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1844.]
DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF MEXICO.

465 they touched the ground with their hands and the other of wood, very much like that used kissed it. Here we halted for a few minutes, by our judges. In this way he came up to the while the princes of Texzcuco, Iztapalapan, temple, which he ascended, in company with Tlacupa, and Cojohuacan hastened in advance many papas. On reaching the summit, he imto meet Moiecusuma, who was slowly ap-mediately began to perlume Huitzilopochtli, proaching us, surrounded by other grandees and to perform other ceremonies. of the kingdom, seated in a sedan of uncon Our commander, attended by the greater mon splendor.

part of our cavalry and foot, all well armed, When it was announced to Cortes that Mote- as, indeed, we were at all times, had proceedcusuma himself was approaching, he alighted ed to the Tlatelulco : by command of Motecufrom his horse and advanced 10 meet him. suma, a number of caziques had come to meet Many compliments were now passed on both us on our road there. The moment we arvides

. Moiecusuma bid Cories ivelcome, who, rived in this immense market, we were perthrough Marina, said, in return, he hoped his fectly astonished at the vast numbers of people, majesty was in good health. If I still remember the profusion of merchandise which was there rightly, Cortes, who had Marina next to him, exposed for sale, and at the good police and wished to concede the place of honor to the mon- order that reigned throughout. The grandees arch, who, however, would not accept of it, but who accompanied us drew our attention to the conceded it to Cortes, who now brought forth a smallest circumstance, and gave us full exnecklace of precious stones, of the inost beau-planation of all we saw. Every species of tiful colors and shapes, strung upon gold wire, merchandise had a separate spot for its sale. and perfumed with musk, which he hung about We first of all visited those divisions of the the neck of Motecusuma. Our commander market appropriated for the sale of gold and was then going to embrace him, but the gran- silver wares, of jewels, of cloths interwoven dees by whom he was surrounded held back with feathers, and of other manufactured his arms, as they considered it improper. Our goods; besides slaves of both sexes. This general then desired Marina to iell the mon- slave market was upon as great a scale as the arch how exceedingly he congratulated him- Portuguese market for negro slaves at Guinea. self upon his good fortune of having seen such | To prevent these from running away, they a powerful monarch face to face, and of the were fastened with halters about their necks, honor he had done us by coming out to meet though some were allowed to walk at large. us himself. To all this Motecusuma answered Next to these came the dealers in coarser in very appropriate terms, and ordered his two wares-coiton, twisted thread, and cacao. In nephews, the princes of Tetzcuco and Cojo- short, every species of goods which New Spain huacan, to conduct us to our quarters. He produces were here to be found; and every himself returned to the city.

thing put me in mind of my native town MeWe had already been four days in the city of dino del Campo during fair time, where every Mexico, and neither our commander nor any merchandise has a separate street assigned for of us had, during that time, left our quariers, its sale. In one place were sold the stuffs manexcepting to visit the gardens and buildings ufactured of nequen; ropes, and sandals ; in adjoining the palace. Cortes now, therefore, another place, the sweet maguey rool, ready determined to view the cily, and visit the great cooked, and various other things made from market, and the chief temple of Huitzilopochtli : this plant. In another division of the market he accordingly sent Geronimo Augilar, Doña were exposed the skins of tigers, lions, jackals, Marina, and one of his pages named Oriegu- otters, red deer, wild cats, and of other beasts illa, who, by this time, understood a little of the of prey, some of which were tanned. In anMexican language, to Motecusuma, to request other place were sold beans and sage, with his permission to view the different buildings other "herbs and vegetables.

A particular of the city. Motecasuma, in his answer to market was assigned for the merchants in this , certainly granted us permission to go fowls

, turkeys, ducks, rabbits, hares, deer, and where we pleased; yet he was apprehensive dogs; also for fruit-sellers, pastry-cooks, and we might commit soine outrage to one or other tripe-sellers.

