the most menial condition. Each of these contingent proportioned to his province, to governors is, in his own sphere, an imita- the national niuster.

At least once every tor of the king, exacting from his own de-year the king makes a levy; and as it is to peudents the saire adulation and the same stay heathens whom they piously hate, and services with which he is obliged 10 pro- to carry off slaves and plunder, the Amhara pitate the sovereign. And as they are com- peasant gladly equips himself with sword, pelled to replenish the royal treasury, they spear, and buckler, and mounts his horse have an ample pretext for oppressing those for the foray. The Negoos alone knows under them by arbitrary levies.

the destination of the army; and this he The population, however, are far from carefully conceals, sometimes announcing being so depressed and miserable, as a gov- an opposite route, sometimes following one ernment so despotic and arbitrary might be for days, and then by forced marches gainexpected to make them. Though industry ing the true road, in order that his victims is leitered, a heavy tax levied from agricul- may be caught unprepared, and a rich hartural produce, justice venal, monastic and vest of plunder reaped with ease and safeclerical establishments in excess, though iy. there is no enterprise and little skill, yet Major Harris accompanied Sahela Selásthey have not only risen above hunting and sie in one of these expeditions. The omens nomade barbarism, but attained to a degree which the Negoos carefully consults having of comfort and abundance. Under certain all been propitious, he issued at sunrise despotic restrictions, private property in from his palace, resplendent in cloth of the land is everywhere sanctioned. There gold, and with all the emblems of barbaric are few forests and wastes; sarm-steadings royalty, the imperial crimson velvet umbreland dwelling-houses repose in security; the las, the sound of trumpets and of the nugplough and irrigation are in use; and al- areet, or keetle-drums. Before him went though their skill is small, and their imple the Holy Scriptures and the ark of St. menis sew and rude, yet, from their fertile Michael's cathedral, borne on a inule unsoil, a numerous, though not over-crowded der a canopy of scarlet cloth; around him population, is able to procure an abun- was a guard of matchlock men, and behind dance of the necessaries of life.

a train of governors, judges, monks, priests, We have been speaking of the Christian singers, a band of women-cooks and eupopulation in the hereditary provinces. But nuchs, while a crowd poured in from all the present Negoos is a statesman and a sides, of warriors, henchmen, camp followconqueror; and by his combined skill and ers with horses, mules, and asses, throngs valor has considerably enlarged his do- of women and lads carrying the varied fur. minions. His acquisitions have been chief- niture of a camp, and all in picturesque ly from the Galla to the south, in Gurague, disorder. Increasing as it proceeded, the Ènárea, or Zingero; for he candidly con- array grew soon to fifteen, and at last to fesses that he could not prevail over the twenty thousand warriors. Each man folpeople of Gesh to the north, or of Adel to lowed his own lord, and carried provisions the east, because the former have “large for a twenty days' campaign. Their course shields, and fight hand to hand," and the lat-lay across the country to the south-west. ter “stand firm in battle, and will not run as they advanced, deputations from tributaaway.” But of his sol.thern acquisitions, ry tribes approached with bared shoulders, the author complains that no means have and in humble attitudes, to propitiate the been taken to secure the permanency. He despot. Passing these without molesting compels submission by an invasion; im- thein, and rolling along in utter irregularposes a tribute and retires; his power is ily and confusion, the immense crowd was, forth with forgotten and rule disowned by after some days, encamped in the devoted the inconstant and thoughtless barbarians; country. Here, after making several forced and a fresh campaign must be undertaken marches, plundering as it went, the Amhara to restore it. Military expeditions for this army was one morning suddenly reduced purpose are, accordingly, part of his stated from tumultuary confusion to the national policy; and it would almost seem that in military array, and forthwith bolted "like a inroads and plundering consists the only cloudless thunderbolt” on the unsuspecting government he maintains over some of these heads, first of the Sertie Galla, a rebellious southern dependencies. The Shoan peas- tribe who inhabit the rich slopes of the ant is bound to do military service to his mountains of Garra Gorphoo, and next of governor, and every governor furnishes a the Ekka and Finfinni Galla, who people

