Bourbon came to an understanding with This slight biographical sketch will the House of Austria, and Italy was sacri- enable us to explain more fully than we ficed as the price of peace. The refugees could otherwise have done, the cruel injusat Marseilles were now sent into the inte tice (apart from all other considerations) rior. Mazzini, without form of trial, or of the two committees, in refusing Mazzini reason assigned, was ordered to quit France. an opportunity of self-vindication; and in He refused. Hope had not yet been aban- declining to receive any evidence that had doned, and it appeared to him still import- not a tendency to extenuate the conduct of ant to keep himself in communication with his countrymen. He remained at Marseilles entirely indifferent to you; and add, very justly, for twelve months, baffling the vigilance that if he were the most contemptible of mankind, of the French police and Italian spies; but it would not affect your argument on the subject. so rigorous was his seclusion, that only twice matter if I now certify you, which I in some sort

“ It may tend to throw further light on this during the whole period did he venture to feel called upon to do, that M. Mazzini is not leave his place of concealment to breathe unknown to various competent persons in this the fresh air, and that only at night, once country; and that he is very far indeed from in the dress of a woman, in the other in- being contemptible-none fariher, or very few of

living men. I have had the honor to know M. stance disguised in the uniform of the Na- Mazzini for a series of years; and, whatever I tional Guard. When a large body of Ital- may think of bis practical insight and skill in ians assembled in Switzerland, to aid a worldly affairs, I can with great freedom testify popular movement in Savoy, Mazzini join to all men that he, if I have ever seen one such, ed them. The attempt then made, although veracity, humanity, and nobleness of mind, one

is a man of genius and virtue, a man of sterling frustrated, chiefly through the misconduct of those rare men, numerable, unfortunately, but of their military leader (General Ramorino), as units in this

as units in this world, who are worthy to be called brought upon Switzerland the ire of the martyr souls; who, in silence, piously, in their great powers.

daily life, understand and practice what is ineant Diplomatic notes

by that. Of Italian democracies and young Italy's showered wpon the government of the Can

sorrows, of extraneous Austrian Emperors in Mi. tons. Austrian and French troops were Jan, or poor old chimerical Popes in Bologna, I poured upon the frontiers. Mazzini and know nothing, and desire to know nothing ; but his friends were compelled to Ay from Ge- this other thing I do know, and can here declare neva to the Canton de Vaud; thence to occasion to comment on M. Mazzini and his affairs

publicly to be a fact, which fact all of us that have Berne, thence to Solothurn; thence to un- may do well to take along with us, as a thing frequented villages in the mountains; every leading towards new clearness, and not towards where receiving marks of sympathy and new additional darkness, regarding him and them. kindness from the people, but finally com- and miserable old chimera of a Pope shall main :

" Whether the extraneous Austrian Emperor pelled to look to England as the only coun- tain themselves in Italy, or be obliged to decamp try in Europe in which it would be permit- from Italy, is not a question in the least vital to ted them to find a resting-place or a safe Englishmen. But it is a question vital to us that asylum.

sealed letters in an English post-office be, as we How safe that asylum must have proved that opening of men's leiters, a practice near of

all fancied they were, respected as things sacred; to some who have since left it, unconscious kin to picking men's pockets, and to other still that the reputation of Great Britain for viler and far fataler forms of scoundrelism, be not honor and hospitality only rnasks the same resorted to in England, except in cases of the very system of secret espionage which prevails Plot may be in the wind, some double-dyed high

last extremity. When some new Gunpowder on the continent, we leave the public to treason, or imminent national wreck noi avoidajudge. Mazzini landed in England in 1837, ble otherwise, then let us open letters : not till and has remained a guest of this country then... To all Austrian Kaisers and such like, in from that period to the present; known and their time of trouble, let us answer, as our fathers

from of old have answered :—Not by such means esteemed by several distinguished members is help here for you. Such means, allied to pickof our aristocracy, and enjoying the confi- ing of pockets and viler forms of scoundrelism, are dence and personal friendship of many of not permitted in this country for your behoof. our ablest literary men.

The right honorable secretary does himself detest such, and even is afraid to employ them. He

dare not : it would be dangerous for him! All * We subjoin the testimony, on this head, of British men that might chance to come in view the author of Past and Present:'

of such a transaction, would incline to spurn it,

and trample on it, and indignantly ask him, what "Sir,-In your observations in yesterday's he meant by it? • Times' on the late disgraceful affair of M. Maz

“I am, sir, your obedient servant, zini's letters and the Secretary of State, you men

“ THOMAS CARLYLE. tion that M. Mazzini is entirely unknown to you, “ Chelsea, June 15, 1844."


