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ever, warned by the following passage, | fore, the power of creation, of raising the which looks towards us and our brethren dead, and transporting the living, is the great with a formidable expression of counte- prerogative of the poetical mind, and that nance, . “Quorum alii septimo quoque which not only gives it the claim to an indie, alii modestiores singulis mensibus, qui tellectual sovereignty, but enables it to adsumma abstinentia utuntur, quater certe in minister it. And it is by their marvellous anno redeunt, Criticorum nomine et loco exhibition of this power that Homer, Shakgestientes. Rarissimi sunt, qui in illa speare, and Dante, have so irresistibly esceleritate scribendi non plurima secus di- tablished their authority over the vast emcant, atque id, quod unice deceat.” pire of the human heart. And, therefore,
Of these volumes, and of the many topics it should never be said that we possess no of literary interest that occupy
their pages, magic and no sorcery by which the past and it would be impossible for us to offer any ap- distant scenes can be revived. We have propriate exposition. We shall content our read, in the thrilling legends of ancient selves with indicating a few trains of thought days, of wonderful mirrors into which the which have been awakened by their perusal, wand of the enchanter summoned the faces in the hope that our readers may be in- and the dwellings of those whom the quesduced to take up and enlarge them. A tioner desired to behold. And we have lecturer is obliged to commence his dis heard how the glowing cheek of beauty, quisition with a definition of the subject of and the glittering plume of war, and the which he discourses. Of poetry, so often solemn forehead of learning, glimmered explained, and so variously illustrated, it into the illuminated glass; and how the may be expected that every thing true has English maiden saw there the knight who been said already, and that whatever has had gone to rescue the Sepulchre of his the recommendation of being new, incurs Lord, pining in the dungeon of the Infidel; the perilous probability of being rejected and how the mother, trembling for the genas false. Keble adopts the humbler and tle daughter of her love, grew pale as she saw the wiser course of reproducing and re- the white rose planted, and the green osier shaping the opinions already received. If woven round a new tomb in the churchhe calls in the coinage of criticism, it is yard of her own village. And in the sefa only that it may be restored to its former bulous mirrors, thus uttering their melancirculation when its genuineness and weight choly oracles of the past, and their sadder have been ascertained. In defining poetry, prophecies of the future, we can recognize he requires only two concessions to be that collecting and combining power of made to him; 1, that it must in some man- memory which, when it has been magniner be continually associated with number, fied and colored by the rays of imagination, and harmonious gradation of sound; 2, may be properly called poetry or invention. and that it be employed chiefly in creation It is the vivid reproduction of buried oband representation ; in making the absentjects, the luminous revelation of forgotten present, the dead alive, things that are not pageants, the sunny transparency of faded as things that are. And the first conces- landscapes, that affixes the seal to the poetsion will be rhythm ; and the second will ical title-deed. Hence it happens that we be phantasy. Either quality, in the ab- never think of any great poem, whether of sence of the other, possesses its charm; ancient or modern times, without perceivand it has been remarked by Coleridge that ing that a long procession of magnificent the sweet combination of sounds, even scenes rises under the spell of recollection. when destitute of any particular significa. The happiest criticism ever given of Spenser tion, exercises a pleasing influence on the was that which Pope records, and which ear, and through the ear upon the feelings. compares him to an artist displaying a An illustration of this power may be found sumptuous gallery of pictures to some wonin the effect produced by a brook tinkling dering visitor. so it is with the historical over pebbles, and heard, not seen, in the portraits of Shakspeare. twilight of a green lane on a summer even A consideration of the elements of the ing. But though it is possible for Chris- poetical temperament leads Mr. Keble to tianity to subsist without music, and to speak of that mute, that unconscious poetry, constitute poetry by its own essential ex- which dwells in so many bosoms, and may cellence and principle of vitality, it is not be said to characterize the inhabitants of possible for rhythm to communicate the our villages and rural solitudes; such as game privilege of existence. And, there- the attachment to particular places, the
