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such the force of the storm, that twenty-six / who now surveys its suburbs after an abfeet out of the thirty were buried in the sence of ten or twelve years. earth. Only four feet of the rafters were The question has often been asked, “ Is visible above ground. Handsome squares London likely to continue for any length of and ornamental parks were then wholly un- time to increase its dimensions in the same known; there were no places of public ratio as it has done for the last fourteen or promenade. Such a thing as walking for fifteen years ?" Absolute certainty on such pleasure was altogether unknown. Fine a point is necessarily out of the question. shops or fine houses of any kind, were No man can speak oracularly on the subalso unknown. The streets were not ject. The presumption, however, undoubtlighted at night; the little light that guided edly, is in favor of an affirmative answer. the feet of the pedestrian, was emitted from The probability, indeed, is, that not only the shops and the windows of the houses. will it go on extending its proportions at It was dangerous, owing to the numerous the same extraordinary rate, but that it will robberies then committed after dark, to go do so at an accelerated pace. The disposiout at night; no one, indeed, left his own tion to build is every where prevalent.
A abode who was not obliged to do so. How few months only have elapsed since a great altered the aspect and state of London now! effort was made to obtain the sanction of But I dwell not on its present condition; the legislature to erect houses on Hampstead I leave that to the reader himself. Suffice Heath. Had this sauction been given to it to say, that it is now one of the most the parties applying for it, there cannot be healthy and comfortable towns in the king- a question, that before twelve months had dom.
elapsed, that extensive common would have It were improper to close this introduc- presented the aspect of a moderately sized tory chapter without some reference to the country town. recent rapid extension of London, and what In confirmation of the opinion that this it is likely to attain to ere the lapse of mighty metropolis will go on, for many years many years. Astounding as is the mag- to come, enlarging its dimensions, in as nitude which it has already attained, it is in- great if not a greater ratio than during the creasing in extent with a rapidity to which last fourteen or fifteen years, it may be right there is no parallel either in its own annals, to refer to the fact, that the demand for or in the history of any other city in the houses, instead of diminishing, continues to world. In little more than twelve years, no increase. From all parts of the country we fewer than twelve hundred streets have been hear, at short intervals, of the number of added to the number previously existing- unoccupied houses in particular towns. No being at the rate of a hundred new streets such complaint ever greets the ear in referevery year. The statement will surprize our ence to the metropolis. Not only are there country readers; many of them will, doubt- few untenanted houses in the more central less, regard it as an experiment on their parts of the town, but the most careless credulity. It is, nevertheless, strictly true. observer who passes through any of the subIt is given on the authority of a return re- urban districts, must have been often struck cently made, not to the legislature, but to with the fact, that scarcely is a new street the government. These twelve hundred finished, than almost every house in it is new streets consist of forty-eight thousand fully occupied. houses, most of them built on a large and This very extensive and rapidly increascommodious scale, and in a style of superi- ing demand for houses, is susceptible of easy or comfort. It is a fact which is worthy of explanation. The extraordinary facilities being recorded, that of late years the new for travelling afforded by the numerous railhouses which have been built, are, in the ma- ways now intersecting the country, induce jority of cases, of a superior class as compar- myriads to visit the metropolis, who, but for ed with the houses previously erected. The these facilities of transit, would have reresident in the metropolis is less liable to be mained contented in the provinces: many struck with amazement at the rapid rate thousands of these settle permanently among with which it is, in all directions, extending us. It need hardly be remarked, that inits boundaries, because almost daily addi-creased facilities of intercourse between tions to its magnitude come gradually on London and the country towns, necessarily him; but it requires no great effort of the increase the trade and commerce of the forimagination to form some idea of what mer, and that as trade and commerce inmust be the measure of that man's surprise, crease, the demand for houses must con
[Nov tinue to grow, and the metropolis, conse- | progress of development has been analogous. quently, continue to extend. 'As an illus- Except where a close and jobbing corporation bas tration of the influence which the railways and healthy lungs.
