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eral years; but his impaired health made it necessary for him to live in a milder climate, and he
DR. Heinroth.-At Leipsic, aged 70, Doctor Heinroth. He was a pupil of the celebrated Pinel, whose views and those of the Esquirol, as to the substitution of moral treatment for physical coercion, in the cure of madness, he was the first to introduce into Germany, both in his own practice, and by his publication and annotation of the works of those two eminent physicians. On his return from France, the Saxon government created a chair, for the teaching of this class of medical science, expressly for him, and appointed the new professor head physician to the St. George's Hospital for the insane—the functions of both which offices he discharged till his death. He was the author of many works of reputation, connected with his own specialty—besides some popular novels and romances, published under the seudonym of Tremund Wallentreter—and mem|. of most of the learned bodies in Europe, including the Royal Society of London.—Gent. Mag. On Friday, the 9th inst., at an advanced age, died that gallant Officer REAR Admiral GA. way. He entered the navy the 19th Feb., 1786, and has seen considerable service in his profession. At the Battle of the Nile he ably distinuished himself under the eye of the immortal K. being senior lieutenant of the Vanguard, that hero's ship; at Walcheren he commanded the Dryad; and in 1811 was actively employed on the north coast of Spain in co-operation with the “patriots,” or national party. He captured the Clorinde, French frigate, in 1814, that vessel of war having previously had a severe action with the Eurotas.—Ibid.
DEAth of Joseph Buon Apartr, Ex-King of SPAIN.—The news of the death of the head of the Buonaparte family, Joseph Buonaparte, Count de Survilliers, reached Paris on Monday. He expired at Florence, on the 28th ult, at the age of seventy-six. On the assumption of the Imperial Crown by Napoleon, he was offered the Kingdom of Lombardy, which he refused. He was made King of Naples in 1806, and in 1808 the will of the Emperor removed him to the throne of Spain, his fall from which we need not relate. On the abdication at Fontainbleau, he retired into Switzerland; but on the return of the Emperor, in 1815, came back, and entered Paris on the same day as his brother. After the battle of Waterloo, he went to reside in America. In 1817, the State of New Jersey, and in 1825, that of New York, authorized him to hold lands without becoming an American citizen. In 1832, he left America for England, where he resided for sev
removed to Florence. He was attended in his last moments by Louis and Jerome, who are his only surviving brothers.-Court Jour.
REv. HENRY FRANcis CAREy.—The death of this distinguished author was announced by a correspondent of the Times, last week; and also the interment of his remains, on Wednesday, in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey. He began his poetical career in boyhood, and at the age of fifteen published a spirited ode on the death of Kosciusko, of whom Campbell wrote (“Pleasures of Hope”):
“Hope for a season bade the world farewell, And Freedom shriek'd when Kosciusko fell.”
Mr. Carey proceeded to the degree of M.A. in Christ's Church, Oxford, and took a wide and }.". range in the study of modern literature. n 1805 he published the “Inferno” of Dante in English blank verse, with the text of the original. An entire translation of the “ Divina Comedia” ... in 1814, and has long since taken its place among our standard English authors. To this Mr. Carey afterwards added a translation of the Birds of Aristophanes and of the Odes of Pindar. He contributed to the old “London Magazine” a valuable continuation of Johnson’s “Lives of English Poets,” and also “Lives of Early French Poets.” In 1826 he was appointed assistant librarian in the British Museum, which office he resigned about six years since. From that pe. riod he had continued his literary labors with almost youthful energy, having edited the poetical works of Pope, Cowper, Milton, Thompson, and Young, together with a fourth edition of his own Dante, to which he added many valuable notes. The late government marked its sense of his literary merits, by granting him a pension of £200 a year.—Lit. Gaz.
From Göttingen, we hear of the death of M. Georg E CHRistiAN BENEcke, the oldest of the functionaries of the University. For forty-two ears he filled the chair of the ancient German anguages and literatures; and he was chief Conservator of the University Library, to which he had been attached for sixty-one years. He was the last of the pupils of the philologist Heyne, and formed, himself, some of the distinguished scholars of Germany. He is the author of many works which have attained celebrity.—Athenaeum.