Whig and Tory statesmen, by showing that were killed in a quarrel at Rodez (Aveyas the principle of Post-office espionage had ron), in the public road, in open day, by been adopted by both parties, no valid ob- an Italian named Gavioli. The deed, jections could be urged against the practice. although unpremeditated, as appeared from

We have already observed that England the verdict of the jury, naturally brought is under no moral obligation to protect much odium upon the whole of the Italian an escaped criminal; but a criminal in exiles, and to damage them still further, one country ought not to be punished by advantage was taken

of it by a secret enethe laws of another. Wherever any man my, to connect it with the name of Mazis condemned, he should first be fairly tried. zini. The next week (June 8th) there Suppose the case of a foreigner arriving in appeared in the non-official part of the England, whom it would really be right to Moniteur' (without any introductory pretreat as an outlaw; one in no respect to face or explanation) a forged document, be trusted not even with pens, ink, and purporting to be the decree of a secret paper ; and to be resused the privileges of revolutionary tribunal, pronouncing senthe penny post. Before such a sentence of tence of death opon Emiliani and others, outlawry should be passed by an English and signed Mazzini, president, and La Cetribunal, would it not be right that the cilia, as secretary. As Mazzini was then man should be heard in his own defence ? lying concealed at Marseilles, this was No, say the two committees; let the tribu- looked upon by his friends as a ruse of the nal be secret, the evidence be secret, the French police to induce all honest French sentence itself secret, and let it be secretly citizens to assist in discovering his retreat. executed. In other words, let the Spanish The badness of the style and composition, inquisition be established in Downing the half-French expressions, and numerous street. The two committees were even grammatical errors of the pretended docuwilling to share in the responsibilities of ment, proved that it could not have been such a court. What imputations will the written by any educated Italian, much less reader suppose were circulated in high by a man of high literary reputation, like quarters against the character of Mazzini, Mazzini ;* who, however, at deand brought privately to the ears of the committees, to make it appear that against * The following is the forged document alluded such a man extrordinary precautions were to :-really required? No less a charge than

“ La sera del 15 corrente, alle ore 10 pomeridithat of having instigated the murder of two la compongono, ordinò al segretario di pubblicare

il Capo della Società adunati i membri che of his own countrymen, in the year 1832! una letiera, nella quale era riportata una sentenza This infamous calumny may have made emanata dal tribunale di Marsiglia, contro i prelittle impression upon the minds of the venuti* rei Emiliani, Scurriatri, Lazzoreschi, Anmembers, but we know that both commit- dreani, çipti gļi atti processuali spedireci dal pre

sidente in Rodez, ne é risultato, ch'essi sono rei : tees were acquainted with the report, and -1. Come propagatori di seritti infami contro la that they refused to give Mazzini, or his sacra nostra società. 2. Come partisantit dell' friends, an opportunity of rebutting it; on infame governo papale di cui hanno corrisponthe ground, we presume, that the facts were denza, che tutto tende a rovescisre i nostri disegni irrelevant to the inquiry. No facts, how- le più esatte riflessioni, e da quanto e' risultato in

contro la santa causa della libertà. Il fisco dopo ever, were deemed irrelevant that had a processo, facendo uso dell' art. 22, condanna a tendency to clear from injurious aspersions pieni voti Emiliani e Scuriatti alla pena di morte ; the characters of Sir James Graham and in quanto al Lazzoreschi e Andreani perché non Lord Aberdeen,

costa abbastanza di quanto vengono addebitatti, la

loro condanna e' la percussione di alcuni colpi di The origin of this calumny furnishes

verga, e si lascia l'incarico ai loro tribunali appena another argument against the policy of a tornati in patria di condannarli in galera ad vitam system of espionage, in any form. Knaves (come famosi ladri e trafattori). Si ordina in cannot be kept from knavery. Spies, when oltre al presidente in Rodez estrare quattro indi

vidui esecutori della detta sentenza da eseguirsi they cannot detect a plot, will create one, imprescriptiblmente entro il periodo di giorni 20, in order to betray it; and the kind of evi- e chiunque dell' estrato si recusasse, dovrà essere dence they know to be desired, if it do not trucidato ipso facto. exist, they will take care to invent. On the 31st May, 1833, two spies of the

* French word. Duke of Modena, Lazzoreschi and Emili- lined is entirely ungrammatical

. The Fisco (A!