tender recollection of departed friends, and | The stooping shadows of those who have a general sentiment of reverence for things come in the quiet of the evening time to pertaining to religion. The charm of local weep there, seem still to cast à solemn attachment especially deserves to be enu- gloom and sanctity over the grass. The merated among the elements of the poet- son desires to lay his ashes with those of ical mind, so abundantly and unconscious- her at whose knee he had first folded his litly possessed. Absent in the remotest re- tle hands in the prayer of childhood, and of gions of the world, the exiles still return in him by whose wise counsel he had been thought to the scenes and haunts of affec- guided in the difficult pilgrimage of life. tion and memory. The English corn-field The religion of the children is warmed waves and glistens beneath the Indian sun, by the pious histories of their kindred, the smoke of the white cottage, as it nestled thus,among the embowering woodbine, slowly « In still small accents whispering from the ascends over the feathery crown of the
ground, palm, and the steeple of the village church A grateful earnest of eternal peace." glimmers through the dark branches of the banyan. The sentiment is bestowed upon We have hitherto been speaking of the the many, the utterance of it upon the few. first and second lectures, the third enters The heart feels, the genius expresses. Ke- upon a wide and interesting path: it proble gives a charming specimen both of the fesses to examine what is called the poetsentiment and the expression in some lines ical, as developed in painting and sculpof Burns, which he hesitated to translate ture, in architecture and music; and, lastly, into Greek because they breathe already in rhetoric. Under the first division the the rhyme and the grace of Theocritus :— lecturer selects two painters, the chief of
their respective schools, Raphael and Ru“ I look to the west when I gae to rest,
bens; and two pictures, which are accusThat happy my dreams and my slumbers tomed to be regarded as the triumphs of For far in the west is he I lo'e best,
each artist in his own peculiar walk of art. The lad that is dear to my baby and me.' The parallel, as might be supposed, is ex
tremely interesting between the Roman νυκτος αει ζεφυρον ποτιδερκομαι οπποτ' ες ευνας εκλινθην. το μοι αυν επ' ομμασιν υπνον εχευε.
painter, impelled by nature and restrained προς ζεφυρον γαο τηλoσ' αποχετο φιλτατος ανδρων
by the gentle jurisdiction of the purest σχετ' ιων, ποθος αμιν, εμοι και παιδι αφαυρω. taste, and the Flemish, swayed by his own
discipline of habit; one, contemplating a Virgil has made a beautiful use of this certain divine form and image of beauty, local memory, shedding a peace and joy which he bad delineated in the secret reover the dying eyes of the exile. One of cesses of his own mind, and producing at the most affecting exemplifications of its will an uniform chastity of color and deinfluence is afforded by the familiar story sign; the other seizing upon every variety of the Swiss soldiers who had been received of hue and figure, in every possible cominto the pay of France. It was the even- bination. And so the difference between ing hymn of their native mountains that Raphael and Rubens is, that in the work restored health to their bodies and hope to of the first you forget the workman, while, their minds after every other remedy had in the second, the workman obscures the failed. Their own song transformed a work. To Raphael Mr. Keble thinks that strange into a beloved land, and seemed to the endowment of poetical light is never give to them the scenery and the friends, refused; that the claim of Rubens, if not as well as the music of their home. Not impugned, is never constantly admitted. less lively is the affectionate interest to- From painting he passes to sculpture, wards the spots where the loved in life which requires, as he observes, a purer sleep in death. It is not alone the poetical and a severer taste to appreciate its beaumind of Burke that desires to relinquish ties than is demanded by the more dazWesminster Abbey for the dear old family zling attractions of color. But architecburial-ground,
ture is far more intimately associated with
poetry; whether it be the exquisite temple “Where red and white with intermingling of Greek idolatry, with its solemn mys
flowers, The graves look beautiful with sun and showers ; its magnificent images of gods, darting rays
teries of superstition, its dim shrines, or While not a hillock moulders near that spot, By one neglected or by all forgot."
