Herr Huber's recent (a preface); from that he goes on to an work* provokes, whether the German gym-Einleitung' (a leading into—an introduc
tion; and this Einleitung,' extending over It is a common remark that love goes by contrast as much as by similarity. So Milton's of championing these institutions through thick Esvorites, among the ancient poets, were Euripi- and thin, for no other reason than that they are dus and 'Ovid, men in every respect the reverse in all respects precisely the reverse of the correof himself; and Professor Huber, in his work on sponding institutions in bis own country: • the English Universities,' (English by Newman * Cousin on · Education in Holland,' by Leon3 vols., 1843,) seems to have set bimself the task | bard Horner. London, 1838.
101 pages, starts in the true German style, j write sentences that have a beginning and with a 'Grundbegriff,' or fundamental no in end, and to billow out thoughts whose tion of what education is. In the preface depths may be sounded.
This is very to the first edition, which was published in food. Let the duty be taken off to-morrow, 1834, we are informed that while in the that we may all buy German books. first decennium of the present century the Having in his introduction based pædaindefatigable diligence and sound judgmenı gogy upon the fundamental principles of of Niemeyer, the nice practical tact and psychology,* our author divides the whole the fine human warmth of Schwartz, the subject with great judgment into two parts. piercing perspicacity of Herbart, and Jean The doctrine of education' (ErziehungsPaul's sparkling combinations, had in close lehre), and the doctrine of instruction' succession, done much for the science of|(Unterrichts-lehre). This is the favorite pædagogy, and since that time many trea- distinction made by that excellent educatises on separate branches had appeared, tionist, Mr. Stow, in Glasgow. To instill, in respect of scientific completeness, struct, says the northern philanthropist, 'is no work of any note on education had is comparatively an easy matter;
a retail sued from the German press.' This fact dealing in special commodities, a dexterous concerns us little, but the alleged cause of juggling with so many balls; but in order it is worth our hearing. The science of to educate, you must not merely instruct, pædagogy,' says the professor, depends but you must train; to have an educational altogether on the science of psychology; it system at all, it must be a 'training system.' is, in fact, only the application of psycho- This is what the iniquisitive traveller will logy, as astronomy, projectiles, and other find writen in large letters in the lobby of branches of natural philosophy, are the the Normal school of Glasgow; and to the application of mathematics. But in Ger- same purpose the German tells us that inmany, for the last twenty years, psychology, struction deals almost exclusively in mere or the experimental science of mind, has intellectual notions or exercises of external been almost altogether neglected. Our dexterity, while education has mainly to do high soaring countrymen allowed them- with the formation of the character through selves to be carried off their legs by the the emotions. There is nothing new in Bacchantic whirl of speculation ; and trans- this, certainly; but is a great and imporported now into one system and now into tant truth; a mere teucher does not do half another, by help of which they hoped at his work : he must work on the heart and last to gain that sublime point from which on the habits, as well as on the head of his they might be able to 'die Welt und Gott pupils. A brain is not the only part of a in ihrein innersten Wesen zu erfassen und boy; and his brain is a thing of living zu construiren’ to comprehend and to con- growth and arborescence, not an empty box struct the world and God in their inmost which an adult can furnish with labelled substance; from this position they consid- tickets of various arts and sciences, ana ered themselves entitled to look down with then say—my work is done, behold an educontempt on experience, and such experi- cated young gentleman ! Herr Beneke, mental sciences as Psychology and Educa- then, proceeds to divide the 'Erziehungstion. But now,' continues the professor, lehre' into three great branches : the train* we have boxed the compass of abstracting of the intellectual powers, consciousness, thought, and are content to learn wisdom, conception, memory, imagination, judgment, like other fools, from experience.' Our &c.; the training of the moral, religious, and high Aown Hegelian and Schellingian phi- æsthetical emotions, and the training of the losophers condescend to take a lesson from body, or what we commonly call physical Locke, and Bacon, and the schoolmaster education. This exhausts the first volume. abroad. Now this, if it be true, (as we | The second volume systematizes the Unknow from divers signis it is), is the best terrichts-lehre,' or theory of instruction, in news we have heard from Germany for a the following order. 1. General views and
There are to be no more He-bearings. 2. Comparative value of the gels in Berlin. The last one died of the cholera in 1832. The Germans are going * It may be mentioned here, that professor Beto be practical. They are about to traverse neke hus published several works on mental the intellectual , as they are even now doing lontion in Germany. He is a philosopher of the
philosophy that have attracted considerable atthe physical, world, with something tangi- practical and experimental school; and this is a ble--with railroads. They are going to novelty in Deutschland.
