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reliquis vero diebus non creavit sed creata the beginning, God created the heavens and formavit et exornavit.” Hence it is that the earth; calling forth from nothing the the word which is translated “ creavit” is material elements of which they are comused in the first verse only, and is not met posed, and in their full integrity the angelic with again until we arrive at the creation intelligences with which the heavens are of man.

This would imply a distinction filled. The material creation was then between the nature of the act described in subjected to various laws, moulded into the first and subsequent verses, and that various forms, and made to minister to while the first was a creation from nothing, many a purpose hidden from human scruthe other was a making of new forms and tiny. But in what manner these objects combinations out of already existing ele- were effected, whether by an instantaneous ments. The commentator now alluded to exercise of power, or, as is more in accordsays, in like manner, with reference to the ance with the tenor of God's works, by a evoking of light, “ Nota hanc lucem pro- gradual increase and growth, and by what prie non fuisse creatam, quia Deus primo agency, or the operation of what laws their die creavit omnem materiam." The light destruction was in part or entirely effected, may have been in existence before this and for what immediate end, we have no command was issued, and the sun and moon means of ascertaining; but it is probable may have been in the vault of heaven before that they were a preparation for that yet they were bid to shine, and yet can be nobler and more perfect being by which strictly and truly said to be made for the in after times the earth was to be inhabitearth when the specific purpose of illumin-ed, and for whose use and benefit the proing the earth was appointed for them. They ducts of even the remotest period were may have shone on many a monster of form destined. There was no human eye to uncouth, and guided on its way inany a contemplate the showing forth of the Divine creature of former times, and of other con- power and wisdom, but there were celestial ditions of our globe. We know that some intelligences to witness and adore, and luminary must have shone on the forms of many a bright spirit and child of God to organic lise which are found in the primi- sing with joy when the foundations of the tive and secondary strata, for these have earth were laid. When the last great sethe organs of vision as powerfully develop- ries of events, immediately preceding the ed as those of the present time, and we can- present order of things, was completed, and not suppose these faculties to have been the vast globe itself was convulsed to its given by infinite wisdom in vain. But centre by the power of that Divine comwhen the earth was being prepared for man, mand, which went forth, as it shall again, they got another and a nobler purpose; to proclaim that the former things were to they were made to light and to comfort be no more, and that all things were to be him, and to be to him as signs for days and made new, the relations that existed befor seasons, and for years It is thus that tween it and the planetary orbs became the serpent was made to creep upon its disturbed, the transmission of light imbreast because of the fall of man; for that peded, the very luminiferous ether, by which was its natural condition before then whose undulations light is produced, bebecame its punishment. It is thus that God came torpid and inactive; and, as a necesplaced His bow in the clouds as a sign to sary consequence, there was darkness on Noah, though it must have been a necessary the face of the deep, in which earth and consequence of the laws of refraction sea and the remains of terrestrial and throughout all time; but it was a mere nat. aquatic existence, and every green tree ural phenomenon before, and it became in- and shrub, were confusedly mixed up tovested with a purpose, and pregnant with a gether. Then came the creative Spirit, symbolical meaning, to the patriarch and brooding over the face of the waters, and his posterity. It is thus that the sun, moon, the voice heralding the dawn of our pre:and planetary bodies may be considered to lent world : “Let there be light, and there be made when they acquired a purpose to was light," quickening into activity and fulfil in the natural economy of our globe notion once more that Auid which science They may have existed before, but they has demonstrated to be the medium of did not exist for man.

light, and to be distinct from any of those According to this interpretation, there heavenly bodies whose influence can imfore, the following may be considered to part to it the undulations by which the have been the order of the creation. In (sensation of light is caused.

Hence the

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SCRIPTURAL DIFFICULTIES OF GEOLOGY.