the wide and richly cultured plains of Ger| skewer, into which they insert a white máma and the beautiful valley of Finfinni. feather or sprig of asparagus, whenever The attack was skilfully made; the sur- they have slain a pagan or performed any prise complete; and before night fell, the other valorous deed. Their weapons are a district which, from the heights in the sword, crooked like a sickle, a spear, and a morning, had presented fields of ripening buckler; these suffice for their hunan foes, grain, herds of grazing cattle, groups of but they are unfit for coping with the eleunarmed husbandmen, and clusters of pleas- phant or the wild buffalo of their country. ant dwellings-a very picture of peace and Anciently the emperors rode the elephant, plenty-was laid in utter desolation, the but the present race regards it with inordicorn trampled under the hoofs of the invad- nate dread; and the English visitors, whose ing cavalry, the houses smoking in ruins, reputation for courage had suffered from the men butchered, the women carried off their inoffensiveness during the foray, attainas the slaves, and the cattle as the plunder ed the highest pitch of honor by the fearlessof the savage and exulting conquerors. ness with which they encountered, and the The chapters in which Major Harris de- ease with which they slew these terrible scribes the march, the foray, and the tri- adversaries. umph celebrated by processions, war-danc We have said that they practise concues, orations and feasts, are among the most binage, and it is somewhat strange to hear striking of his work, and give a very lively, that a Christian monarch maintains a harem but by no means favorable idea of the char- to the number of 500, with a suitable esacter of this Christian people. It is pleas- tablishment of eunuchs. Marriage is a ant to learn that Major Harris and Dr. civil contract, though sometimes it takes Krapf prevailed on the Negoos to set free place before the Church, and divorce is frethe captives, much to the surprise and dis- quent. Of the state of morality Major Harappointment of his ruthless soldiery. Next ris reports very unfavorably. The entire year the Metta Galla, and a neighboring literature of Abyssinia consists of 110 mantribe was subjected to the same calamity; uscript volumes of theological controversy 43,000 cattle were captured, and 4,500 and monkish legend; of these, four only heathens of all ages were butchered by the are in the living or Amharic tongue; so soldiers of Sáhela Selássie, and of these, that worthless as they are, few but the priests the greatest number were shot on the trees and defteras can decipher them, for those that they had ascended in the vain hope of only destined to the Church, receive the eluding observation.

rudiments of education. They have a numWe should now proceed to extract some ber of curious habits or usages, of which particulars regarding the social life and we must not omit to mention the string of manners of this people. But although we good wishes which composes their salutahave aimed at compression, to the mutila- tion in the streets. “How are you? How tion, we fear, of the picture drawn by Ma- do you do? How have you passed your jor Harris, the account has already grown tine? Are you well ? Are you very well! to an undue size. We shall, therefore, Are you quite well? Are you perfectly merely mention, with the utmost brevity, well? Are you not well ?”—are questions some few of their more striking character- which form merely the preface to a long istics. Their features are Caucasian, their list of similar interrogations. Another sincomplexion varies from olive to jet black, gularity is what Major Harris calls “the their hair is long and silky, the men are mode of extortion by mamalacha,—an intall, robust, and well formed, the women genious system of begging. This consists scarcely less masculine. The principal in the petitioner presenting some gift, which, piece of dress of the males is a large loose however worthless, it is scarcely allowable cotton cloth, worn gracefully but incommo- to refuse, and which, when accepted, must dious. On occasions of ceremony, the prin- be acknowledged by the return of whatever cipal men wear skins of lions and leopards; the giver has the assurance to demand. It they put on armlets of brass or silver as to- is constantly and importunately practised kens of gallantry, and a silver shield from by all ranks; and of its operation, a notion the Negoos is their star of the garter. From may be formed from the statement, that the king to the beggar -all go barefoot, and “servants present sticks and handfuls of all, save the clergy, who wear a turban, grass ;” and that " for hours together, men are bareheaded; but they soak their hair stood before the door" of the residency with rancid butter, and fix in it a wooden "with cocks, and hens, and loaves of bread,