Mr. Thornton, the author of an elaborate History of India, and other works connected with the East, some years since formed the design of writing a systematic history of the Chinese emf. a work which he considered much wanted. n point of fact, part of this history was printed so far back as 1835; but the design was suspended from the frequent announcement of original works on China which appeared about that time. Mr. Thornton, however, concludes that none of those which have appeared have materially interfered with his design, or at all fulfilled his purpose, which was, to give a “narrative, written in a plain and perspicuous style, of o events, deduced from the Chinese annals and synchronical authorities, relieved, as much as possible, from matter that might impede or offend the general reader, without sacrificing any information essential to the Oriental student.” ii. therefore, resumed his labors, the first half of which lie before us, in an account of the origin of the Chinese nation, the physical geography of China, and Chinese chronology, with its Ancient History down to the Tcin, or seventh dynasty. The volume concludes with an account of the Introduction of Buddhism. We fear that Mr. Thornton has cast his work on too broad a scale to be able to complete it satisfactorily in another volume. From some interesting notes on the ancient manners of the Chinese we select the following specithen :Officers of state had six kinds of dresses, for the different seasons of the year; the princes had seven. At the court of Wän-Wang (in Shen-se) the officers wore woollen dresses embroidered with silk. In some courts, the upper garments were adorned with fur and leopard skin. A king of Tohsin wore a dress of foxes' skins. Generally speaking, the princes' habits were embroidered with silk. Red was the color adopted by the Chows as the court color. The officers of the court wore a red collar to their robe. The prince's cap was of skin, adorned with precious stones; the officers wore, in summer, a hat braided with straw; in winter, a cap of black cloth. The agricultural laborers had straw hats tied with ribbons. Beyond the court, the dresses worn were of various colors, except red ; the caps were of black skin ; the girdles of silk, fastened by a clasp, and wealthy people attached precious stones to them. Princes of the blood wore red shoes, embroidered with gold. In general, the summer shoes were of hempen cloth, and the winter of leather. The women of the middle class wore undyed dresses, and a veil or cap of a grayish color. The princes and dignitaries wore nqants in the ear. A lady was spoken of who É. not only precious stones set in her ear-drops, but thin plates of gold in her hair. The toilette of the Chinese belles had a mirror made of metal. The ladies of rank plaited or frizzed their hair on each side of the head. The children of the rich
they used to untie a knot when they undressed. Until they attained their majority, they wore their hair gathered up in two ... on the top of the , head. At sixteen they assumed the cap. Both men and women anointed their hair, (which was black,) and had an ivory comb at their side. It is well known that the practice of shaving the head was introduced into China by the Manchoo Tartars in the 17th century. The walls of the houses were of earth. The soil was beaten hard, and upon the beaten foundation of the intended wall was placed a frame of four planks, two of which corresponded to the two faces of the wall, which was dressed by a plumb-line; the frame was filled up with moistened earth, which was rammed down with wooden clubs. The beams were of bamboo, fir, or cypress. The frames of the doors were of wood. The poor built themselves cabins of miserable planks. In winter they commonly stopped the door with mud, to keep out the cold. In the 14th century before Christ, the inhabitants of Western China had no houses, but dwelt in caverns or grottos.
Cities were enclosed with an earthen wall, and a ditch, from whence the earth had been taken for the wall.
One of the principal resources for subsistence was hunting, in which bows and arrows were em. ployed. The bow was made of carved wood, adorned with silk; it was kept in a leathern case. The game consisted of wild fowl, wild boars, wolves, foxes, deer, and wild cattle or buffaloes. Dogs were employed in the chase. The great hunting parties of the chiefs and grandees resembled those of modern Asiatic princes : large spaces of forest were enclosed, and the game was forced together by setting fire to the grass. Another resource was fishing, which was performed by line, but most commonly with nets made of fine split bamboo.
Cultiration of the soil, by means of irrigation, was carried on in the vast plain which forms the lower valley of the Yellow River, from Lung-mun in Shanise, to the Gulf of Pih-chih-le. Each por. tion of land assigned to a family was surrounded with a trench of water, which communicated with canals from the river, Till the Chow dynasty, beyond this large valley, to the west and east especially, were vast tracts of forest. Herds and flocks are mentioned as constituting the wealth of the powerful families. The grains referred to in the Sheking are rice, wheat, barley, buck-wheat, and two kinds of millet. The plough is enumer. ated amongst agricultural instruments, with its share ; the hoe or spade, and the scythe or sickle. Weeding is recommended, and the burning of the weeds in heaps, “in honor of the genii who preside over the crops,” the ashes manuring the soil. After two crops the ground was suffered to lie fallow for a year. A plant was cultivated which yielded a blue color, and others from which a yellow and a red dye were extracted.
Bread was prepared in the same manner as at the present day. Meat was broiled on the coals, or roasted with a spit, or boiled in pots. Amongst the common people, pigs and dogs were kept for food. According to the Chow-le, the Le-ke and Mencius, the practice of eating dogs' flesh was general. Beef and mutton were served only on the tables of the chiefs and dignitaries, who
wore in their girdle an ivory needle, with which
kept herds and flocks. Wine was ordinarily
drank at solemn repasts; the wine was a spirit extracted (as at the present day) from rice. One of the odes states that, “in the tenth moon, the rice is cut to make the wine of spring.” This wine was kept in vessels of baked earth. The lower orders drank out of horns rough or cut. The metals referred to are gold, silver, iron, lead, and copper. Articles were manufactured of all these metals. Gold was obtained from mines in the south ; mines of iron were worked in Shense by Kung-lew, in the 18th century B. c. References to matters relating to war are numerous, and seem to denote that, excepting in the use of fire-arms, the Chinese have made little progress in the art military since those early times.—Tait's Magazine.