been at work, such towns generally enjoy large have in bringing persons from the provin In the towns begotten of manufactures it is differces to the metropolis, who otherwise would ent The old towns were built to be towns, and not have visited the latter place, the fact at a time when land was plentiful in proportion to deserves to be mentioned, that the daily ted to them. But the manufacturing-towns have
the population ; so a competent quantity was allotinflux of individuals to London is five times grown by accident. Mills and factories were plantas great now as it was only fifteen years ago. ed in convenient situations ; houses were built for Let any one only visit the termini of the great the persons employed in them; nobody thought trunk railways—the London and Birming, houses had increased in numbers and closed in upham, the Great Western, the London and
on each other so they had actually made one. Southwestern, the Eastern Counties', the Every man was too busy thinking of himself and Dover, the Brighton, &c.; let any one only his own concerns, to spare a thought for his neighvisit the termini of these great lines of railway bors, until the crowd became so great that they and he will be overwhelmed with amaze- toes, driving their elbows in each other's sides,
were unintentionally treading on each other's ment at the thousands of persons which the making each other uncomfortable in all manner provinces daily pour into the metropolis. of ways. As railways are multiplied and extended At a period characterized by increasing consid.
eration for the public, and more especially for throughout the country, London, already so
that which must under all circumstances be the overgrown, must needs continue to swell its
most numerous portion of the public—the poor, dimensions. When or where the enlarge and those who, if not exactly poor, are most cerment of its boundaries is to stop, no one can tainly not rich—such an anomaly could not es. tell; not even a confident conjecture can be cape observation. A good deal of talk there has formed on the subject. There is not, as the large manufacturing-towns; and, fortunately,
been of late about establ shing public parks in suredly, anything improbable in the supposi- the business has now got beyond the ialking stage tion that ere many years have elapsed, Black-1-in Manchester it has been fairly begun. well, Stratford, Greenwich, Hampstead,
As might have been expected from the popular Highgate, Hornsey, Hainmersinith, Fulham, sympathies and appreciation of the innocent Brixton, and other places around London, whole kith and kin, Mr. Mark Philips, Mem
amenities of life, not only of himself but of his will, by the filling up of the intervening ber for Manchester, was among the first to open open space with houses, be all brought with his purse liberally to promote so important an in the comprehensive embraces of the me-object; and Sir BENJAMIN HErwood of course tropolis. In the supposed case, instead of kept pace with him. Sir Robert Peel was ap
plied to; and his contribution was munificent, being, as at present, about forty miles in and gracefully offered : “Considering Manchescircumference, its circumference would be ter to be the metropolis of a district to the induslittle less than a hundred miles; while the try of which I and my family are under very deep population would be from three millions five obligations,” is the Premier's proem, and the con: hundred thousand to four millions. The Lord Francis Egerton, on subscribing ihe same
clusion is set me down for a thousand pounds." mind feels appalled at the contemplation of so amount, observed that he was in arrears to the colossal a place; it is overpowered as it re- inhabitants of the town, and was only paying an Aects on the probability that so vast a num- instalment." This manner of giving doubles the ber of human beings will ere long, be per- Sir Robert Peel, in recognizing what they owe
value of the gift. Lord Francis Egerton and manently congregated together, as if all be to the industry of Manchester, have spoken the longed to one great family. London is al. simple truth : but to remember it and utter it at ready regarded as a little world of itself. the right moment shows the wise, liberal spirit, The author who, half a century hence, shall the high mind, that gratifies those they are assisewrite on so fruitfal a theme, may with a by the assistance actually given. The admission
ing even more by recognizing their claims, than special propriety, choose for his book the that the Park to be purchased and laid out for the title of “The Modern Babylon." E. H. E. use of Manchester by those and other subscrip
tions is their just right, no eleemosynary grant, will immeasurably increase the gratification of
the people in using it, and correspondingly their The MANCHESTER PARK. –Public Parks have kindly feelings towards the subscribers. It is by been called the lungs of towns. In the animal words and deeds like these that society is cementeconomy the lungs are among the earliest devel. ed. Words and deeds like these are in a Chrisopments, and are at first disproportionately large, tian society the substitute for the religious rites the other parts of the systein expanding in bulk with which the classical nations would have inat a later period. In old-fashioned towns-towns augurated such a field. The work in Mancheswhich have been founded or have come to their ter is begun in a right spirit-quod felix fausfull growth before the æra of manufactures--the 'umque sit.--Spectator.
LETTER 1.TO CARL FRUBLING.
OSWALD HER BST'S LETTERS FROM For want of a companion, I suppose, I soon ENGLAND.
exhausled the objects of interest in this town.
Here is a good literary institution styled the From Tait's Magazine.