[OCT. possibility of an evening and a morning on The omission in this narrative of any the first day. On the second, God made thing that had no immediate and necessary the firmament or terrestrial atmosphere, by connection with its moral purpose, is, in which the waters of the earth are divided our minds, a special instance of that infifrom those that are above the earth. On nite wisdom which presided over and dithe third day was the separation of land rected its inspired author. If he had and sea; on the fourth the sun and moon spoken to his people, or to the people, lowbecame visible; on the fifth the living and ever learned, of his time; or yet more, if creeping things of the waters, and the he had spoken to the people of modern winged fowls according to their kind. On times, before scientific research had laid the sixth the beasts and cattle of the earth; bare the, secrets of the earth, or the forms and when all was completed and seen to of life with which the earth formerly teenbe good, God made man to His own image ed; if he had spoken to them of the paleoand likeness, and gave him power and do- therium and the icthyosaurus, those great minion over the fowls of the air, the beasts monsters of the ancient world; if he had of the earth, and the fishes of the sea. had a chapter on the stupendous dimen

This is the opinion adopted by Dr. sions of the iguanodon, and a paragraph on Wiseman.

the seemingly incongruous properties of the “Had the Scripture,” he says, “ allowed pterodactylus, would the details seem credno interval between creation and organiza-ible to an ignorant and unscientific genetion, but declared that they were simulta- ration ? Would not his history seem to neous, or closely consecutive acts, we surpass in absurdity the rhapsodies of the should perhaps have stood perplexed be- Koran, or the institutes of Menu? The tween its assertions and modern discove- very avataras of Buddha, or the transmiries. But when, instead of this, it leaves grations of Vishnu, would seem more reaan undecided interval between the two, sonable and more worthy of belief. If nay, more, informs us that there was a Voltaire had found it laid down in Genesis, state of confusion and conflict; of waste before science seemed to bear testimony and darkness, and a want of a proper basin to the fact, that such things formerly exfor the sea, which then would cover first isted on the earth, that the vegetation of one part of the earth, then another; we England was more luxuriant, and its climay truly say that the geologist reads in mate warmer than it is now beneath the these few lines the history of the earth, line; if he had found there one-half of such as his monuments have recorded it, what is now generally admitted, what a a series of disruptions, elevations and dis-rich armory would it not have furnished locations, sudden inroads of the unchained him for his unboly purposes? It was, element, entombing successive generations therefore, wise—and it argued a more of amphibious animals; calm, but unex-than human prudence in the sacred writer pected subsidences of the waters, embalm--to pass them over in silence, and to ing in their various beds their myriads of leave them unnoticed and unknown until aquatic inhabitants; alternations of sea the persevering zeal of other times revealed and land and fresh-water lakes; an atmos- them to the world. His narrative, if it phere obscured by dense aquatic vapors, did not make known their existence, so which, by gradual absorption in the waters, neither did it place any impediment to was cleared away, and produced the per- their admission when science was to admit vading mass of calcareous formations, till them within its privileged domain. at length came the last revolution prepara The supposition which we have advanced tory for our creation; when the earth, with regard to the existence and mutations being now sufficiently broken for that of the earth during long and to us unbeautiful diversity which God intended to known periods of time, before the work of bestow on it, or to produce the landmarks the six days commenced, is by no means and barriers which His foreseeing counsels new. It was so believed by some of the had designed, the work of ruin was sus- most illustrious and most able of the early pended, save for one more great scourge, Christian fathers.* It was, if we mistake and the earth remained in that state of gloomy prostration from which it was re " The following are the words of Origen : called by the reproduction of light, and the

“ Nos vero consequenter respondebimus, obsersubsequent work of the six days' creation.” tunc primum, cum visibilem istum mundum fecit

ventes regulam pietatis et dicentes quoniam non -Vol. i. p. 309.