If I had to of his idols; he therefore resolved to accom enumerate every thing singly, I should not so pany us himself, with some of his principal of- easily get to the end. And yet I have not ficers, and for this purpose, lelt his palace with mentioned the paper, which in ihis country is a pompous retinue. Having arrived at a spot called amall; the tubes filled with liquid amabout half way between his palace and a tem. ber and tobacco; the various sweet-scented ple, he stepped out of his sedan, as he would salves, and similar things; nor the various have deemed it a want of respect towards seeds which were exposed for sale in the porhis gods to approach them any otherwise ticoes of this market, nor the medicinal herbs. than on foot. He leant upon the arms of the In this market-place there were also courts principal officers of his court; others walked of justice, to which three judges and several before him, holding up on high two rode, hav- constables were appointed, who inspected the ing the appearance of sceptres, which was a goods exposed for sale. I had almost forgotsign that the monarch was approaching. He ien to mention the salt, and those who made himself

, whenever he was carried in his sedan, the flint knives ; also the fish, and a species of held a short staff in his hand, one half of gold, bread made of a kind of mud or slime collectDECEMBER, 1844.

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ed from the surface of this lake, and caten in temple of Cojohuacan, similar to those bones
that form, and has a similar taste to our which were previously given to us by the
cheese. Further, instruments of brass, copper, Tlascallans, and which we had sent to Spain
and tin; cups and painted pitchers of wood : on a former occasion.
indeed, I wish I had completed the enumera Three tigers, and several other curiosities,
tion of all this profusion of merchandise. The which I have now forgotten by name, were
variety was so great that it would occupy more likewise shipped on board these two vessels.
space than I can well spare to note them down
in.

On quitting the market, A fundamental tenet of the new religion
we entered the spacious yards which surround which the Spaniards had substituted for the
the chief temple. These appeared to encom. ancient paganism of Mexico, was, the ut-
pass more ground than the market.place at
Salamanca, and were surrounded by a double most reverence to the priests, and abject
wall

, constructed of stone and lime: these prostration to the insignia of the Catholic yards were paved with large white flag-stones, worship. Bernal Diaz thus describes the extremely smooth; and where these were religious condition of the Indians before he wanting, a kind of brown plaster had been left them. used instead, and all was kept so very clean that there was not the smallest particle of dust After we had abolished idolatry and other or straw to be seen any where.

abominations from among the Indians, the AlBefore we mounted the steps of the great mighty blessed our endeavors, and we baptemple, Molecusuma, who was sacrificing on lized the men, women, and all the children the top to his idols, sent six papas and two of born after the conquest

, whose souls would his principal officers to conduct Cortes up the otherwise have gone to the infernal regions. steps. There were 114 steps to the summit; With the assistance of God, and by a good and, as they feared that Cories would expe- regulation of our most Christian monarch, of rience the same fatigue in mounting as Mo- glorious memory, Don Carlos, and of his extecusuma had, they were going to assist him cellent son Don Philip, our most happy and by taking hold of his arms. Cortes, however, invincible king, to whom may God grant a would not accept of their proffered aid. When long life and an increase of territory, several we had reached the sumnit of the temple, we pious monks of different orders arrived in New walked across a platform where many large Spain, who travelled from place to place

, stones were lying, on which those who were preached the gospel to the inhabitants, and doomed for sacrifice were stretched out. Near baptized new-born infants. these stood a large idol, in the shape of a drag It was also a great blessing for the Indians on, surrounded by various other abominable that the monks taught them to say their prayfigures, with a quantity of fresh blood lying in ers in their own language, and frequently to front of it. Motecusuma himself stepped out repeat them. The monks have altogether so of a chapel, in which his cursed gods were accustomed them to reverence every thing restanding, accompanied by two papas, and re- lating to religion, that they never pass by any ceived Cortes and the whole of us very cour- altar or cross without falling down on their teously. * Ascending this temple, Malinche,” knees and repeating a Pater Noster or an Ave said he to our commander, “must certainly Maria. We also taught the Indians to make have fatigued you !" Cortes, however, as wax lights for the holy service, for, previous sured him, through our interpreters, that it to our arrival, they made no manner of use of was not possible for any thing to tire us. Upon their wax. We iaught them to be so obedithis the monarch took hold of his hand and ent and respectful to the monks and priests

, invited him to look down and view his vast that whenever one of these religious men apmetropolis

, with the towns which were built in proach a township, the bells are rung, and the the lake, and the other towns which surround- inhabitants go out to mect him with wax-lights ed the city; Motecusuma also observed, that in their hands; and they always give him a from this place we should have a better view hospitable reception. of the great market.