different subjects of instruction. 3. Gene | all men who philosophize on the subject ral view of the most famous methods of in- are not quite agreed ; and even when they struction. 4. View of the special methods are agreed, they may beat the air, how for the different subjects. 5. The different often with unapproachable blasts of truth: sort of schools. 6. The organization and but there is an army of pedants that have admininistration of schools.
battering rams. To repeat all these blasts, From this short outline of the compre- and to encounter the strokes of these bathensive contents of the present volumes, tering rams in formal array, and in pitched the reader will see at once that it would be batile, cannot be our object here; we shall in vain for us to attempt any thing like a merely, by a few extracts, endeavor to let separate discussion of the whole subjects em- our readers know how Herr Beneke reconbraced. Under the single head of methods ciles the combatants. He has done it, to of instruction,' for instance, Pestalozzi alone, our judging, with admirable tact: he has and his influence, direct and indirect, on given a verdict in favor of both parties ;all the modern improvements in pædagogy, the Humanists and Realists (as the two great would furnish matter for a separate discus- educational parties are called in Germany*) sion no less curious than instructive; then are not only tolerated but encouraged; and there are Bell and Lancaster, men most while each is taught that it is for its own wise of all mortals to transmute a sorry ne- benefit to borrow as much from the other as cessity, on occasions, into a sovereign vir- may be, both are advised for the maintenance tue; in the teaching of languages, again, of their independent existence, to keep how much might be said in commendation of themselves separate: for they have differ. Hamilton and others, who, though not phi- ent objects, and belong to different spheres. losophers of the very highest class, have at This is an important catholic truth in educaleast had sense enough to see that, in the tion by no means sufficiently recognized in art of imitating sounds, a reasoning man this country; and therefore we particularly may not be ashamed to take a lesson from request the reader's attention to what follows. an unreasoning parrot; and last of all we What you are to teach your children, have Jacotot, a man splendidly made, as says the professor, depends altogether on Frenchmen are apt to be, with one idea, what they are meant for : in other words, but in whose one idea, as in all fresh natu- according to their probable future destiny ral ideas, there is an essential truth, which in life ought to be their present preparation those will certainly find who have toleration for the business of life in the schools. Now enough to exclude nothing from its proper if we take a survey of the different classes place in the world, and discrimination of persons claiming education from the enough to know where that place is. But state, we shall find that there are three there is a wide question, before the discus- classes, whose position in society, and vosion of the methods of instruction; and it cation in life, are so distinct that they do is one on which the practical educationists not admit of receiving a well calculated in this country are more disagreed perhaps course of education in common. There than on any other. What are you to teach are, in the first place, those who are desthe little boys? Are you to rate their in- tined with material means to work on mattellectual proficiency by a Latin rudiments ter—laborers and artizans : these receive and qui, quæ, quod merely, as they do in an education fitted for their wants in a Aberdeen ? or are you to teach them with separate class of schools called in Germany Biber, to build up castles of cubes archi- Volkschulen,' or schools of the people. tecturally that they may see before them in Then, above these, there is a large class of solid incarnation, the great algebraic mys- men whose destiny it is to work on the
same external world, but by intellectual tery a+b=a2+2 a b+b??-or are you to means ; thus a mason works on stone and get them rambling through the fields, and lime with his hand, an architect with his wading through the bogs, that they may mind. Those who are in this position are fingerstamens and pistils, and learn that educated in schools of their own, called what was once called a geranium is now Mittelschulen' or 'Bürgerschulen;' midcalled a pelargonium, and that a water-lily dle schools, as being placed midway beis no lily at all, but a nymphæa alba, or tween the 'Volkschulen,' and the third class lutea as the case may be? Are you to that we are about to mention ; ‘Bürgerteach this or that or the other, or all the * Corresponding to the classical ascendency three? These are questions about which and useful knowledge parties among ourselves.