Deus ceperit operari, sed sicut post corruptiouem

not, suggested by Perrerius, in his learned deed of mercy? And were man to rest commentaries on Genesis, and has been his claim to that favor, or to rely for the adopted, as we have just now seen, by Dr. truth of that mystery on his own excelWiseman, and by the learned editors of lence, or the importance of the position he the admirable work the Cursus Completus holds in the scale of creation, it would be Sacre Scripture. It satisfactorily meets an argument conclusive against him. But all the requirements of science without his claim, if so it can be called, is of a far offering violence to the obvious and literal other kind and derived from a different meaning of the Mosaic narrative. It may principle, and becomes so much the strong, be objected to us that the extended period er as science extends its empire. His title and the remote antiquity to which the crea is derived from his own helplessness, on the tion is thus assigned (if the word antiquity one hand, and on the other, from the infibe at all applicable to the measureless ex- nite love and mercy of Him who came tent of duration which the necessary geo- from heaven to save. If that love could be logical time requires), are not in fit accord- measured by the standard of human feeling, ance with the position which man occupies if it were to save only the nobler being with respect to it, and it may seem unrea- and abandon the less noble to destruction; sonable to admit that the earth has been if it were to be inclined to mercy because for ages the abode of living beings, while of the high qualities of that being towards man is but lately arrived upon its surface. whom it is exercised, it might be such as If the earth was made for him, as we are man could conceive and estimate, but it assured it was, why was he not placed would not be the mercy of God. It would upon it before? The same or a similar not be that mercy of which man knoweth objection was made, if our readers recol- not the height nor depth, nor length nor lect, to the truths of astronomical science, breadth, —

-a mercy which left the angels to when the depths of space were first exam- perish while it redeemed men, which left ined with the telescope, and suns and sys- the ninety-nine sheep in wilderness to seek tems, surpassing in beauty and magnifi- the poor truant,-it may be the least valucence even our own, were seen scattered able of the flock, that strayed away; which over the fields of space in multitudinous preferred the dying thief on Calvary to the profusion. It was said then, as it is said great and the beautiful and the accomplishnow, that the diminished position which ed that it could have chosen from Jerusaman was made to occupy in the immensity lem. The more you diminish man's place of God's works, was also a diminishing of in the scale of the Creator's works, and the dignity which religion ascribed to him, the more science expands that creation in and was an argument against the fact of widening circles around him, the more his his having been redeemed by an incarnate redemption becomes in harmony with that God. Why, it was asked, should the in- Creator's attributes, and the deeper and habitant of a second or third-rate planet in more grateful the impression which is left the solar system, which system is itself but upon the mind for that love which rescued a minute speck in the vast expanse of the him from his calamitous doom. The more created universe, invisible perhaps to the you prove that there is no measurable proeye of an individual residing in some dis- portion between the Redeemer and the tant star, be favored by such a wondrous redeemed, the more will that redemption

be in keeping with the charity which passhujus erit alius mundiis, ita et antequam hic esset, eth all human understanding, and whose fuisse alios credimus "— Periarchon, lib.iii. cap.5. ways we believe to be incomprehensible. Huet, commenting on these words of Origen,

The same concession which we make to says, “Materiam autem a Deo ante mundum creatam, posuerunt Philo, Tatianus, Lactantius, et the requirements of astronomy with respect alii ex qua mundum postea fabricaverit.”Orige- to space, it is scarcely fair to refuse to geol. niana , lib. ii questio 12.

with respect to time, when the ascerCompare the words of the Council of Lateran, tained facts require that concession. How which state that the material and spiritual worlds were ereated together, with the following of St. far soever removed the heavenly bodies may Jerome, lib. i. in Epist. ad Titum. “Sex millia be from our earth, we know not what influnecdum nostri orbis implentur anni et quantas ence they may exercise in the adjustment prius æternitates, quanta tempora, quantas sæcu. and stability of its movements; and though forum origines fuisse arbitrandum est, in quibus destined to fulfil other objects in the econoangeli, Throni, Dominationes ceteræque virtutes servierint Deo et absque temporum vicibus absque my of creatio

it will still be true to say mensuris Deo jubente subsisterint."

that they were appointed for the use of men.

