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melodrama of the Brentford tailor rendered into Spanish, the whole concluding with a dance on she tight rope. On a subsequent evening we visited the opera, which was held at the regular theatre, by no means a despicable building. Macintoshes, lined with plaid turned inside out, and thrown gracefully over the shoulders of several of the performers, fixed the scene of action in representation at our entrance to Scotland. The opera was “Lucia di Lammermuir ;” the audience was numerous, and seemed highly gratified, but the performance not such as to invite a second Wisit. The Venezuelans, immediately upon the establishment of the republic, turned their attention towards public education, which under the Spanish rule, in spite of a university at Caraccas and a college at Merida, was ever discouraged, the suppressed convents and their revenues having, as has been before observed, been devoted to this purpose. There are now, besides a second university at Merida, a college in every large town, a military academy, and numerous primary schools. There are also in Caraccas private colleges and well-regulated schools for both sexes; and the Government are now establishing parochial schools throughout the whole extent of their territory, as they have already formed in about one-third. The proportion of those educated in the latter to the whole population, not reckoning the lindians, was one to a hundred and fourteen in 1840. There are several printing establishments in Caraccas, whence, besides newspapers, issue numerous translations from English and French authors; the latter, judging from the numbers, being the favorites, especially the novelists of the modern school. The proceedings of the chambers, with ample statistics of commerce, population, expenditure, revenue, and produce, are published yearly, under the authority of Government;” the amount of exports and imports, and of revenue, extracted from these Blue Books for the year ending July, 1841, will serve to give an idea of the existing state of the republic as to wealth, the population being about a million. In the neighborhood of Caraccas, within reach of an afternoon’s ride, are several villages, surrounded by cultivated grounds, and extremely beautisul, especially along the foot of the Silla, All the fruits, vegetables, and flowers of Europe, can be made to flourish upon these elevated plains among the sugar. canes and bananas of the tropics, and perhaps only require the hand of a skilful gardener to make them equal in flavor to those of cooler climes. We had much curiosity to see the palo di vacca, or cow-tree (Golactodendron),
* Financial year from 1840 to 1841—Revenue, 5,363,040 pesos, of 3s. 4d. ; exports, 6,159,835; imports, 7,399,923. In the year 1829 to 1830 the evports and imports were 5,587,104, and the in crease has been gradual.
of which Humboldt has given many details, The vegetable cow is by no means confined to this neighborhood; the milk is brought into the market in the English colony of Demarara, in sufficient quantities by the Buck Indians who descend the Essequibo and Demarara rivers, to prove its existence in abundance in the forests of British Guyana; in Caraccas the milk is never used except in the immediate spot where the tree grows. We found much difficulty in procuring information to guide us in our search, but at length ascertained that the nearest spot where the tree was known to flourish was at the Hacienda of Santa Cruz, about five or six hours' ride from caracas. A lady to whom that and the neighboring properties belonged, having kindly offered us the services of a Peon for a guide, we started early one morning, in company with an Englishman, whose acquaintance we had made in Caraccas. Our road lay over a rough mountain, covered with more fantastically-shaped varieties of cactus, cereus, agave, and aloe, than we had ever seen collected together before; the rich flowers of the latter, upon their tall larch-like stems, and the jo. boughs of some of the former, mingled with piles of uncouth lichen-grown rock, gave a peculiarly grotesque aspect to the scenery. Descending into a long winding valley, our wild guide, mounted upon a raw-boned jackass, now led us along the bed of a rivulet, by which it was traversed, now by a path cut through the forest, till after surmounting several ridges in succession, we at length reached a mountain side, richly clad up to its summit with forest, and looking down into a valley filled with haciendas of coffee; another hill was beyond, and over this a fine view of the sea presented itself. The farm of Fundacion, to which we were first led, we found much farther than we had expected, and as we had an engagement to dinner in Caraccas for the same evening, we had but little time to lose; we therefore hurried over a breakfast there, and remounted. The road being steep, and our pace brisk, our Caraccas, friend, accustomed to a sedentary life, soon knocked up, and returned to the farm. Santa Cruz we found situated in a delightful valley; we were soon furnished with guides by the major domo or superintendent; but the distance of the farm to the first tree was still not trifling. After riding about a mile or two, the road became too steep for either horses or mules; we dismounted. The path was now the edge of a water-course, which, cut out of the rock, or built up at intervals of masonry, carried the waters of one of the lesser valleys in a winding course, down to irrigate the hacienda below, along the face of an abrupt cliff, whose fissures were filled with forest trees. After scrambling for above half a mile along the water-course, our guide pointed to the palo di vacca in midst of a hanging wood, whose lofty summits shut out the