We have imbibed so much of Mr. LockThe splendor of the Mexican kings may hart's admiration for this work as to be un. be gathered from the articles found in the willing to part with it thus summarily. But wardrobe of the unfortunate Motecusuma, which was afterwards sent to Spain, along portant events to which it is devoted; and

our readers are already aware of the imwith 88,000 pesos in bars of gold.

the style in which they are treated is suffiThe wardrobe was a valuable present, and ciently indicated by the extracts which we well worthy of our great emperor's accept-have given. We therefore take leare of ance, as it contained jewels of the most precious Bernal Diaz, offering Mr. Lockhart hearty kind, pearls of the size of hazel-nuts, and va thanks for this addition to what is at once rious other precious stones, which I should not like to enumerate singly, even if my memory

solid and highly popular literature. would allow me. At the same time were sent In justice to Mr. Lockhart, we most the bones of the giants which we found in the copy the concluding sentence of his pre

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face.—“With regard to the translation, must now be enormous. If “beauty leads us which is from the old edition printed at by single hair," what must manhood do with Madrid in 1632, we have acted up to the as many hairs as there are sands in the Afriauthor's desire, and have neither added nor ering how natural is the love of proselytizing,

can deserts, or stars in the galaxy ? Considtaken any thing away, and have attempted it is any thing but surprising that France, to follow the original as closely as pos- having bearded herself,“ should endeavor to sible.”

beard England. It is just the reverse of the fable of the fox who lost his tail, for France has got a tail to her chin, instead of losing one,

and she quarrels with shaven states. AFRICA IN FRANCE; OR, THE BEARD AND

We never remember our neighbors so irriTHE PIPE.

lable as they are at present. The reason is

obvious; they were never so exposed to be From the New Monthly Magazine.

plucked by the beard. Fortunately, it is easier France has not made a greater impression just now for England to pluck France by the on Africa than Africa appears to have made beard than for France to return the affront. on France. In what respects Young Algiers We are still respectable and razored. Our or young Morocco, have as yet copied the English downs may be exceedingly lame bemanners and customs of their French con- side the French forests—but if beards put querors, the accounts from the other side of men out of humor, is it not better to go shorn ? the Mediterranean have not informed us; but when we did wear our beards, we wore them nobody can walk through the streets of Paris merrily, and preferred wagging them at the without observing that a revolution is in rapid board to wagging them in the battle-field. progress which is only to be ascribed to an in- The French seem to be of opinion that, betense admiration and a diligent imitation of cause knowedge is power, and wisdom the vanquished by the victors:

strength, Solomon and Sampson ought to be

united; forgetting how little the “robustious Græcia capta ferum victorem cepit; locks" of the latter served him, and how he and, by the same law, we now see the bom-was ultimately subdued by a Lorette with a barded Moors and the subjugated tribes of pair of scissors. A future war with France Barbary, imposing their houkas and their would not be fought with the gun and the beards upon · La Jeune France.

sword; her foes will meet her with the razor, The French are turning their razors into and instead of mowing her ranks, shave them. swords; they seem more disposed to slaughter The only difficulty would be to find razors of others than to shave themselves. The fierce sufficient power to hew down the prodigious and bearded Gaul, rushing through the Palais growth of the modern Gallic chin. Should Royal, with his cigar flaming in his mouth, the razor prove insufficient, we must only take denouncing peace and Guizot, reminds one of a hint from the Menippus in Lucian, who the comel in Milton which

proposes to shave the philosophers with a

hatchet ! from its horrid hair

But it is not alone in the development of Shakes pestilence and war.