of unearthly splendor from their emerald
eyes; or the rich and fantastic graceful- | but though there is resemblance, there is ness of Oriental Paganism ; or, above all, no identity. Magnificence of diction, sweetthe long-drawn aisles and fretted vault of uess of pathos, charm of expression,-all our own sacred churches. Upon such a may be present, without constituting a subject we should expect the writer of the poet; for Cicero had them all; yet he still Christian Year to speak with more than remained a rhetorician; while of Plato it common enthusiasm. For on our own part has been affirmed, that he is more poetical we think, and have said upon a former oc-than Honier. The contrast indicated by casion, that a cathedral and the Faery Keble is just and happy. Cicero always Queene breathe the same spirit; that one seems to encircle himself with the theatre, is a poem in stone, and one in metre; and the crowd, the applause; you see the flucthe painted window and flowery clusterings tuating wares of spectators; you hear the of the walls form the more eloquent and gathering thunder of kindling hands. With the most congenial commentary upon Spen- Plato, on the contrary, all is tranquil and ser. We shall quote a portion of this de- subdued ; he appears to be his own audiscription of our sacred architecture, and, ence; his is the quiet eye that broods upon instead of a translation, would refer the his own heart; any noisy expression of adreader to a metrical illustration from his miration would desecrate the serene maown Christian Year :
jesty of his contemplations. The orator's “Vetustissima supersunt prægrandi colum- rhetoric speaks to the busy, the idle, the narum mole; simplici figura januarum, laquehard-hearted, the worldly; the poetry of arium, fenestrarum; sculptili opere non ad- the philosopher steals only into the ear of modum vario, neque in multas diffuso partes; the pensive, the meditative, and the refined. quod adeo ad formam totius ædificii vix magis The oracular breastplate of the intellectual pertinere videatur, quam ad montis alicujus bigh-priest returns no answer to the profane superficiem flores herbæque, si quæ ibi nas. and unworthy questioner. Every precious cuntur. Itaque solidam quandam præ se ferunt durissimæ firmitatis, ne dicam immor- jewel of thought is clouded and silent. To talitatis, speciem. Deique cultoribus ipso illustrate his distinction between the rhevisu servandam commendant animi constan- torical and the poetical mind, Keble adtiam, et pertinacem sine fastu fortiiudinem. duces two specimens from two English Hæc pervetera et fortasse rudiora paullatim writers, each alike celebrated in his own excepit ædificandi ratio, omnium, ut mihi qui- particular walk of thought, -Burke, the dem videtur, elegantissima et sacris longe pride of the Senate, -Taylor, the glory of dignissima mysteriis. Acui jam fornicum culmina, atque in sublime efferri: columnæ the Church. The passage from Burke is non simplices illæ, sed virgalæ, fascium rito, the famous description of the unfortunate tamquam ex pluribus quæque constet columel- Queen of France, selected from the Essay lis, inter se stipatis vinctisque; tum capita, on the French Revolution ; and the quotamira arte cælata, xensim cum Jaquearinus im- tion from Taylor occurs in his funeral pingi ; fenestræ plurimæ. amplissimis lumini. sermon on Lady Carbery. We give the bus, sculptili opere quam delicatissimo; qua- original and the translation; and we think rum quasi fibræ, foliorum similes, non vagantur illæ quidem, libere tamen huc illuc fer- that even the graceful figures of the orator untur.”
and the splendid image of the preacher will
gather a new melody of sound from the exThe association of poetry with rhetoric quisite Latin music to which they have been is, of course, more intimate and defined; I set by this accomplished critic:
“It is now sixteen or seventeen years since “Vidi equidem multis abhinc annispulcherI saw the Queen of France at Versailles; and rimam, qualem ne insomniis quidem hunc surely never lighted on this orh, which she orbem terigisse crediderim (si modo revera hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful vi- tetigit;) vidi diluculo quodam suo, margine sion. I saw her just above the horizon, de cæli, vixdum exortam ; superna, quo properacorating and cheering the elevated sphere she bat, loca, etiam tum læto lumine fovebat. just began to move in, glittering like the morn. Qoid multa ? Eoo lucidior emicabat, plena ing star, full of life, and splendor, and joy. splendore, plena gaudin, quantum eheu! jam Oh! what a revolution! and what a heart mutata ! idem ego quam durus forein, si fixis must I have to contemplate without emotion oculis intueri possem, tali ortu, tam misere that elevation and that fall !"