sun. The stem was about two and a half feet in thickness, and shot up from seventy to a hundred feet into the air, where its foliage mingled with that of its neighbors, from which it was scarcely distinguishable at that height. We had chosen an unsavorable time for our visit to the vegetable cow: it was the dry season, and the moon was on the wane. The power of the moon upon the flow of the juices in the vegetation of the tropics, is well known—our cow was accordingly a bad milker; nevertheless, upon slashing the bark with a cutlass, out came the cream so as to be easily taken up with a spoon; with the exception of a slight clamminess, the cream was highly palatable, and said to be much used by the laborers of the farms during the season when the juices are abundant, when it is collected in bottles. The tree was said to be common in the forests around, and a grove of them was pointed out to us at the hacienda of Cotoura, about half an hour further off, where the tree was to be seen in every stage of existence. Time, however, pressed ; the guides made us many promises that they would bring in a bundle of young trees for us the next morning, to transfer to the gardens of the West India islands; however, the promises were forgotten, and the good Island of Tobago must still continue to put up with the milk of the goat and the animal cow. We returned to the Farm of Fundacion by a short cut, where we sound our friend, still unwilling to move; in fact, he anticipated the pace at which we should return, and wisely waited for the cool of the evening. The grass was certainly not ermitted to grow under our horses' heels; I. the animals not being knocked up before our arrival at the hotel, we were enabled to keep our engagement with the British Consul. It was the time of the Carnival. We had anticipated a great deal of amusement in the idea that in so Catholic a city the festival would be kept with extraordinary vivacity. We were disappointed. The only observance consisted in a §. license exerted in the outskirts of the city, of deluging the passengers with water from syringes and garden forcing-pumps, and occasionally powdering the victims with flour while dripping from the first assault. These outrages were checked by the police in the better parts of the city, but respectable people were still cautious of appearing in the streets at the hour of dusk. he population of the British island of Trinidad have a far more civilized mode of observing their carnival; it is their season of masuerading, gayety, and gallantry. To see the farm of Galipan, upon the opposite side of the range of the Silla, upon another occasion, aisorded us an agreeable excursion from Caraccas. We started early one morning on foot, upon the erroneous supposition that the mountain was inaccessible for mules; the ascent was difficult, but the prospect from the different stages of the ascent extremely beautiful, in spite of the dryness of the weath
er. The city lay below us, and the numerous villages of the plain, with their verdant valleys, were scattered around till lost among the distant succession of those mountains which we had already traversed in our journey srom the Llanos. On the summit of the hill the forest is extremely rich in every variety of tropical soliage, and the wild strawberry is here gathered in profusion at the foot of the various palms. §o. the ridge, the ocean appeared at intervals through the rolling mists with which the base of the mountain was wreathed, and below us were the coffeeplantations of the hacienda, which seemed suspended over the sea, midway down the mountain sides. A path, very difficult of access, and impracticable without guides, leads from this ridge to the neighboring summits of the Silla. , Descending the mountain in company with the proprietor of the farm, who had accidentally overtaken us, being himself mounted on a mule, we gladly accepted his invitation to breakfast. We sound here strawberries in abundance, and numerous English vegetables, and the garden filled with roses, pinks, carnations, and lilies. The sun had set before we reached our hotel, where a large party were assembled, according to custom, playing billiards, drinking coffee, and discussing politics. We were listening to a variety of yarns, spun by an old English Venezuelan officer, upon the eternal subject of the war of independence, interspersed with republican declamation, when a buzz outside of the hotel drew every one to the balconies of the windows. It was the first appearance of the comet, whose brilliant tail, dashing across a third of the heavens, had startled Caraccas, ever since the day of her destruction in 1812 painfully susceptible of alarm at any unusual natural phenomena, from its customary repose. The commotion, commencing in terror, continued in admiration through half the night. It was a beautiful sight, and the pure atmosphere of Caraccas, on that night unmingled with a single cloud, gave a silvery splendor to the spectacle. The alarm of the inhabitants was the more natural, as the tidings of the earthquake at Guadaloupe and Antigua had but a short period before reached them. This catastrophe had occurred since we left the islands, and, as usual, the reports were so exaggerated by distance that we were uncertain whether the island that we had come from was yet above water. Report affirmed, after enumerating the sates of several other islands, that a brig, in sailing by, had seen a column of smoke and ashes hovering above the spot where Tobago Once was. Our last excursion in the neighborhood of Caraccas was through a highly-cultivated valley, where we put up at a hacienda, where there were some mills lately, established for shelling coffee for the English market. The process, they say, spoils the berry's flavor, though it improves its appearance, and procures for it a readier sale. The Venezuelan