to establish their right to the possession of feast into the Indian Ocean, and probably ' pleasing things.?” As remarkable is the that which Arabian geographers call the practice of scarifying their cheeks on occa- " River of Pigmies." Rising in the great sions of mourving. This they do by tear- central ridge of mountains which divide ing from below each temple a circular piece the waters that flow east from those that of skin, about the size of a sixpence; to flow west into the Bahr el Abiad, and more accomplish which the nail of the little fin- southerly, into the Atlantic, it first spreads ger is “purposely suffered to grow like an into a lake, and then rolling onward, is eagle's talon.” All wear the mateb, a small joined, fisteen days' journey south of Ená. cord of deep blue silk encircling the neck, rea, by the Omo. Hence, their united and the badge of Christianity. Last of all, waters, after falling down the stupendous the whole nation delights in the luxury of cataract of Dumbáro, pursue their course raw flesh. It is the grand aliment of life. to the south-east, forming the southern

limit of Zingero, and at last disemboguing “ The bull is thrown down at the very door into the sea. The exact spot of confluof the eating house; the head having been

ence is unknown).

Major Harris thinks turned to the eastward, is, with the crooked : sword, nearly severed froin the body, under it is identical with the Kibbee, said to come

an invocation to the Father, the Son, and the from the north-west, and enter the sea near Holy Ghost; and no sooner is the breath out the town of Juba, immediately under the of the carcass, than the raw and quivering equator. If not the Kibbee, it must be the ftesh is handed to the banquet. It is not fair Quilimancy, which disembogues, by sever10 brand a nation with a foul stigma, resting al estuaries, between Patta and Malinda, on a solitary fact; but he who, like the writer, four degrees farther south. Its volume of has witnessed, during the return of the foray, the wanton mutilation of a sheep whose limbs water is very large, and it is supposed to were in succession severed from the carcars,

be navigable for a long way; and from the whilst the animal was still living, can readily reports, it appears, that its mouth is known believe all that is related by the great travel and is already navigated to a considerable ler Bruce, of the crueltjes practised in Norih. distance inland by white people, who freern Abyssinia.”— Pp. 172-3, vol. iii.

quent it in pursuit of the horrible traffic in

human Aesh-a traffic of wbich the enorBut we must close, leaving untold much mity is there rendered the more glaring, that is curious. Nor can we do more because many of its victims are Christians. than merely allude to the information re We have said nothing concerning the garding the countries lying south of Shoa. commercial and political bearings of the It was gathered from natives of the several public mission which these volumes record. districts, and abounds with interest. We Nor do we propose to take up this imporhere read of numerous tribes and nations, tant topic at the close of this notice. One characterized by the strangest aud most word only regarding the principle and charrevolting manners and usages-of Galla acter of such undertakings. Expedition tribes, who, while heathen in religion, and having for their object to take possession having superstitions that resemble those of for a nation of an unoccupied territory, or Etruria and Rome, regard the Jews as their to gain for it a footing and influence in one ancestors, and expect to conquer Jerusa- already peopled and partitioned, have been lem—of the kingdom of Enárea, half pa-long, known. But the unparalleled height gan and half Mahomedan—of the country of of civilization to which our own and some Zingero, where human sacrifices are com- other nations have now ascended, has laid mon, and the slave merchant, as he passes them under stronger inducements, and at the Lake Umo, throws the handsomest fe- the same time furnished them with more male captive into the waves, as a tribute to efficient means than have ever hitherto the god of the water—of the Doko, a pig- been in operation, to prosecute such entermy race, (supposed by Major Harris to be prises. We may, accordingly, expect to the Troglodytes of Herodotus,) who are see them daily multiplied, and attaining to perfectly wild, pray to some uncouth deity greater importance in the affairs of nations. standing on their heads, go stark naked, It is evident that very different motires are are ignorant of fire, live on roots and rep- conspiring to cause them.