Germann. .Niederlandische Sagen—Gesammelt und mit onmerkungen begleitet, herausgegeben von Johann Wilhelm Wolf. (Legends of the Netherlands, collected, illustrated with Notes, and edited by J. W. Wolf). Leipsic. 1843. 8vo. pp. 708.
Since the year 1818, when those profound scholars and philologists, the brothers Grimm, published their collection of German Traditions, a spirit of inquiry into these interesting relics of the literature of the people has manifested itself in almost every country of Europe, and produced numerous volumes of popular legends, calculated alike to interest the mere reader for amusement, and the philosophical investigator into national antiquities and the history of fiction.
Too many of these collections have, however, been disfigured by one glaring and unpardonable fault—an attempt to invest their contents with a
: dignity and importance utterly at variance with
their artless and fragmentary character. The
The village matron, round the blazing hearth,
From this offence against propriety and good taste, the vast body of Flemish traditions, here gathered together o the industry and research of the editor, is entirely free, as indeed might be expected from the complaints to which he has given utterance, against such of his predecessors as have fallen into this error. Thus, while he commends Schayes for his ‘Essais Historiques surles Usages, les Croyances, et les Traditions des Belges,' and Dr. Bovy for his “Promenades Historiques, he does not scruple to point out the defects of Berthoud in his “Chroniques et Traditions surnaturelles de la Flandre,' and to denounce as utterly unworthy of notice the “Chroniques des Rues de
marks, that the editor of the present collection has had many predecessors, even in our own day, in the great work of collecting the traditionary remains of the Netherlands ; and as he has moreover diligently sought them out from time-honored chronicles, and noted them down from the recitation of venerable graybeards, in whose memory
the tales heard in their youth still held their place, and in addition to these sources, has been fa
vored with communications from some of the
most distinguished Flemish antiquaries, it will
readily be believed that the five or six hundred
legends with which his goodly octavo volume is filled, sorm a perfect storehouse of Flemish tra
ditionary lore—the value of which is certainly
considerably increased by the editor's notes and comments. The connexion which subsists be
tween the early language and literature of England and Flanders, and the light which they are calculated to throw upon each other, render the present volume one of peculiar interest to the antiquaries of this country, who will find in it many a striking picture of the manners and customs of bygone times, many a startling illustration of old world feelings and old familiar phrases.
SELECT LIST OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS.
Walpy's Schrevelius' Greek Lexicon, translated into English, edited by the Rev. J. R. Major, D. D. Guide to the Geology of Scotland, with a Geological Map and Plates, by James Nichol. Library of Travel, Vol. I. “Syria and the Holy Land,' by Walter K. Kelly. An Aid-de-camp's Recollections of Sert in China, by Captain A. Cunnynganne.
Die Lehre von der Trinität in ihrer historischen Entwickelung. Wol. I. von G. A. Meier. Hamburgh.
Moses Mendelssohn's Gesammelte Schriften. Herausg. von Dr. G. B. Mendelssohn. Wol. IV.
Repertorium der classichen Philologie, herausg., von Dr. G. Muhlmann und E. Janicke. Leipzig.
Histoire Ancienne et Moderne de l'Eglise des frères de Bohemie et de Moravie. Par A. Bost. Paris.
Histoire de Lion X. Par Audin. Paris.
RUSSIA. Ein erster Versuch uber den Accent im
Bruxelles.” As it will be seen from these re
Sanscrit. von O. Boehtlingk. Petersburgh.
HARRIS’S HIGHLANDS OF ETHIOPIA.
From the North British Review.
The Highlands of Ethiopia. By Major W. Cornwallis Harris, of the Hon. East India Company's Engineers. Author of “Wild Sports in Southern Africa,” “Portraits of African Game Animals,” &c. In three volumes. London: Longman and Co. 1844. These volumes contain an account of Major Harris's journey to the Christian court of Shoa, in Abyssinia, and of what he learned regarding that court and kingdom during a residence of eighteen months. He went thither as the chief of an embassy to the Negoos, or King of Shoa, from the British Government; having been chosen by the Governor-General of India, who had charge of the affair, in consequence of previous experience of his talents and general acquirements. The object of the mission was to establish relations of alliance and commercial intercourse between the two governments and their subjects, and thereby to promote the extinction of the slave trade, the diffusion of legitimate traffic, and the increase of geographical and general knowledge. J. : The Embassy was despatc DEcEMBER, 1844.