the moustaches, and the vegetation of whisOnce upon a time there was a “ Barbier de kers, that we see manifest signs and tokens of Paris,” but the race and the trade is extinct; the Africanization of France. Which of the the “ óccupation is gone;" the French barbers fine arts have the French taught the Arabs have turned tobacconists, and their cutlers sell and Algerines ? It is clear that the latter have only sabres. Voltaire describes his country- immensely, improved the French in the fine men as a cross between the monkey and the art of smoking. Tobacco is no longer a luxtiger. Times have changed, and the genera- ury-it has become a necessary of Parisian tion of to-day is rather a confusion of the mon- life. The pipe is at once a passion and a key with the goat. The heroism of the Bou- principle; the cigar las become an institution, levards is downright hircine. The man is an better established, like an article in the charappendage of the beard, not the beard of the ter. man, as in the old age. When a party of At the altitude of thirty or forty feet and young Frenchmen approach one, it is like the upwards from paré and trottoir, there is not a advance of a herd of goats, or the moving of city in Europe more free from smoke than Paa forest, -"Birnam wood coming to Dunsi- ris. Mount the antique towers of Notre Dame, nane." 'If Macassar has done this, mighly scale the column of Napoleon, or look down is Macassar. Bear's grease it can hardly he, upon that gay city from the heights of Montunless Ursa Major himself has been immo- martre, or the dome of St. Geneviève (her lated to manure the moustaches of monsieur. patron). How clear and bright is the atmosImagine a city of Muntzes, or a tribe of El- phere; how easily you count the chimneys ; lenboroughs, or a wilderness of Sibthorpes : how simple you think it would be to take an we know no other or clearer way to give an exact census of the very tiles! Such smoke idea of the Paris of ’44. Paris was always as there is proceeding from wood-fires, is most attractive, but its capillary attractions scarcely denser than the air with which it min

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gles. It climbs in thin transparent curls to tead of diffueing light;—the apostle of freethe sky, and seems so ethereal as to have a Som and equality caring only to inake connatural right, like the incense scattered round verts to cigars and proselytes to the pipe ! a shrine, to go up to the gates of Heaven. Tobacco is the true Roi des Français! With What a contrast to the dense and sombre his coffee, his beard, and his cigar, the Pariscloud which the chimneys of enormous Lon-ian seems to have made the Turk his model

, don contribute to the gross firmament that and conceived the idea of advancing civilizabroods over England! It is the fleshly steam tion by copying Constantinople. It is to be from solid beef and pudding compared to the presumed that the tobacco-leaf will immedivapor yielded by the omelette, or to the sa-ately succeed the lily in the arms of the vory spirit of a vol-au-vent. It is the atmos- French nation. They would seem, indeed, to phere of the close tavern contrasted with that have been fighting of late under the auspices of the airy and lightsome café-what the Blue of the smoky weed, if we may judge from the Post is to Tortoni's—what an eating-house in puffs that record their little sieges. Seeing the Strand is to Véry's or Les Trois Frères. ihe prints already executed of the French

Gazing down upon the Parisian streets and ships engaged with the batteries of Tangiers places from any of the commanding positions and Mogador, it was impossible to avoid reafforded by the public monuments, or present- marking, “Possibly it is only the Prince de ed nature, the spectator can hardly believe Joinville and his comrades smoking.” The that he is surveying the metropolis of the French smoke is more formidable ihan the culinary world. The chimneys give but faint French fire ;-we could face their carbines evidence of the boiling of a copper, or the easier than their cigars; can it be possible simmering of a stew-pan. We miss those that they meditate another war of propagansable volumes which testify in our island to dism, and design to tobacconize, as they for the activity of the kitchen, and the hospitality merly sought to republicanize Europe ?' Apof the house. You would suppose that the proaching the Rhine, the cigars of Germany French lived upon fruits and powers, particu- offer them a powerful alliance; they would larly in their delicious autumn, when Flora have, too, the southern states of North Amervies with Pomona to deck their hotels and ica on their side, and the Ottomans would furnish their desserts—when they might actu- support them with ten thousand houkas. Perally sweep their streets with roses and china- haps the object of the attack on Morocco (if asiers, and barricade them, if need were, with the bombardments were not mere smoking. peaches and grapes.