Sorne hare tiles, and are annually hunted like beasts sprung from political ambition alone. They by the savage slave-dealers from Dumbáro, have been the effects of rivalry between the Caffa, and Kooloo. Finally, we read of the great powers, prompting them to seize and great River Gochob, running south and fortify themselves in new posts of attack


defence. Others aim at introducing, as it j assigned the date thiricenth century: M. Tabary, were, one people to another-at throwing afterwards discovered, on one of ihe latter pages

of the first volume, this note :-"Epistolarum down the walls of partition between com- Sancti Hieronymi volumen primum finit. In nomunities-at bringing the influence of all mine Sanctæ et individuæ Trinitatis et gloriosæ to bear on the resources within the posses- virginis Mariæ scriptum--1468 ;” and, according. sion of each, in order that every where men ly, sued the publisher for the return of his pur. may work, under the most urgent motives, faith, and that he had purchased the manuscript

M. Bohaire pleaded bis good and by aid of the best appliances, at the at the sale, in 1835, of the librury of M. de Courgreat task set to their progenitor in Eden, celles, as a manuscript of the thirteenth century, of subduing the earth to human dominion, and appealed to the conditions of sale in his cataand extracting from it the fullest amount of logue, which prescribed that the books purchased

should be collated within twenty-four hours of humau uses. Of these the former are in the purchase, whereas M. Tabary had kept the principle unjustifiable and wicked, and in MS six months without complaint. The Court, their effects must be pernicious. The lat- however, decided that the question of collation ter are not only praiseworthy, but seem in-applied only to the copy, and not to a substantive deed to rank among national duties. To misdescription, in which case the publisher must

be considered as guaranteeing; and pronounced this class, the mission which Major Harris the sale void. All conducted professedly belongs. Having this opinion of its object, we regard it with approbation and interest, trusting that its issue may never belie the fairness of its opening promise, and that the new people, Piraten English Works.- In consequence of whom our colossal Empire has drawn with the many applications which bave been made to in the circle of its influence, may never England, after lengthened tours on the conti

the Lords of the Treasury by parties arriving in have to tell of the injustice, oppression, and nent, relative to the seizure, under the new Copy: degradation which, in too many quarters of|right Act, of the single copies of pirated English the globe, have been the sole fruits of Brit- works purchased by them ubroad, and imported ish interference.

for their own libraries, an order has been made,

with which our readers should be acquaintThere are various appendices to the vol-ed. It is thereby directed, that pirated works umes, containing specific information re- found in the baggage of passengers shall not be garding the natural history of the Adel ceun- immediately destroyed, but shall be retained try, and regarding the geology, botäny, and shree months-an account containing a list of zoology of Abyssinia. For these, the au- der to obtain the order for their destruction,

the same being sent quarterly to ihe board, in orthor was indepted to Dr. Roth, the natura- which is not to take place till the expiration of a list of the Embassy, and they are highly month from the date of the order. It is not genvaluable. There is also added an accurate erally known that there is a provision in the act, copy of the Abyssinian Calendar, from entitled to import pirated editions of tlieir works.

to the effect that the owners of the copyrights are which it appears that their year commen- Therefore, persons who may be possessed of pices on our 29th August, which is their 1st rated editions, and are anxious to retain them, September—that every day of the year has should apply for the sanction of the owner of the at least one saint, while many have a greattained, they will experience no difficulty in ob

copyright to their admission; which being obnumber--and that the lives of the saints, or taining their delivery For ourselves, we question the detail of the miracles assigned to each the policy of any exception which lets in the piday, are publicly read in the churches al rated work at all. The general efficiency of the the service, beginning at the cock's first Act is endangered by this reluxation of iis provis

ions. With these licensed copies abroad, how crowing.

are the copies of the smuggler to be distinguished for seizure? The only remedy will be for authors to put a stamp on such copies as pass under their license-as Bibles and tracts are stamped by the societies which distribute them in charity.

Athenaum. GUARANTEE OF A SALE-CATALOGUE OF Books. - The French papers give the particulars of a trial, in which the tribunals have had to decide on the question of guarantee as applicable to the Tasso's MONUMENT.-His Majesty the King of description given in a sale-catalogue of books. the French has, through bis Excellency Count From a collection of books and manuscripts sold / Latour Maubourg, French Ambassador at the M. Bohaire, the publisher, M. Tabary bought, for Court of the Holy See, caused a liberal donation 300 francs, one described in the catalogue as a to be presented to the commissioners constituted manuscript on fine vellum, in two folio volumes, at Rome, for the purpose of erecting a monument of the · Epistles of St. Jerome,' and to which was in memory of Tasso.—Court Journal.