Athenæum ; but I have heard no lectures there. The town has been greatly improved
of late years, by the building of several streets
Penrith. of splendid shops and respectable houses; but I am in England. After an easy voyage,
the work seems to have proceeded (as such arrived in the town of Newcastle a fortnight matters often do in England) 100 rapidly; as ago. The entrance of the Tyne is noble, and many of the houses remain unlet, and give the crowded with vessels of merchandise. Shall
town a rather depressed appearance. I confess that the first sensation I had upon
Soon after I arrived I devoted a very rainy landing in this town, was something of Heim- day to the study of the counties of Northunberweh? (they have no name for it here.) When land and Durham. The result of this study was I walked out into the crowded streets of this a determination to cross the Tyne, and see the commercial place, I felt my own insignificance
old city of Durham, with its cathedral, and to a painful degree. In that quiet little town other spois of inter st in its neighborhood. of Franconia, where I spent last summer, the Accordin:ly, one rainy morning, I set out by very air seems favorable to philosophic con
railway, and in the course of a little time, ar. templation. One feels there as if one's thoughts the level line, allowed nie only hasly glimpses
rived in the city. The speed of travelling, and were of some importance to the world, which seems to lie passive and recipient around one; lis most striking features were the chimneys
of the couniry, which seemed raiher bare. but here, how different is my feeling! What can gentle thoughts do here! Can you make of steam-engines, and the long line of coalthese money-seeking crowds of nien stand etill wagons travelling rapidly upon the colliery long enough, or hold in the breath of eager stone-bridge named alier the Queen.
railways. We passed over a very noble
It desire, while you instil into them lessons of unworldly wisdom? How the clergymen feel in crosses the river and the valley of the Wear; these great commercial towns, I can hardly that the entrance upon ihe bridge on both
but it seemed to me a greai inconvenience imagine. Perhaps they are pleased if they sides of the river was made at a very sharp get new churches erected and well-attended on Sundays ; but I should be very discontented angle for railway-travelling, so that the enin their situation. But then I am a dreaner. gine's speed had to be considerably diminished Well: 1 already feel that if I came hither for in passing over it. The neighborhood of the mere immediate pleasure, for objects exactly city of Durham abounds in picturesque situaaccordant with all my predilections, I have lions; but the city itself is, on the whole, mean made a wrong choice of ground for travel ; eminence from the river, whose banks are
in its interior appearance. On a considerable but if I wish to try my patience with a stout opposition to my ruling fancy, or to enlarge my steep and thickly wooded, stands the ancient mind by the contemplation of a wide diversity, cathedral, grand and heavy. My first business here I am riglit; for I already feel that Eng. from which the entrance into the large square
was to climb up a steep and narrow street, land is the antipodes of our fatherland. And, in front of the cathedral is fine and imposing. afier all, the disagreeable is, perhaps, as essen- The north front of the pile first struck my tial to the improvenient of the mind as the
view. agreeable. We must have the hard as well
It is exceedingly grand. There is as the soft, the ungenial as well as the con- nothing particularly lightsome or beautiful
, genial, or we fall into a weak and sickly self sameness, instead of a large and healthy unity lect; but the vast building has throughout an
expression of venerable grandeur mingled of mind.
We cannot always live upon the food which with something of antique gloom. The organ we have already well digested and assimilated;
was pealing as I entered. The enormous but must lake fresh nutriment from the out round pillars, (I should say of between seven ward world, though the process of digestion with zig-zags, lozenges, and spirals; the
and eight yards in circumference,) adorned may cloud the head a while. I am sure I shall find plenty to try my digestive economy ries, with their diminished arches above; all
heavy Norman arches; the two rows of gallein this great, busy England. But I will leave this subjective mode of speaking. I cannot
pointed out the thoughts from which arcse say that I would see the diversity which I find such a structure-houghts not of the pleasure existing between England and our well-loved or convenience of men, but of the solemn Deutschland destroyed. I would not have dedication of men and all their works 10 the England assimilated to Germany; and I am
honor of superior powers, heroic angels, and sure I would not have Germany conformed to gigantic saiuts. By such efforts, with ponderthe present condition of England: no, not for ous buildings. painful offerings, and costly serall the advantages (so far as I undertand human eoul betray its want of peace and con
vices to conciliate superior powers, did the them) of a free press and representative government. But of politics I shall write when I tentment within ; and, while putting forth such get to London.
stupendous powers over the naterial world,
[Nov. sadly confessed its seebleness in the more it remarkable. Its general aspect is low and awtúl realm of thought and the invisible. degraded. Between the populace and the Such a pile is exactly adapıed to make every aristocracy of the cathedral, there is a deep individual feel little and insignificant, and to gulf; and it seems to me a singular phenomendow:he unknown beings to wbose honor it enon that so little of ameliorative influence was erected, with all the attributes of power, should flow from that great religious institumajesty, and grandeur.