+ French word, partisans. All that is underani, who had been sent to mix among po- torney-General) that condemns, pieni doti, unanilitical exiles, and worm out their secrets, mously, the accused, is capital.



nounced the forgery in the columns of the tices exposed, as founded upon the necesGazette des Tribuneaux.' The subse-sity of extraordinary powers in

cases of quent trial of Gavioli, Nov. 30, 1833 (be- emergency.' fore the Court d'Assizes of Aveyron), First prove your case of emergency,

and satisfied the public that no such secret prove it by fair means and not by foul. tribunal existed. The document was not The law gives the power to break open a produced in evidence, and the jury, con- desk upon due cause assigned before a magvinced that Gavioli had no accomplices and istrate ; let the law give the same power to that the crime committed did not amount break the seal of a letter in similar exigento murder with intent, returned a verdict cies ; but in both cases let there be sworn of homicide sans premeditation.Gavioli affidavits, not whispered slanders, and let was sentenced to “ Les Travaux Forces;" the act be public, with no attempt at disand further to show that the French gov- guise ; that if injustice be done, the party ernment perfectly well understood all the aggrieved may know by whom he has been facts of the case, we may add, that the wronged, and obtain redress. No law has Italian, La Cecilia, whose name was coup- yet authorized a policeman to forge the led with Mazzini in the forged document, handwriting of a felon, to promote the ends was at the time openly living in France of justice ; let no law authorize the forgery (where he still remains), supported by the of stamps or the counterfeiting of seals, for grants of the French Chamber for exiles, the same object. No conceivable continand was neither arrested nor once interro- gency can justify the adoption of treachery gated on the subject.

as a principle of civil government. We may In 1840, the story was revived by Gisquét, grant its conveniences, as an occasional exthe ex-prefét of police, in his published me. pedient; but honest men can do without it moirs ; afterwards translated into English. in private life, and so can honest govern

Mazzini, thereupon, brought an action ments. against him for defamation. The action It may be asked how we would apply this was tried before the Tribunal Correctionel argument to a state of war. The answer de Paris, in April, 1841; but owing to the is, that a state of war is not a case of civil impudent but ingenious character of the government. In war there is an end of all defence set up, a verdict was given for the civil right and moral law. Civilization then defendant. Gisquét met the charge hy goes back to barbarism. Man ceases to be asserting that there was more than one Maz- man, and returns to the state of the brute zini in the world, and that Mazzini the and savage. In war we begin by assuming prosecutor being a man, as all admitted, of that it is right to kill our enemy; if so, we ihe highest moral integrity, he could not pos- need not, while about it, be fastidious as to sibly be the Mazzini referred to in the the commission of any minor injury. When • Moniteur.'

murder becomes allowable, fraud, forgery, Here, it might have been supposed the and felony may be admissible stratagems; matter would have ended, but the tale of -not till then. slander was yet to serve the cause of abso The committee of the House of Commons lutism, and so it was circulated anew in En- need not to have gone back to the letter of gland to damage Mazzini with the English Brian Tuke to Thomas Cromwell, in 1533, government, and afterwards repeated by the upon the duties of the Post-office ; with far friends of the latter, to justify the secret es- less research they might have procured a pionage of Lord Aberdeen.

copy of a much more important letter, and Every step in these proceedings is deserv- one more applicable to the subject of their edly to be regarded with abhorrence. If inquiry : the circular letter of M. Carnot, the members of the Sardinian or Russian when Ministre de l'Interieur, during the embassies come here to spread lies of honest hundred days; a time of some men, by what right of office does an English gency" to French interests. This should minister listen to them, without first con- have been the spirit of her report :fronting the accuser with the accused ? The Le Ministre de l'Intérieur Consul de l'Emquestion alone exposes the sophistry of the pire ; a M le Prefét du Département de whole of the argument set up, for the prac“ Data in Marsiglia, dal supremo tribunale,

“ Paris, le 8 Mai, 1815. questa sera, alle ore 12, pomerid. 15 Dec. 1832. " Je suis informé M. le Presét que dans plu

“MAZZINI, Presidente. siers parties de l'empire le secret des corres“CECILIA, L'Incaricato." pondances a eté violeể par des agens de l'ad



ministration. Qui peut avoir autorisé des common clerks sworn to secrecy, or told by
parielles mesures ? Leur auteurs diront-ils their superiors that if they communicate to
qu-ils out voulu servir le gouvernement et the public any information connected with
chercher sa pensée ? Porter de parielles pro: the business of the office, they will be in-
cedés dans l'administration, ce n'est point
servir l'Empereur, c'est calomnier sa majesté stantly dismissed. A mere surreyor of
Elle ne demande point, elle rejette les hom- Queen's taxes, with a salary of 2001. per
maves d'un dévouement désavoué par la loi. annum, is a person intrusted with “private
Or les lois ne se sont elles pas accordées depuis and confidential communications." Why,
1789, à prononcer que le secret des lettres est who are these men who treat as enemies
inviolable ? Tous nos malheurs aux diverses their fellow-subjects of the realm ?

