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PRIzes of THE FREnch Academy.—The annual sitting of the French Academy, for the distribution of the prizes in its award, was held on the 29th ult., when the prize of Eloquence proposed by the Academy itself—the subject of which on the presont occasion was a Discours sur Voltaire, was awarded to M. Harel,—known, hitherto, in the literary world only as the author of some dramatic attempts. This discourse was highly spoken of by M. Willemain, who reported on the prizes; and is still more highly praised in other and very competent quarters. The first of the historical prizes was continued to M. Augustin Thierry (who already held it, for his Recit des Temps Merovingiens); and the second was also confirmed to its present possessor, M. Bazin, for his Histoire de France sous Louis XIII. The great Monthyon prize of 6,000 fr. was given to the pere Gregoire Girard, a Franciscan monk of Friburg, for his work entitled De l'Enseignement regulier de la langue maternelle ; and prizes were awarded of 3,000 fr. to M. Egron for his Livre de l'Ouvrier; 2,000 fr. to M. Halevy for his Recueil de Fables; and 2,000 fr. to M. Wander-Burch for his Carriole d'Osier. Other minor literary prizes were distributed, and the Monthyon prizes of Virtue we do not report. In our opinion, though unquestionably reflecting on their author the honor of the highest intentions, they are objectionable in principle. Virtue is made, in their ordination, far too theatrical a matter, and taught to look for her rewards in the wrong direction. A trade exposition, with its medals and prizes, is a useful institution, proposing such stimulants as are appropriate to the subjects with which it deals. Operatives labor, and manufacturers invent, for the express sake of the temporal benefices which they can earn; but an annual exhibition of the virtues, competing for honorary rewards, would be one of the most offensive and demoralizing things possible. It is not that some of the cases, in particular, which the Academy has crowned, are not well deserving of such rewards and encouragements as governments or Photography.—Permit me, through the columns of the Athenaeum, to make known to the admirers of the Photogenic art a most brilliant improvement in the Energiatype process of Mr. Hunt. It is as follows:–Having prepared the paper according to his directions, and submitted it to the action of the sun's rays in the camera, it must be removed and dexterously immersed into a vessel containing a spiritous solution of the essential oils of cassia and cloves ; and as soon as the spirit has permeated the texture of the paper, which will be in the space of a few moments, it must be taken out, and, with the quickness of thought, laid flat on a piece of plate glass, and kept pressed in that position by means of blotting paper saturated with the same solution for an hour or two. The result is, as doubtless you will have anticipated, a picture beautifully delineated, with brilliant metallic lines of silver, for wherever the nitrate remains unacted upon by the light and other reagents made use of, the oils (as in the new process lately published in your periodical for the manufacture of mirrors, and, which, by the way, suggested the present application, o: down the silver in the metallic state. Not having time to carry out the thing myself to any extent, I beg leave to present it to the public.—And remain, &c.— ..?thenaeum. EDE's New Ly invent Ed Roy Al HERALDIc Ink —of which a packet, with the requisite accomanying apparatus of stamp, &c., has recentl |. submitted to our inspection—meets o our hearty approbation, in consequence of the distinguishing properties of this valuable chemical preparation, which are, its brilliancy of color, its freedom from all corrosive effects on ever fineness of linen, and its absolute indelibility. By means of a peculiarly executed stamp, the impression of names or cyphers (in fac-simile, if wished), crests, &c., is produced with surprising facility, and with a degree of neatness and precision unattainable by pen or pencil. The compactness and elegance of the apparatus, combined with economy of cost, recommend it equally to the aristocracy, to the lady in her boudoir, and to the public at large.—Lit. Gaz.
“i' the Capitol.”
A N D ART.