planters in general cultivate their estates with a rigid attention to economy; having little or no capital wherewithal to work their farms, they are obliged to borrow from the moneylenders at an exorbitant interest, that nothing but this economy, which their naturally frugal habits render comparatively easy, could enable them to pay. he proprietors also reside on their farms, or are at least their own managers, in which they have the advantage over their more extravagant neighbors of the British West Indies. Amid the thick cultivation in the district around these mills, we sound a very beautiful village crowning the summit of a group of hills. Here all the male inhabitants were eagerly employed in cock-fighting. It was Sunday, and some of our party remained so late watching the festivities of the peasantry, that it was dark before we assembled at the hacienda for dinner, and late ere we broke up; a young clourdi of our party having contrived to become extremely festive during the evening, retarded our homeward progress. The roads were frightfully steep even in the broad daylight, the distance considerable, and the drunken subject refractory. However, the light of the stars and *Fine comet assisting, he was sound and picked up whenever he sell from his horse, and finally brought into Caraccas. There are comparatively few English among the artisans or merchants of Caraccas; and, of all those who flocked over at one time, to fight in the service of the young republic, under the title of Patriots, but a small number survives. Nevertheless some few British officers are still in the service of Venezuela. Among those who have earned for their names a certain notoriety, are the Cacique of Poyais, M. Gregor, now stricken in years, but formerly a distinguished leader in the war of independence; and General Devereux, now blind, whose levies of patriots distinguished themselves by mutinying, because the pillage of the rich cities which their recruiting serjeants had promised them was withheld upon their arrival upon the coast, and who had previously much perplexed the authorities by claiming arrears of pay, when, as the historian of the war innocently observes, they had never any money for their own troops. The unmanageable foreigners were at length embarked and sent .# to Jamaica, to be disposed of by the Governor, with the exception of some officers and volunteers who remained in the service of the republic. One of the few survivors of the British battalion that earned so valorous a reputation at Carabobo, we found head-waiter, or major-domo at the Lion d'Oro. Caraccas might well spare a better man; having subdued the soldierlike vice of inordinate drunkenness, he had become a paragon of major domos, and upheld the affairs o the Lion d’ Oro with distinguished zeal. His account of the battle which decided the fate of the re
»ublic, and of the motives which actuated the ritish troops on that day to combat with so much obstinacy, bore upon it the rude impress of truth. The British troops had been harassed by the warfare of the Llanos, totally at variance with their habits, and longed for repose. On the eve of the battle they saw plainly that if it was not won, there would be before them another years campaigning, up to their waists in water; and this they resolved to prevent if they could. The Venezuelan regiments were broken and routed at the commencement of the sray, “but the valorous strangers,” as the historian observes, “ deployed and formed line under a horrible fire, with a serenity that did not seem to belong to rational creatures.” The officers were all killed or wounded, and the battalion reduced by more than half; but in the meantime the broken Venezuelans had rallied behind the foreign battalion, and returned to its support. The result was a complete victory, from which only one battalion of the Spaniards escaped. The congress were lavish of their praises and honors to the army and its chiefs. It was decreed that divers attic columns should be raised to the latter; but the sunds of the republic being low, their names, instead of this, were in the meantime inscribed legibly upon various town-pumps, where they may yet be seen, attesting the exalted sense which a highspirited people entertain of the heroism of the departed brave. The Britannic legion having received the distinction of being named the Legion of Corobobo, after the field of battle, was, however, disappointed in its hopes of obtaining rest. It was marched about till so few remained that the republic, disembarrassed of such numerous claims, could asford to fulfil its magnanimous promises of pensions to the survivors.
Nov EL TREATMENT For the GURE of Con
sumption.—Ober Post.Ampte Zeitung has the following:—The surgical operations of Dr. Von Herff at present attract great interest here (Darm
stadt). These operations have in several instances effected a decided cure in cases of tubercular pulmonary consumption, phthisis tuberculosa. The seat of the ulceration having been ascertained by means of the stethoscope, the matter is discharged "...", by an incision being made in the cavity of the breast, penetrating the lungs. The cure is finally effected by medicine injected into the wound by a syringe. We have hitherto refrained from making known these operations, as we wish to await the results; but we are now enabled to affirm with confidence that in several instances the operations have obtained the most complete success, and in no case have been attended by any danger to life. We hope that Dr. Von Herff, after an extended series of experiments, will make the observations deduced from them the subject of a philosophic inquiry-– Athenaeum.