matches, as has been already suggested.) was But, alack? Paris is not the smokeless city to force the Moors into the coniederacy. If which its chimneys proclaim it; far from it'; not, it was probably, like many other enter we have only to come down from the house prises of the kind, a struggle for a pinch of top and enter the house itself, to discover by snuff! two offended senses that the lower region of Time was, too, when the smoker was but of her atmosphere is polluted by a more obnox- one sex, when nothing smoked that wore a ious vapor than the smoke of coal. How petticoat, but now there is the fumeuse as many cigars of Paris are equivalent to one well as the fumeur, and the gallant and inchimney of London in the quantity of smoke ventive nation has contrived and executed a issued, and the amount of public nuisance cigare de dames for the lips of the female caused, let the Michael Cassios investigate; French. Now, what unsexes a woman like but it is certain that the cigar-smoking griev- tobacco ? Tobacco grew not in Cyprus, nor ance has become a serious one in France. is it related that Venus cultivated the weed in You have only to pass through the Palais- the parterres of Paphos. Joan of Arc was a Royal, or take a turn on the tumultuous Bou- woman, although she wielded the sword and levards, to see with your eyes and smell with the battle-axe, but a single cigar, or a cigar. your nose the universal use and abuse (con- ette, nay, one cigare de dames, would have vertible terms !) of tobacco in all its forms. changed her gender. Let a woman do any

Let any one who doubts the progress of thing human or, inhuman but smoke !—if the smoking, visit Paris, and convince his own work-box and the dressing-box are not suffinose and eyes. He will find that these are cient for her, if even the box of bon-bons will truly piping times of peace for "la belle not content her, if she must assume the habits France." We have always courted her alli- of a man, let her put on a white coat and take ance, but she never promised to be so great to the coach-box, or a red coat and take to the " at a pinch” before. The Frenchman was letter-box, or a black coat and take to the pillalways a taker of snuff

, but never such a box, but there are two boxes that she must smoker of pipes and consumer of cigars as not meddle with, which are forbidden her by

The spirit of the age is the fume of to the nature of things, amongst the other probacco; to look into the estaminets one would pria quæ maribus, -the cigar-box and the imagine that the dark ages had come again. snuff-box. There is to be seen the once enlightened The box of Pandora was in all probability Frenchman, ambitious as the sun to illuminate either one or the other of the two boxes last the world, enveloped an impenetrable cloud mentioned. Madame or Malle. Pandora took of narcotic vapor, propagating darkness in- snuff or smoked; hence the ancients represent

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ted her hox to be as full of plagues as is the method pursued by Mithridates, who lived on budyet of a chancellor of ihe exchequer of poisons to escape being poisoned. We read impositions. Let the fair French take warn-in Hudibras that ing from Pandora. Mesdames, and made The Prince of Cambay's daily food moiselles, if play the deuce you must, lay your Was asp, and basilisk, and toad. pretty hands upon a lucifer-box, and set the world on fire, but touch not the tabatière,

The prince would in due time have been eschew chewing,--and of all seductions, avoid qualified to devour a boa-constrictor and wash the seduction of a cigar.

it down with a flask of prussic acid. A cigar to feminine delicacy is a Tarquin

The rage for tobacco promises utterly to or a Lovelace. Its fire is no vestal flame. destroy all that constitutes the fame of France. Perhaps it is because the eastern houris smoke It seems first of all to threaten her cuisine. that the Mohammedan faith bars the gates of The Kitchen

is in danger! This alarming Paradise against them.