ogy

So also with respect to the requirements of fist, which would either contirmor unsettle the geology, however remote the period at greater part of what is now admitted as which the globe had its origin; and though certain. We should, therefore, proceed onthe stratification and mineral structure of ward with caution, gladly receiving any adits surface may have required many succes- dition to our previous stock of information, sive revolutions and long periods of time for journeying hopingly and perseveringly, but their production, it is still true that they yet with a salutary diffidence. To take a ministered to the purposes of man. This metaphor from itself, we would say that the may have been (if even no other immediate progress of geology has been like that of its or ulterior object was attained) the course own formations. In its eocene period, and mode adopted to prepare the earth truths and established principles, like the for his use, and comfort and subsistence. fossil types of the existing order, begin to The coal which diffuses warmth round dawn upon us, and to present themselves bis hearth, the glittering gem which lends the matin harbingers of knowledge. Then its charm to the cheek of beauty, the use- comes, slowly and by degrees, the pliocene ful and ornamental metals which are ne- period, in which these truths and principles cessary for the wants of civilized society, the present themselves in greater abundance, marble which he employs for his artistic and of a more decided character. Shall we purposes, the stone with which he constructs say that we have yet reached the miocene, his dwellings, the limestone with which he in which the ascertained truths are to prefertilizes the earth, nay, the very earth on ponderate over, and exceed in number, the which he treads, and from which he draws unknown ? or can it be that we are yet subsistence, were all prepared by long and to see our present systems again exploded, laborious processes by the agents, animate and the human mind, like the Sysiphus of and inanimate, of God's bountiful provi- Grecian story, doomed again to the same sad dence, and at remote times, when only the round of toil, and thought, and fruitless infar-seeing eye of God could tell for what fi- vestigation ? for has it not been said of man, nal purpose they were destined.

and of the earth on which he treads, “Mun We shall not dwell longer on this import- dum tradidit disputationibus eorum, ut non ant subject. We could wish that our limits cognoscat homo opus quod operatus est permitted us to offer a few observations on Deus ab initio usque ad finem pri the subject of central heat, without which our notice must be imperfect. think that it is not here that the really serious difficulty is to be met with, and therefore, have the less hesitation in passing it by

MUNIFICENCE OF A POLE.-An act of great mofor the present unnoticed. We have said

nificence in the cause of humanity, performed by enough to show that the Mosaic narrative

a noble Pole, of Odessa, the Baron de Gryzmala presents no serious, much less insurmount. Eulewitz, is worthy of record. Touched by the able, impediment to the admission or onward sufferings of the Jews on the western frontier of progress of geological science. In its infan. Russia, under the ukase which expels them from cy, and when it served to furnish the mate- the Czar redeems in snuff-boxes), has set out in

their homes (one of those imperial measures which rials of many a theory to dreaming vision that direction, with the view of selecting a hunaries, and invest them with the name and dred poor Jew families of the working class, and semblance of philosophy, it was calculated taking them with him into the province of Kherand deserved to excite hostility, as well as

son-where he has prepared houses for their reto provoke opposition, from the ill-regulated proper to their occupations, and supply their im

ception, and will present them with the tools and illegitimate mode of inquiry which it mediate wants.-Athenaum. adopted. The more scientific truth is known, the more perceptible becomes its harmony with that which is revealed. But we should ever bear in mind that the researches of geology can never unfold to us the brated tree was recently presented to the Horti.

The Upas TREE – A living plant of this celeperfect and uniform system of our globe. cultural Society by the East India Company, and It may turn up a page or decipher a sentence is now growing in the Chiswick-garden It is in in the great book of nature, but it can never perfect health, and, notwithstanding the fables of spread out the whole (what science is there it is, however, so virulent a poison, that no pru

Dutch travellers, may be approached with safety. that can ?); and in the part that remains unex-dent person would handle it without proper preplored may not some fossil or phenomenon ex-caution.- Gardener's Chronicle.

But we

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hair with his hand. shook his head, making RECOLLECTIONS OF THE EMPEROR NA- howl. The little girl screamed so violently

horrible_faces, and giving a sort of savage POLEON.

that mamma was afraid she would go into

hysterics, and took her out of the room. NaFrom the Literary Gazette.

poleon laughed a good deal at the idea of his

being such a bugbear, and would hardly beRecollections of the Emperor Napoleon, du- lieve me when I told him that I had stood in

ring the first three years of his Captivity the same dismay of him. When I made this in št. Helena, fc. By Mrs. Abell (late confession, he tried to frighten me as he had Miss E. Balcombe). Pp. 244. London, poor little Miss Legg, by brushing up his air, J. Murray.