tion into the abodes of the people. At present it must be conceded to the There is fine scenery all around Durham, Romanist
, that the actual services but ill ac- and especially on the banks of the winding cord with the sanctuary. It is evident that Wear. Next morning, afier my visit to the such a structure was erected for something cathedral, I walked several miles to see the more than a simple daily service, which might ruins of Funchals Abbey. Here the scenery be celebrated in a plain room of no very large is very beautiful, and affords many a nook for dimensions. The whole consideration of the monastic coutemplation, closed in by the origin, history, and present condition of these thickly-wooded banks of the river; bui even vast structures, and their occupants, forms a here, you cannot escape the encroachments of most complex riddle—one of those discords the commercial activity of England; for the which old times and antique institutions have works of coal-mining surround you on every left for the poor, bewildered nineteenth century. side, and you are awakened from your dreanis I conless I do not feel the interest or admira- of the olden time by the harsh jarrings of the tion which many feel, or affect to feel, in their iron-wheeled wagons upon the colliery railvisits to these monuments of the olden time. roads. I never passed ini ough places more . German as I am, I love the intelligible; but devoid of animation and interest than these here I am out of it altogether. This is the dark-looking colliery villages about here. The land of mystery. There is no statuary of re- cottages are but ove story high, of one unimarkable elegance or beauty in this cathedral : form pattern, and that the meanest possible; a indeed it would look out of place here. The black road of ashes or coal-dust runs between statue of a former bishop, Shute Barrington, (the rows of cottages, and no church-spire, no is in an amiable style and becoming a place tree breaks upon the dullness. Some of the of worship, which is rather remarkable for cottages, however, I could see were comfortamodern English sculpture. That of Van Mil- ble inside, and not destitute of that good cheer dert, the late bishop, is quite the reverse; it in which the poor miner finds solace asier his occupies an enormous chair, and looks very toil. A few years ago these men earned bigh clumsy.
wages, and their coitages still show signs of I entered the choir to hear the service, which the taste for luxury cultivaied in the days of was thinly attended. Two or three only of prosperity. In many of their dwellings you the prebends were present. The chanting was see the handsome clock, the large bedstead, tolerably harmonious; but, of course, defective and the chest of drawers all of polished main spirit and emphasis, from perpetual repeti- hogany. Among these villages I could hear tion. Surely the original idea of these ser- very little of musical meetings, or reading vices might be more fully developed. How societies. Here and there, the pious may pospleasant would it be to hear the children or sess a few books of devotion ; but I suspect the many surrounding schools, educated out of the majority are sadly destituie of cultivation. resources of this great establishment, joining The aspect of the people seemed to me to postheir voices in the daily services! Then I sess less of ireedom and sprightliness than would disband all the singing men, and have even that of our own peasantry. I am sure I the organ to do all the hired work. But it is have found more marks of good feeling among of no use spinning such theories in England. the lower classes in Bohemia than here. It How grand would be such an institution as a may be my fancy; but the men I meet seem cathedral, were it indeed what it professes to sullen and ill-tempered. I had rather see be, a métropolitan symbol of the perfection them employed in cheerful games and exerand harmony of human souls united in a cises, than lounging about as they do in their Catholic religion! But the bond of union be- hours of leisure. Here and there a few are tween the symbol and the life from which it collected together for the game of quoius; but arose, has decayed, and all the wealth and this is the utmost extent of their playlulness
. learning of the Church cannot restore it. However, I hear it generally said, thai a great
There is a rage among some parties just improvement in many respects has taken place now for what they call the revival of Gothic in the moral condition of the miners during the Architecture-they mean only the mask-laking last twenty years. No doubt when they earned from the features of the dead. What! is this higher wages they consumed inore liquor; age doomed to have no soul, no mind, no life of but that they have improved in good feeling its own? How did your Gothic architecture towards their
superiors, during the days of arise, Mr. Pugin?—from such slavishness of sobriety, I doubt." At present, from all that I copyiny as you recommend, or from the spirit? hear, much discontent prevails among the Why may not we also have minds?