tendency is manifest in its operations on the It was something to forfeit Eden for an ap: alyzes the exquisite sense of table, mars

the

palate and effects on the stomach. ple, but to hazard it for a cigarette would exceed all the frivolities of woman.

appetite, and debilitates the digestive powWe presume not to limit divine mercy: Sers, by wasting, both the peptic juice and

the saliva. In the great affair of life, appethere may be forgiveness for her who smokes; but we are assuredly safe in affirming, thaitite corresponds with the pleasures of Imthe light of a cigar is not the light that 'leads agination and Hope, taste with actual ento heaven, although far as the eye can pierce joyment

, digestion with the pleasures of it, it illuminates the Champs Elysées.

Memory. Appetite is our Akenside and There has just appeared a bruchure entitled, Campbell; digestion our Rogers; we forget " De l'Action du Tabac sur la Santé," which the poet—if any–who has sung the intermeis a gratifying proof that there are some

diate stage of bliss, worth the other two

combined. Frenchmen not so stupified by smoking as to

But to the hardened “fumeur defend the use of the Virginian poison. The what is palatable but his pipe or his cigar? writer is a physician who combats the passion laminet? what can he digest of more sub

-what appétissant but the odor of the esfor tobacco by explaining its action, and if a ray of light can penetrate the estaminets, we of the French kitchen were not the votaries

stance than a puff of smoke? The fathers trust that the pamphlet of" Le Docteur Boussison” will be read in those dim retreats.

of tobacco. Their palate was healthy, their Dr. Boussison tells us that the origin of their brain, consequently, busy, clear, fan

appetite vigorous, their stomach perfect, and tobacco is enveloped in darkness—"entourée cilul, inventive. Upon these great and inde ténèbres." of course it is smoke from dispensable qualities they founded the culifirst to last-the dusky tale of a cigar! It

nary eminence of their country. In their appears that in some countries tobacco, like day's the kitchen smoked and not the cook; religion, was propagated by persecution. the estaminet presumed not 10 dispute the The doctor tells us of a pope, a grand-duke, palm with the restaurant. Now, it is to be a Sophi, and a sultan, who had the good feared that France is in the decadence of taste and the good sense to proscribe the her gastronomic reputation. Tobacco is, of weed, although they went perhaps too great all divinities, the most jealous, and its votaa length when they made smoking a capital ries end in being its victims. offence. A more reasonable and most appro Then what is to become of the airy and elaspriate punishment was cutting off the nose, tic temperament of the people? The French and who will say that a confirmed smoker quicksilver will soon be transmuted into the dull ought not to have his nose cut off, at the metal of the Dutchman or the Turk. Smoke very least? In the present state of France is light, but those who smoke are heavy. it occurs to us, that smoking might be consid- Melancholy marks them for her own. What erably discouraged by the more mercisul pen- sunshine can penetrate the cloud in which alty of selling the moustaches. Every custo- they wrap themselves; what music awake mer of the tobacconist ought to be sent to them from their grim repose ? Tbe pipe of the barber, or better still

, there might be a the smoker is not the pipe to which swains shaving establishment attached to every, es: dance. The fête of St. Cloud will ere long taminer, and the deposit of the beard might be the only rural festival in France. Sumbe made part of the price of a cigar. mon the moustached Monsieur from the houka

The doctor enumerates, amongst the agré- to the Polka-summon him you may but ments of this charming plant, vertigo, de- you might just as well inviie the Abd-el. rangement of the vision, intoxication, nausea, Kader to an Irish jig, or ask the Emperor diarrhæa. Such are the fascinations of an es- of Morocco to dance Sir Roger de Coverley. taminet and the attractions of a cigar-divan. Paris, in short, will soon be one vast estaThat tobacco is a poison, is a position not minet, or cigar-divan, a European Algiers, overthrown by the fact that men become hab- or a French Constantinople; and it will only ituated to the pipe and the snuff-box. There remain to wear the turban, read the Koran, is no poison to which a man may not inure and take an annual pilgrimage to the black his system by little and little. Such was the stone or' Mecca.

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