TAYLOR TRANSLATED. "In all her religion, and in all her actions “Ita se ad pietatem composuit, is erat tenor of relation towards God, she had a strange eorum, quæm illa Dei causa faciebat, ut esset cvenness and untroubled passage, sliding to- miris modis tranquilla, nec unquam feretur ward her ocean of God and of infinity with a citato gradu; quæ ad suum illum Oceanum, certain and silent motion."
Deum videlicet et Æternitatem, certo ac quieto itinere laberetur."
Keble awards the prize of the orator to from a comparison with Burke, or with Burke, and of the poet to Taylor. “ Who that writer who might be supposed to sug. will deny," he says, “that these words of gest a more appropriate parallel, Bossuet ; the bishop flow from a full breast ? Who we allude to his perfect want of any such will doubt that he who has thus spoken modulated flow of words and arrangement would have given utterance to the same of sentences as compose what we are acsentiment in the solitude and silence of his customed to call a style. In that respect own chamber ?” Now suffer us to say one he is the Rubens of eloquence; the fasciword in the praise of one of the loveliest nation of his coloring is made to illuminate, minds that ever threw a bloom and a beau- if it does not conceal, the frequent deformity over the sacred teaching of England. ties of his imagery, and the harshness and Without being a poet—for Taylor's speci- abruptness of his language. mens in rhyme have nothing but his name
In the fourth pralection the professor to recommend them-he possessed the ele- touches upon the interesting subject of ments of poetry; and of all our writers, he poetical excellence in its relative degrees seems to have had most eminently the of originality and power, and in the highest brooding eye of Plato. For if we were class he places Spenser and Shakspeare. asked to indicate by a single epithet the In this opinion he has the recorded voice broad distinction between the eloquence of Southey to support him; who looked of the rhetorical and the poetical mind, we upon Shakspeare in the dramatic, Milton should say of the one that it was descrip- in the epic, and Spenser in the romantic, tive, and of the other that it was suggestive. as not only above all their successors, but Of the first, that it gave to the spectator a at an unapproachable distance from them. single picture; of the second, that it ex. The admirers of Shakspeare may rejoice to hibited scene after scene glimmering away receive the suffrage of Keble to the char. into the aerial sunnings of perspective. In acter of their poet. He considers his virthis suggestiveness, the writings of Jeremy tues of composition to have belonged to Taylor abound. Southey, while express himself, and his vices to the age; and he ing his surprise at Mackintosh's high praise thinks that the wilful depravity of his conof the panegyric mysticism of the bishop, temporaries ought be taken as a testimony admits that there are in his works exqui- of the sincere and hearty love and admirasite, and more than Platonically beautiful tion of things deserving praise, by Shakpassages, though he conceives them to be speare:—"Ut facile quis intelligere possit, scattered thinly, like the apparitions of an- quæ aliquando subterpicula intexuntur, pargels in pious story. We enter more con- tim sæculi esse, non scriptoris; partim, ut genially into the remark of Southey's friend, ebrios Laconicis pueris tanquam odiosa ac William Taylor, of Norwich, that it is pleas- vitanda proponi. Ergo illum virtuti ex aniant to get out of the modern shrubberies in mo favisse non est cur dubitemus; cum perpetual flower into the stately yew hedge- præsertim plerique eorum qui tunc scenicis walks, and vased and statued terraces, and dabant operam, in alia omnia abire confruitful walls, and marble fountains of the sueverint." old school of oratory. We think with him, Of the moral infirmities of Dryden we and in his own words, “ that such things think that Mr. Keble speaks with a severity are not made without a greater expense of that might have been softened. To say study and brains than modern method re- that he never praised any one from his quires;" and we admit, also, with him, that heart, is scarcely justified, or rather it is “ while there is a something of stiffness and contradicted by his life. Why should we inutility to censure there, there is a some- doubt that his panegyric of Oldham was thing of aptness, grace, and convenience to sincere, as we feel it to be eloquent ? Many applaud there."
of the intellectual vices of Dryden were the In one respect Bishop Taylor must suffer vices of dependence—the vices of poverty.