mining population of the northern part of The city of Durham is in ill accordance England. The distance belween the working with the monument of antiquity which makes meu and their employers has been gready ex
tended of late years; as, indeed, has been the pit will stand. Let them lead the people from case between ihe very rich and the very poor the unknown, the abstracı, the unintelligible, generally in England. The more the agents to love, reverence, and regard the known, the employed in superintending the mines have real, the intelligible truths and duties of human aspired to the character of gentlemen, the life. Let them insist on Christian charity and more the working men have felt disposed to unity, for its own sake, and not merely because regard their own interests and those of their a lew so-called fathers of the church happened employers and superintendents, as inimical. I to see the beauty of it. It is a derogation from hear that large but sober and orderly meetings its honor to commend it on the authority even of the miners are held occasionally upon the of a St. Augustine. After all, be it descendmoors in the neighborhood; but their proceed. ed from the fathers of the fourth century, or ings are kept in secrecy. The more I read and from the apostles, the church is just what it hear of the condition of the immense classes of does, and nothing more. It is only Christian working people, both in the rural and in the so far as it works out Christianity. It is second, manufacturing districts of England, the more I and not first : it is the tool, the instrument, and am convinced that a great revolution awaits this not the work itself: it is the means, and not the wealthy and industrious country; and I only end. But pardon this digression into controhope and pray that it may be a peaceful one, versy : this country, just now, is full of it. I as, indeed, it still may be. I say it still may have some hope that it cannot take a very long be, if not thwarted by unhappy, one-sided, and time, even for such an unwieldy and slowpartial legislation, a gradual, true, and peace moving body as the Church of England, lo ful revolution. The very life and activity of grow weary of the worn-out, traditional, comsociety depends upon the development of op- plex, antiquated, and never conclusive argupositions of interest, as the stability and repose ment for unity and peace, and come forward to of society depends upon the timely and fair re- the present, plain, evident, and intelligible conciliation of such oppositions. Unhappily, mode of argument. If it be evidently good the English seem to me, from what I read and and reasonable that I should live on charitable hear of their newspapers and political or so- terms with my neighborhood, why recommend called religious debates, an obstinately one the practice solely because Mr. So-and-so said sided people. The Liberal is all for the new, it was good, even though Mr. So-and-so was a and nothing but the new; the Tory, or Con- sensible man or an eminent saint. All this, servative, is all for the old, and nothing but the my dear Frühling, will be dull commonplace old. He never will believe that a tree may to you; but here, I assure you, it almost change its leaves, and still remain the same amounts to original thinking; but will assuredly tree. To the Churchman, Episcopacy and be condemned, with every ining else charitable, church authority are every thing; to the Inde- under the long but insignificant nickname of pendeut they are nothing
latitudinarianism. However, it is nothing of It strikes me that the working classes and the kind. I would contend for the very niceties their employers, in this part of the country, of truth, in their proper time and place. I have two different religions, (if I may use thai would insist on the full carrying out of every sacred word in the plural.) The Establish- sound principle: but I would keep every limb ment, certainly, does not seem here to be, as of the truth in its due place; and no more it is sometimes styled, the religion of the poor. deny a man the inner motive because he has The greater number of the respectable pe ple- not the full outward development, than I would the superintendents of the piis, called viewers, deny the existence of a soul in a man, because etc.-go to church; but many are the pit- he has a speck on his eye. villages, with numerous inhabitanıs, without a This is all declamation, instead of a descripchurch, and supplied with preaching by the tion of my travels; but I assure you, that itinerants of several sects sprung from the body when I turn from the superficial view of the of Methodists. I have heard it generally al- aspect of this country to consider the interior lowed, that a considerable increase of sober life of the people, the first great evil that strikes and orderly habits among the people, may be my eye, is intense sectarianism. Perhaps my fairly attributed to the efforts nade by these disadvantages in some respects, as a tourist, voluntary teachers; though, of course, their may turn out advantages for the acquisition of means fall greatly short of supplying the correct information. My hap-hazard acquaintwants of the population.
ances and conversations may serve me better I could heartily desire to see the clergy in- to gain a fair view of the state of society here, sisting less upon their official claims and dig- than if I had come over with recommendations nity, occupied less with arguments of ex- to any one class of society, and so had been clusiveness and negation ; but coming out to cast into one narrow line of observation. I Lake their fair chance on the ground ol' what shall do very well without introductions to they can do for the people. Let them teach the nobility, the literati, etc.; for they would the poor children to sing and be happy; the never help me to discover things which I shall poor' men to work and to suffer religiously; the find out very well without them. I am surely poor women to make something more like one of the most unbiassed men in Great heaven of home. Let them leave what is Britain. truly good to take care of itself-only do it, and But to return to my travels. I came west