individuals have to bestow—nor that the example of such encouragement is without its uses. But our objection is to the institution of such rewards as motives to the practice of the virtues. The virtue which has no better soundation changes its character at once, and will gradually degenerate till the community suffer seriously by the mixed sense and low standard of morality introduced. The society that cultivates its virtues for a price is not far enough removed, for safety, from the community that takes the price of its shame. The common motive is a dangerous approximation; and it will be found, in the end, that circumstance will decide too often on the direction in which the reward, so made common, shall be sought. It may be well to honor David Lacroix, who has saved 117 lives, and reward Pierre Thian, who has lost the power to labor in rescuing persons from the Tarn and the Gironde. These are exceptional cases, and cases in which pecuniary assistance was directly needed and had been nobly earned. But the Academy should not be called on to crown a man for being honest, or a woman for being chaste. That must be a sickly state of society, in which such qualities merit crowns. To parade virtues like these is to degrade them at the time, and endanger them afterwards; and some curious examples have been mentioned, in which the act of crowning by the Academy has led to the immediate tarnishing of the crown which it had conferred. The virtue, which had simplicity for its character and privacy for its fitting element, dragged into a stage-light, and covered with tinsel, forgot its quality, and was not stro
enough to resist the seduction to which it h
been exposed by the very fact of its exhibition In all cases, even where the reward is legitimate, the theatrical exhibition were best avoided. The material reward should be considered but subsidiary honor, whereas the parade and circumstances with which it is bestowed, put it in the first place. If it be proposed to answer us with an allusion to the prizes given
by bodies like our Royal Humane Society, we say they are not cases in point. The Royal Humane Society is an institution, having an economic object, and working with such materials as it can }. Its purpose is, not to blazon virtue, but to save life ; and it addresses itself to such mixed motives as are known to exist and likely to help it in carrying its useful object. Its meanings are positive, and the services it pays prescribed ; and in giving its own testimonial it makes no pretension to place an academical crown (in H. it may almost be called a national one) on the head of some hardy mariner or village-girl, summoned up to play the part of Peasant-Virtue, in a masque performed before the loungers of the metropolis.-Athenaum.
MANur Acture of IRon.—The application of electricity, to supersede several of the expensive processes in the manufacture of iron, has, it is stated, been tried in the Welsh and Derbyshire furnaces with satisfactory results. It appears that the costly fuel and labor required for the purification of the ore from sulphur, phosphorus, and subtle elements, create its high market value, and these being all electro-negative, have induced the new process, whereby the impure stream of metal, after flowing from the blast in the moment of consolidation, is subjected to a powerful voltaic battery, which so disengages the impure components that in the process of puddling they are readily extracted.— Newcastle Advertiser.
CAssini.—The Comte de Cassini has presented to the library of Clermont the statue of his ancestor, Jean Dominique Cassini. The illustrious astronomer is represented meditating the composition of the Memoir in which he gives an account of his recent discoveries of the satellites of Saturn. —Athenaeum.
GAMBIA AND SENE GAL.-A commission sent out, last year, by the French Governor of Senegal, to explore the course of the River Falémé, and the gold mines lying in the lands watered by that stream and its tributaries, having com... its labors by an examination of the upper course of the Gambia, the Ministry of the Marine, in France, is preparing for publication a memoir of M. Raffenel, a member of the Mission, which is said to resolve, on data quite new, the question of the alleged junction between the upper streams of the Gambia and Senegal.—Athenaum.
Bridge at WARsaw.—The progress of the great bridge over the Vistula, which has been re: tarded from the deficiency of funds, has received an accelerated movement, owing to a very curious circumstance, which, in the days of superstition, must have conferred a character of great sanctity on the work; , the Saints themselves have provided the needful. In proceeding to the demolition of a small and very ancient catholic chapel, to clear the approach on the Warsaw side, two barrels filled with bats of fine gold have been discovered. The value is estimated at a million and a half of florins (upwards of £150,000 sterling), and the whole has been appropriated to the completion of the bridge.—Athetoo.
Cow. FEED.—M. Dumas made a report on some experiments made by M. Boussaingault, relative to the feeding of cows with beet root and potatoes. M. Boussaingault, states that two cows which were fed exclusively on beet root, fell off in flesh in seventeen days nearly one-sixth, and their milk diminished from o to ten litres per day to five litres. They were then turned into pasture, and soon resumed their former weight, and gave the former quantity of milk. They were next fed exclusively on potatoes, when they fell off still more in flesh than they had done with beet root, and the milk was reduced to two litres each per day. On being placed on a mixed food of hay, chopped straw, beet root, and potatoes, they again recovered their flesh, and gave the former quantity of milk. The conclusions of this gentleman are, that beet root and potatoes do not perform the part usually imputed to them, of fattening cattle, or increasing the quantity of the milk of cows. His experiments show that this is the case, when this food is given to the exclusion of all others.-Athenaeum.