and distorting his features; but he looked more

grotesque than horrible, and I only laughed at As steel brought into contact with the mag- him. He then (as a last resource) tried the net becomes itself magnetic and attractive, 50 howl, but was equally unsuccessful, and seemwould it seem has the life of Mrs. Abell be. ed, I thought, a little provoked that he could not coine romantic in consequence of contact with frighten me. He said the howl was Cossack; that vast impersonation of romance, Napo- and it certainly was barbarous enough for any leon Bonaparte. Pleased should we be to thing. He took a good deal of exercise at state that it had not also borne a resemblance this period, and was fond of taking exploring to his misfortunes; but such, we fear, has walks in the valley and adjacent mountain.”— been the case, which makes us the more ear “ The emperor in the course of the evening nest in our recommendation of this volume to desired a quantity of bijouterie to be brought the public. By its patronage a balm will be down to amuse us; and amongst other things laid to wounds of no slight suffering, and hard the miniatures of the young king of Rome. for even female fortitude to endure; and it is He seemed gratified and delighted when we possible that the auspicious introduction of a expressed our admiration of them. He posfair and accomplished daughter to the musical sessed a great may portraits of young Napo: world may, in some measure, be promoted by leon. One of them represented him sleeping the encouragement which talent and virtue so in his cradle, which was in the forın of a helforcibly claim.

Tenderly and delicately edu- met of Mars; the banner of France waved cated in the house of her father, Mr. Balcombe, over his head, and his tiny right hand supthe Briars (ill-omened name), where Bona-ported a small globe. I asked the meaning of parte resided for a season, in St. Helena, till these emblems; and Napoleon said he was his own abode was prepared for his reception, to be a great warrior, and the globe in his the young girl enjoyed singular opportunities hand signified that he was to rule the world. for observing the eclipsed sun; and her frank- Another miniature, on a snufi-box, representness and playfulness appear to have made her ed the little fellow on his knees before a cruquite a little companion to divert his sombre cifix, his hands clasped and his eyes raised to reflections and elicit ebullitions of his niore heaven. Underneath were these words: • Je natural disposition. No longer the hero, the prie le bon Dieu pour mon père, ma mère, et conqueror, the dictator to prostrate monarchs, ma patrie.' It was an exquisite thing. An: the petulance of the child was sometimes the other portrayed him with iwo lambs, on one only care of his cabinet, and her reconciliation of which he was riding, while the other he with him the object of his counsels. The was decking out with ribbons. The emperor stern warrior softened into the gentlest seel- told us these lambs were presented to his son ing; and the picture is altogether one of ex- by the inhabitants of Paris. An unwarlike treme interest, where the slightest traits are emblem, and perhaps intended as a delicate as worthy of study as the more elaborate hint to the emperor to make him a more paintings of his historical era.

peaceable citizen than his papa. The pasThe New Monthly Magazine having chal lamb, however, is, I believe, the badge on already enjoyed the privilege of publishing the colors of a distinguished 'English reyisome of Mrs. Abell's Recollections, we shall ment, and perhaps may be intended to remind endeavor in our selections from the present the soldier that gentleness and mercy are work to choose what is more new than the New not inconsistent with the fiercer and more M. M., though our memory cannot assure us of lion-like attributes of his profession. We next

saw another drawing, in which the empress “ Shortly after his arrival. a little girl, Miss Maria Louisa and her son were represented, Legg, the daughter of a friend, came to visit surrounded by a sort of halo of roses and us at the Briars. The poor child had heard clouds, which I did not admire quite so much such terrific stories of Bonaparte, that when as some of the others. Napoleon then said I told her he was coming up the lawn, she he was going to show us the portrait of the clung to me in an agony of terror. Forget- most beautiful woman in the world, and proting my own former fears, I was cruel enough luced an exquisite miniature of his sister to run out and tell Napoleon of the child's Pauline. Certainly I never saw any thing so fright, begging him to come into the house. perfectly lovely. I could not keep my eyes He walked up to her, and, brushing up his from it, and told him how enchanted 'I was

Bocce 88,

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