fied from Bom
bay in April, 1841. Including the savans it consisted of ten persons, was attended by a small escort of British soldiers, besides some artisans and serváhts, and was amply supplied with the stores necessary for conciliating, by gifts or bribes, the chiefs of the barbarous countries through which it was to pass. Every security seems to have been taken for the attainment of its objects. And, accordingly, if we may believe Major Harris, the embassy was successful. A commercial convention was in due time concluded between Great Britain and Shoa. It consisted of sixteen articles. They are not published in these volumes, but Major Harris tells us that “they involved the sacrifice of arbitrary appropriation by the Crown of the property of foreigners dying in the country—the abrogation of the des. potic interdiction which had, from time immemorial, precluded the purchase, or display of goods by the subject, and the removal of penal restrictions upon voluntary movement within and beyond the kingdom;” which restrictions, it seems, are a modification of an old national rule, not to permit a stranger who had once entered Abyssinia ever to depart from it. These are certainly great improvements in the laws of the Shoan kingdom; and if the
convention shall lead to the actual entrance of British traders and British manufacturers among the Shoan people, it will as greatly ameliorate their condition. Major Harris does not say what provision was made for the creation of such actual intercourse between the people of the two governments. The Shoan country is a tempting field for commerce; but its frontiers are between three and four hundred miles distant from the western coast of the Red Sea. The route lies through a country difficult to traverse from its physical peculiarities, and dangerous from the habits and prejudices of its inhabitants. A safe transit must be secured to the trader. Perhaps this was the subject of one of the sixteen articles of the convention. We should have been glad of some information on this point; for one of the first questions which these volumes suggest, regards the practical utility of having a treaty of commerce with the ruler of an inland territory accessible only through countries so little friendly to the traders for whose protection the convention is designed. But to this, and some other inquiries of equal interest, they give no satisfactory answer. The objects of the Embassy, and its measures, are not, however, the topics to which we mean to devote this paper. Our design is to extract such information as we can condense within a limited space, respecting the people and country visited by Major Harris. On these subjects, his volumes, and the recent journals of the English Church Missionaries, Messrs. Isenberg and Krapf, afford us much interesting and curious information, and give the first minute account, by modern eye-witnesses, of the southern provinces of the ancient empire of Abyssinia. Neither Bruce the traveller, nor Gobat the missionary, who penetrated farther than any other modern visitors, reached the limits of Shoa. Hence the work of Major Harris opens up what is, to British readers in general, an entirely new country, and depicts a people which, if it cannot be termed new, is only on that account more interesting. Its monarchs claim to be descendants of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. They are the undoubted successors of those Christian Emperors of Ethiopia, who, in the earlier centuries, entered into alliances with the Emperors of Rome, and who, in the sixteenth century, renewed, through the Portuguese, a friendly intercourse with Christian Europe. Since the rupture of that
friendship, their country has been almost altogether concealed from view, or has been seen only, as it were, by glimpses, and when placed at disadvantage. Any tolerable description of it must therefore possess a very peculiar interest, bringing before us, as it does, a people who at once excite the curiosity awakened by utter strangers, impress us with the reverence due to historical antiquity, and move in us the sympathies of brotherhood in religion. It is difficult to imagine a more attractive subject for a book. But the volumes before us, though in some respects highly interesting, are on the whole very unsatisfactory. Their chief defect is a want of precise information. The proceedings of the embassy are not detailed distinctly, or with that specification of names, time, place and circumstances, by which ordinary journalists give life and authenticity to their narrations. Of the individuals attending it, we learn from a list, that Captain D. Graham was principal assistant, Messrs. Kirk and Impey, surgeons, Dr. Roth, naturalist, &c. But they scarcely appear in the narrative; and neither from it, nor from the vague compliment in the preface, could any reader have the least notion of the great services to the embassy rendered by the Rev. Mr. Krapf. A similar obscurity besets many other topics, and makes the information regarding them most disficult of apprehension. One main cause of this is the style of the author, which will direct words. In the preface, he tells us, never let him tell his story in plain and that, “written in the heart of Abyssinia, amidst manifold interruptions and disadvantages, these pages will be found redolent of no midnight oil.” Accordingly, we expected to find an artless, unlabored, and rather rude and blunt narration, betokening an intelligent yet unrhetorical and practical soldier. To our surprise, and disappointment, we found one directly the reverse, artificial and rhetorical in an unusual degree, as if the author's chief thought had been how to be impressive—to place objects and incidents in the most picturesque positions, and clothe them in the most Sonorous diction. Of a work of travels, the style is an inferior quality. Nor should we have made any complaint, if the fault had been on the side of poverty; but, in the opposite fault, there is conveyed one of those claims to literary merit, which we, as critics, are bound either to allow or reject.