A NATIVE SOUTH AFRICAN TALE. "
From the Asiatic Journal.
Two neighboring nations of the Bechuana race for some years carried on a war of extermination, during which unheard of cruelties were perpetrated by both parties. The name of the one nation was Barolong; that of the other Bakueni. On one occasion, an old warrior of the Barolong was traversing the borders of Bakueni, in the character of a spy, when he saw a young girl of that nation, daughter of the principal chies, gathering berries on the margin of the river, at a considerable distance from her father's hamlet. At this sight, the savage propensities of his nature were roused, and, creeping upon his hands and knees, unperceived until within a sew paces of his victim, he sprang upon her, and, seizing her by the arms, cut off both her hands above the wrists with his assegai, tauntingly exclaiming, “ U tila 'mpona kai 2 rumela 1 * “Where shall you see me again? I salute you !’ He then made off, before the cries of the poor bleeding girl could reach her friends in the village. War ultimately produced its usual results, famine and misery, when both parties hastened to make peace, by slaughtering cattle and eating together, the Bechuana mode of ratisying a treaty. The next season after the conclusion of peace, proved propitious to the Bakueni, and unpropitious to the Barolong. The former had an abundant crop of corn; but that of the later was destroyed by swarms of locusts, which ravaged their gardens; and they were consequently driven to beg food from the people they once meant to destroy. Among others, the old warrior was compelled to undertake a journey to the Bakueni in search of food. With a small bag, containing a little meal made from pounded locusts, intended for his sustenance on the journey, a ipe and tobacco, and a walking-stick in his hand, he took the road leading to the Bakuena ; his progress was slow, his body being reduced to a mere skeleton by famine. On arriving at the hamlet of the chief of the Bakueni, the old warrior entered the laping, or enclosure before the chief's house, near the door of which sat a female covered with a tiger-skin kaross, worn by no one but the mofumngari, or royal mistress; to her he addressed himself in the most abject terms, begging her to give him, a poor dog, a little food, for he was dying of hunger. She returned his salutation by saying, “E! U_tla 'mpoma kai 2 rumela " The old man did not advert to the import of these words, being stupified by hunger. A woman servant being at the time in the act of cooking food, her mistress desired her to take some out of the pot and ut it into a dish ; then, throwing open her o and uncovering her arms, she pointed with the stumps to the old warrior, saying “ Give it to that man. He does not deserve it. It was he who cut off my hands when I
was a girl; but I will not retaliate: he is now starving. Little did he then think that we should thus meet.” She added, “There, take and eat: Utla 'mpoma kai 2 rumela " The feelings of the old man may be imagined. The circumstance made a deep impression on the Barolong nation. To this day, a Barolong may be restrained from an unkind act by the oppressed party exclaiming, “Utla 'mpona kai 2 rumela P’ “
PUNCH'S CHARGE TO JURIES.
GENT LEMEN of T H E Ju Ry :—You are sworn in all cases, to decide according to the evidence ; at the same time, if you have any doubt, you are bound to É. the prisoner the benefit of it. Suppose you have to pronounce on the guilt or innocence of a gentleman accused of felony. You will naturally doubt whether any gentleman would commit such offences; accordingly, however strong may be the testimony against him, you will, perhaps, acquit him. The evidence of your own senses is, at least, as credible as that of the witnesses; if, therefore, your eyesight convinces you that the prisoner is a well-dressed person, you have a right to presume his respectability; and it is for you to say whether a respectable person would be likely to be guilty of the crimes imputed to him. In like manner, when you see a shabby-looking fellow in the dock, charged, for example, with sheep-stealing, the decision rests with you, first, whether or not that individual is a ragamuffin ; and, secondly, how far it is probable that a man of that description would steal sheep. Of course, as has been before said, you will always be guided by the evidence; but then, whether the evidence is trustworthy or not, is a matter for your private consideration. You may believe it if you choose, or you may disbelieve it; and whether, gentlemen of the jury, you will believe it or disbelieve it, will depend on the con stitution of your minds. If your minds are so constituted that you wish to find the prisoner guilty, perhaps you will believe it; if they happen to be so constituted that you desire to find him not guilty, why then, very likely, you will disbelieve it. You are to free your minds from all passion and prejudice, if you can, and, in that case, your judgment will be unbiassed; but if you cannot, you will return a verdict accordingly. It is not, strictly speaking, for you to consider what will be the effect of your verdict; but if such a consideration should occur to you, and you cannot help attending to it, that verdict will be influenced by it to a certain extent. You are probably aware, that when you retire, you will be locked up till you contrive to agree. You may arrive at una nimity by fair discussion, or by some of you starv ing out the others, or by tossing up ; and your conclusion, by whichever of these processes arrived at, will be more or less in accordance with your oaths. Your verdict may be right; it is to be hoped it will ; it may be wrong; it is to be hoped it will not. At all events, gentlemen of the jury, you will come to some conclusion or other, unless it should so happen that you separate without coming to any.—Charinari.