eral years; but his impaired health made it necessary for him to live in a milder climate, and he
DR. Heinroth.-At Leipsic, aged 70, Doctor Heinroth. He was a pupil of the celebrated Pinel, whose views and those of the Esquirol, as to the substitution of moral treatment for physical coercion, in the cure of madness, he was the first to introduce into Germany, both in his own practice, and by his publication and annotation of the works of those two eminent physicians. On his return from France, the Saxon government created a chair, for the teaching of this class of medical science, expressly for him, and appointed the new professor head physician to the St. George's Hospital for the insane—the functions of both which offices he discharged till his death. He was the author of many works of reputation, connected with his own specialty—besides some popular novels and romances, published under the seudonym of Tremund Wallentreter—and mem|. of most of the learned bodies in Europe, including the Royal Society of London.—Gent. Mag. On Friday, the 9th inst., at an advanced age, died that gallant Officer REAR Admiral GA. way. He entered the navy the 19th Feb., 1786, and has seen considerable service in his profession. At the Battle of the Nile he ably distinuished himself under the eye of the immortal K. being senior lieutenant of the Vanguard, that hero's ship; at Walcheren he commanded the Dryad; and in 1811 was actively employed on the north coast of Spain in co-operation with the “patriots,” or national party. He captured the Clorinde, French frigate, in 1814, that vessel of war having previously had a severe action with the Eurotas.—Ibid.
DEAth of Joseph Buon Apartr, Ex-King of SPAIN.—The news of the death of the head of the Buonaparte family, Joseph Buonaparte, Count de Survilliers, reached Paris on Monday. He expired at Florence, on the 28th ult, at the age of seventy-six. On the assumption of the Imperial Crown by Napoleon, he was offered the Kingdom of Lombardy, which he refused. He was made King of Naples in 1806, and in 1808 the will of the Emperor removed him to the throne of Spain, his fall from which we need not relate. On the abdication at Fontainbleau, he retired into Switzerland; but on the return of the Emperor, in 1815, came back, and entered Paris on the same day as his brother. After the battle of Waterloo, he went to reside in America. In 1817, the State of New Jersey, and in 1825, that of New York, authorized him to hold lands without becoming an American citizen. In 1832, he left America for England, where he resided for sev
removed to Florence. He was attended in his last moments by Louis and Jerome, who are his only surviving brothers.-Court Jour.
REv. HENRY FRANcis CAREy.—The death of this distinguished author was announced by a correspondent of the Times, last week; and also the interment of his remains, on Wednesday, in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey. He began his poetical career in boyhood, and at the age of fifteen published a spirited ode on the death of Kosciusko, of whom Campbell wrote (“Pleasures of Hope”):
“Hope for a season bade the world farewell, And Freedom shriek'd when Kosciusko fell.”
Mr. Carey proceeded to the degree of M.A. in Christ's Church, Oxford, and took a wide and }.". range in the study of modern literature. n 1805 he published the “Inferno” of Dante in English blank verse, with the text of the original. An entire translation of the “ Divina Comedia” ... in 1814, and has long since taken its place among our standard English authors. To this Mr. Carey afterwards added a translation of the Birds of Aristophanes and of the Odes of Pindar. He contributed to the old “London Magazine” a valuable continuation of Johnson’s “Lives of English Poets,” and also “Lives of Early French Poets.” In 1826 he was appointed assistant librarian in the British Museum, which office he resigned about six years since. From that pe. riod he had continued his literary labors with almost youthful energy, having edited the poetical works of Pope, Cowper, Milton, Thompson, and Young, together with a fourth edition of his own Dante, to which he added many valuable notes. The late government marked its sense of his literary merits, by granting him a pension of £200 a year.—Lit. Gaz.
From Göttingen, we hear of the death of M. Georg E CHRistiAN BENEcke, the oldest of the functionaries of the University. For forty-two ears he filled the chair of the ancient German anguages and literatures; and he was chief Conservator of the University Library, to which he had been attached for sixty-one years. He was the last of the pupils of the philologist Heyne, and formed, himself, some of the distinguished scholars of Germany. He is the author of many works which have attained celebrity.—Athenaeum.