THE ROBERTSES ON THEIR TRAVELS. I could give stronger evidence of the high (Continued.]

value which Mrs. Roberts put upon the

esteem and consideration of her own famBY MRS. TROLLOPE.

ily, than the fact that her first sensation on From the New Monthly Magazine.

recovering this rebuff was one of gladness Mrs. Roberts certainly began to feel that no Roberts had heard it but herself. that if she hoped to sustain her reputation “ Do not for a moment mistake me, my for being the very best and cleverest man- dearest lady!” she exclaimed, looking at ager that the world ever saw, of all pecuni- her dowager countess with eyes that seemary as well as other matters, it would be ed almost in an act of adoration from pronecessary to lose as little time as possible found respect; “ do not suppose it possible in bringing to perfection her scheme for that I do not feel that this request would obtaining the agreeable society of Miss be perfectly unwarrantable, did it not conBertha Harrington for her two daughters. cern your ladyship more than it does myShe suffered, therefore, but one day to in- self.” tervene between her last visit to Lady More “Oh! well, I don't want to slip out of ton, and the very important one which was business; though it always is a bore to to decide the success of her scheme. such a temper as mine," replied her lady

She left her two daughters in the car. ship, “and it is not an easy matter you see riage, having previously explained to them just at first, Mrs. Robson—Mrs. Roberts, I her plan, and also in part the urgent ne- mean—it is not quite easy just at first to cessity for it, and then mounted the stairs guess what you can have to do with any with a beating heart.

private business of mine. As to my getShe had, however, a comfortable and iing up and trotting about the rooms in sustaining confidence in ber own powers, order to find a place for you to talk secrets and felt, as she entered the drawing-room, in, I can't do it-indeed I cannot, Mrs. that her courage rather increased than Roberts; but I'll send the child out of the diminished as the moment for profiting by room, if that is what you want. My cousin it approached. Unfortunately, however, she Sophy's secrets and mine are all one and did not find Lady Moreton alone, her dear- the same, so she need not stop you. Shall ly beloved cousin, Sophy, being seated be- I send the child away?" side her, reading scraps of news from Ga Mrs. Roberts bowed, and smiled a most lignani's paper of the day, while her young cordially well-pleased acquiescence, though niece was stationed at a table, one side of she really would have been inexpressibly which was placed against the wall at the delighted could she have found at the mobottom of the room, with an open book in ment any feasible method of despatching her hand, which, however, she did not ap- the Lady Forton either to the bright repear to be reading, as her eyes were ear- gions of the moon, or to the darkest cave nestly fixed upon the wall before her. at the bottom of the ocean. She would

This she of course felt would not do at have cared not a farthing which. But as all; and having gone through all her most both were alike impossible, she was obliged graceful evolutions in the way of easy Pa- to reconcile herself to the exceedingly disrisian morning, gossiping, she lowered her agreeable necessity of enduring the unrevoice to a whisper, addressed exclusively mitting stare of her ladyship’s great black to Lady Moreton, and said, “May I ask to eyes, which always seemed to come have two minutes' private conversation with duty with as impressive a steadiness as the your ladyship ?"


equestrian sentinels at Whitehall, whenever Lady Moreton opened her eyes with a any thing in the least degree important was stare expressive of much more astonish- addressed to her cousin. ment than satisfaction, and repeating the Upon receiving this signal of acquiword “private ?" interrogatively, seemed escence from her mysterious visitor, Lady to await a little further explanation before Moreton raised her voice to a tone that she ventured to accede to the request. was very satisfactorily audible at the bot.

Nobody could have understood better tom of the room, where the young person than Mrs. Roberts did that both the word she addressed was sitting, and said, and the accent implied a double doubt; to your own room, Bertha Harrington.” first, as to her own right of making the re The command was instantly obeyed, and quest, and, 'secondly, as to her ladyship's then, very greatly to the satisfaction of Mrs. inclination to granting it; and nothing Roberts, who was beginning to feel a little

DECEMBER, 1844. 29


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