* Graham's Town Journal.
HENRY Steffens, by birth a Norwegian, now a professor in Berlin, is well known to the literary and scientific world as a natural philosopher and a novel writer of no vulgar mark. In the present volumes he has given us personal memoirs of his share of the great European movement made by the Germans against Napoleon in the years 1813 and 1814; and the value of the contributions thus made to the history of that important period, cannot, we think, be better expressed than in the following words of the author himself.
“Generally speaking,” says he, “there is no literary undertaking more difficult than a genuine historical account of the wars of modern times. Since the art of war has become a regular science, the narration of wars assumes a character only too like the exposition of a fixed system ; and as the battles themselves, whatever motives may influence them, are at bottom combats of military principles rather than of moral agents; so the account of them is apt to reduce itself to a mere dry detail of marches and counter-marches, of advancing and retreating armies, of the quantity of ammunition taken, and the number (often not at all to be depended on) of killed, and wounded, and taken prisoners; or it takes the shape of a regular scientific exposition, which annihilates all that is living and characteristic, and commands a sort of general interest only when something external and accidental interferes to modify the action of the scientific principle. In works of this kind, whatever is purely human appears as a disturbing element, and, where it cannot be altogether omitted, is only tolerated. The individual man, just because in his greatest moments he contains something mysterious and unfathomable, is rejected as incompatible with the ordered rigor of the system; every irregular outburst of vital poetry is inadmissible. Even that which is urely accidental, and beyond the control of É. measurement, and which, were it let alone, might assume a character of sublimity, is often forced to appear on the historical stage as the result of a plan that, in fact, did not exist till after the victory was gained. In the narrations of Herodotus and Thucydides again these opposing elements interpenetrate one another, and are essentially one. Men are placed before us in earnest struggle for all that makes human existence valuable, and forces the heart of man to feel strongly for man; and this living centre of interest, amid
all the formal machinery of niilitary circumstance, is never lost sight of. I have, accordingly, determined to relate my experience of German history, which my own narrow sphere, simply as I experienced it, with every personal feeling and relation as it arose within me or stood before me; and this method of treatment is likely to be satisfactory even to the already well-instructed reader, just in proportion to the disrepect shown to every thing merely personal by the modern historians. I have no inclination, of course, to detract from the high merits of those who have treated these matters systematically; but the simple narration of a man of letters, who took part in the struggle, when already advanced in life, will not be without an interest of its own.”
These remarks express a feeling to which not Coleridge only and Carlyle, among recent British spokesmen, have given strong utterance, but which must have been felt, more or less, by almost every person of sentiment in these times who has read or attempted to read modern history. A good battle, well described, now and then may possess a pictorial and an artistical value, even when it wants a true human interest; but a series of battles, minutely described, can have merely a scientific interest to those by whom they are minutely studied; and are to the general reader (especially where plans are not supplied,) wearisome, and, except as an external result, valueless. Most cordially, therefore, do we agree with the professor as to the value of merely personal details as a supplement to the ponderous military and diplomatic records of modern history; and there is no English reader of Alison's ninth volume of “European History'—not to speak of German —who will not willingly concede to Stef. sens the old man's privilege of talking copiously about himself, when himself is merely the introducer of such names as Gneisenau, and Scharnhorst, Marshal Blücher, and the Baron von Stein.
The two volumes which contain these patriotic reminiscences are the seventh and the eighth of a series, to which our readers have been already (No. lxi.) introduced. When noticing the first six volumes, we purposely eschewed all matter of a political nature, and confined ourselves, for the sake of unity, to a few gleanings of literary particulars, such as we thought might be interesting to the student of German literature. In the present supplementary notice we shall, for the same reason, reverse the procedure, and, excluding the literary and philosophical passages, confine ourselves to