Mr. Thornton, the author of an elaborate History of India, and other works connected with the East, some years since formed the design of writing a systematic history of the Chinese emf. a work which he considered much wanted. n point of fact, part of this history was printed so far back as 1835; but the design was suspended from the frequent announcement of original works on China which appeared about that time. Mr. Thornton, however, concludes that none of those which have appeared have materially interfered with his design, or at all fulfilled his purpose, which was, to give a “narrative, written in a plain and perspicuous style, of o events, deduced from the Chinese annals and synchronical authorities, relieved, as much as possible, from matter that might impede or offend the general reader, without sacrificing any information essential to the Oriental student.” ii. therefore, resumed his labors, the first half of which lie before us, in an account of the origin of the Chinese nation, the physical geography of China, and Chinese chronology, with its Ancient History down to the Tcin, or seventh dynasty. The volume concludes with an account of the Introduction of Buddhism. We fear that Mr. Thornton has cast his work on too broad a scale to be able to complete it satisfactorily in another volume. From some interesting notes on the ancient manners of the Chinese we select the following specithen :Officers of state had six kinds of dresses, for the different seasons of the year; the princes had seven. At the court of Wän-Wang (in Shen-se) the officers wore woollen dresses embroidered with silk. In some courts, the upper garments were adorned with fur and leopard skin. A king of Tohsin wore a dress of foxes' skins. Generally speaking, the princes' habits were embroidered with silk. Red was the color adopted by the Chows as the court color. The officers of the court wore a red collar to their robe. The prince's cap was of skin, adorned with precious stones; the officers wore, in summer, a hat braided with straw; in winter, a cap of black cloth. The agricultural laborers had straw hats tied with ribbons. Beyond the court, the dresses worn were of various colors, except red ; the caps were of black skin ; the girdles of silk, fastened by a clasp, and wealthy people attached precious stones to them. Princes of the blood wore red shoes, embroidered with gold. In general, the summer shoes were of hempen cloth, and the winter of leather. The women of the middle class wore undyed dresses, and a veil or cap of a grayish color. The princes and dignitaries wore nqants in the ear. A lady was spoken of who É. not only precious stones set in her ear-drops, but thin plates of gold in her hair. The toilette of the Chinese belles had a mirror made of metal. The ladies of rank plaited or frizzed their hair on each side of the head. The children of the rich
they used to untie a knot when they undressed. Until they attained their majority, they wore their hair gathered up in two ... on the top of the , head. At sixteen they assumed the cap. Both men and women anointed their hair, (which was black,) and had an ivory comb at their side. It is well known that the practice of shaving the head was introduced into China by the Manchoo Tartars in the 17th century. The walls of the houses were of earth. The soil was beaten hard, and upon the beaten foundation of the intended wall was placed a frame of four planks, two of which corresponded to the two faces of the wall, which was dressed by a plumb-line; the frame was filled up with moistened earth, which was rammed down with wooden clubs. The beams were of bamboo, fir, or cypress. The frames of the doors were of wood. The poor built themselves cabins of miserable planks. In winter they commonly stopped the door with mud, to keep out the cold. In the 14th century before Christ, the inhabitants of Western China had no houses, but dwelt in caverns or grottos.
Cities were enclosed with an earthen wall, and a ditch, from whence the earth had been taken for the wall.
One of the principal resources for subsistence was hunting, in which bows and arrows were em. ployed. The bow was made of carved wood, adorned with silk; it was kept in a leathern case. The game consisted of wild fowl, wild boars, wolves, foxes, deer, and wild cattle or buffaloes. Dogs were employed in the chase. The great hunting parties of the chiefs and grandees resembled those of modern Asiatic princes : large spaces of forest were enclosed, and the game was forced together by setting fire to the grass. Another resource was fishing, which was performed by line, but most commonly with nets made of fine split bamboo.
Cultiration of the soil, by means of irrigation, was carried on in the vast plain which forms the lower valley of the Yellow River, from Lung-mun in Shanise, to the Gulf of Pih-chih-le. Each por. tion of land assigned to a family was surrounded with a trench of water, which communicated with canals from the river, Till the Chow dynasty, beyond this large valley, to the west and east especially, were vast tracts of forest. Herds and flocks are mentioned as constituting the wealth of the powerful families. The grains referred to in the Sheking are rice, wheat, barley, buck-wheat, and two kinds of millet. The plough is enumer. ated amongst agricultural instruments, with its share ; the hoe or spade, and the scythe or sickle. Weeding is recommended, and the burning of the weeds in heaps, “in honor of the genii who preside over the crops,” the ashes manuring the soil. After two crops the ground was suffered to lie fallow for a year. A plant was cultivated which yielded a blue color, and others from which a yellow and a red dye were extracted.
Bread was prepared in the same manner as at the present day. Meat was broiled on the coals, or roasted with a spit, or boiled in pots. Amongst the common people, pigs and dogs were kept for food. According to the Chow-le, the Le-ke and Mencius, the practice of eating dogs' flesh was general. Beef and mutton were served only on the tables of the chiefs and dignitaries, who
wore in their girdle an ivory needle, with which
kept herds and flocks. Wine was ordinarily