COPLESTON AND KEBLE.
251 Surely some allowance ought to be made character of Dryden, and instead of transfor a man of genius who was obliged to lating it, give its spirit in a parallel passage keep a sharp eye upon a bookseller's clip- from one of Southey's letters to William ped guineas. We shall quote Keble's brief Taylor :
DRYDEN SKETCHED BY KEBLE.
“I have placed Dryden at the head of the “Nulli vis major et copia verborum; nulli second-rates. I admire, but do not love him; sententiarum uberior seges ; nemo felicius he can mend a versifier, but could never form sese tentare, nemo liberius quædammodo et a poet. His moral imbecility kept him down; lætius spatiari, suarum virium censu. Unum with powers for painting, he chose to be a illud Vate sacro indignissimum, quod ita limner by trade; instead of amending ages to parum sibi congruat, ut neminem unquam ex come, he was the pimp and pander of his animo laudasse, nulli earuin, quas cantaverit, own."
rerum impensius eum studuisse dicas."
Mr. Keble might very aptly have brought(grace,—we say particularly of genius reforward the example of Dryden to support fined by art, because, in this respect Virgil his argument, that great poets are not only excels Homer, and Campbell snatches the willing to employ on fitting occasions the crown from Spenser. It may suit the egolanguage of common discourse, but also tism, and, we are sorry to be obliged to add, that they draw much of their imagery and the extreme vanity of the late poet-laureate, illustration from things familiar and simple. to call Virgil a first-rate language-master, The Night Thoughts of Young he men- but many years must roll by before the tions as suffering from a different the- Kehama will be found on the same shelf ory.
with the Æneid. There is deep cause to regret the error
In his sixth lecture Mr. Keble comof the poet, because in no book of the eigh- mences a most interesting inquiry into the teenth century, whether it be written in history and structure of the Homeric poprose or verse, is it possible, we think, to ems, --an inquiry prolonged during ten lecfind so much food for thought condensed tures, and presenting subjects of the most and extracted. There can be no question pleasing character. If the late Lord Dudas to the purity of the ore; it is the difficult ley and Ward, whose correspondence with inscription round the edge that keeps the Bishop Copleston has been given to the coin from getting into the general currency public, could have read the professor's obof verse: the inscription rarely ends in the servations upon the Odyssey, he would, dialect in which it began; a new thought perhaps, have deemed it deserving of higher assumed the supremacy in the writer's commendation than that of being a pretty mind, without altogether dethroning the poem. The illustrations of the personal former; and so we have at the same time character and disposition of the Homeric two separate images and superscriptions, writer, derived from his own works, are and two reigns of fancy seem to be run into peculiarly pleasant ; and we have been each other.
But in one quality of the poet- struck with the contrast which Keble draws ical mind to which reference has been al- between Homer and Burns, in the temper ready made, we consider Young to shine with which they received the dispensation pre-eminent-in the quality of suggestive- of a lowly fortune. He discovers a close ness—he indicates, rather than describes, resemblance between the Greek and Scotand he gives you an outline sufficiently tish poet in their poverty and their love of clear to enable an accurate and practical nature. Who does not join him in the wish eye to complete the portrait, or the land- that the same similarity could have been scape; and, therefore, he deserves a seat traced in their behaviour under the diffiin that society of wise writers, of whom culties of the state of life to which they had Keble happily observes, “Itaque qui sapiunt been called ?–That the fierce exciseman paucis tangunt, quæ maxime commendata of Dumfries had caught some of the smiling velint legenti ; et velut convivatoris, ita forbearance of the blind wanderer of Chios, scriptoris
, id erit certissimum ingenii spe- and had played with his fortune instead of cimen, si homines dimittat excitato quasi struggling with it! It may not be without palato.” With this stimulated palate the profit, as it cannot be without interest, to reader always rises from the intellectual fes- read the morals which two eminent persons tival of genius cultivated and refined into have written at the close of their melancholy