époques de la Revolution sont venus de la it their business to prey upon the pub-
violation des principes : il est temps d'y rentrer.
Vous voudrez donc bien M. le Prelét faire lic or to serve it ? Let diplomacy have
poursuivre d'après toute la rigeur des lois ces its secrets, for diplomacy is but a refined
intra tions d'un des droits le plus sacré de mode of modern warfare, effecting its ob
l'homme en société. La penseé d'un citoyen jects by tricks ; but there needs no di-
François doit être libre comine sa personne plomacy between a servant and his em-
même.-Agréez, monsieur, l'assurance, &c.,

“ Carnot."

ployer. For public servants we want resMemoires Historiques et Militares sur Carnot, ponsibility; and responsibility cannot be Paris, 1824, p. 319.

obtained without publicity. Secrecy is

but another word for fear. MYSTERY was
The subject cannot be allowed to rest. the name of the beast in the Revelations.
The committee treat it as a light thing that The great monster by which was typified
the number of warrants for opening letters all the civil and ecclesiastical corruptions of
do not affect more than twelve individuals, the earth, had on its forehead a name writ-
upon an average, in the year. It is not a ten, and that name was Mystery, BABYLON
light thing to find that the practice is on The Mother of Harlots.
the increase. It is not a light thing that the

letters of as many as fifty individuals were
opened by authority in the year 1842. It
is not a light thing to learn that the reading
of letters obtained by surreptitious means is THE PULPIT IN THE NINETEENTH
adopted by a Secretary of State for Foreign

Affairs, and a Secretary of State for the
Home Department, as the only effectual

From Fraser's Magazine, September.
mode of reading the signs of the times. It To a person looking about for the pur-
is not a light thing to know that the practice pose of deciding which of all our institu-
has extended to the subordinates of depart-tions he would affect, with the greatest
ments, and that all confidence in the secu- likelihood of thereby instanteously affect-
rity of the cheapest, and often the only avail. ing the whole of society, there is no doubt
able channel for written commuications has that the Pulpit would immediately present it.
been utterly destroyed.

self. The Pulpit, of all others, is the instiWe call for further inquiry. We demand tution by tampering with which it would a full and public investigation of all the facts be most easy to bring about any grand soto which we have referred, and a re-exami- cial change. The difficulty, however, is nation of the principles of administrative to know, in the first place, how to tamper government. No more secret committees with the Pulpit. For it may appear as And what means secrecy when an inquiry hopelessly impracticable an undertaking is to be made into the conduct of public to attempt to affect the Pulpit, as to atservants ? What is there to screen if they tempt, directly and immediately, to affect have only discharged their duty ? What is the whole social mass. The two projects, there in any act of duty of which they need it will be said, are equally easy, and equalbe ashamed ? “ He that loveth truth ly difficult; so that it is preposterous to cometh to the light that his deeds may be propose the one as a stepping-stone to the made manifest." Abuses only flourish in the other. Now in so far this is true. That dark.

is to say, it is true up to the extent of showThis anxiety for secrecy on the part of ing that it is useless for any individual, pospublic officers is a growing evil. In the sessing no more than the ordinary advanCustoms, in the Stamp-office, in various tages of position, to attempt to affect any Government departments, we hear now of great revolution of opinion, by means of


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first gaining over the existing Pulpit to his ated to the purpose of statedly receiving, views, unless, indeed, in the hypothetical each the surrounding human beings of the case of a Pulpit employed by the Govern- locality, to hear discourses about man's rement expressly to facilitate its purposes, lation to the Past and to the Future; this and told by the Government, every now does appear an imagination over which and then, what to say. It is true up to this the mind of an enthusiast could bend and extent, for, though selecting the Pulpit to gloat for ever. Oh! it was a noble act, begin with, and to operate through, would the setting up of this Pulpit in the world. make the work of the philanthropic schem- Come, ye of the present age who think er more precise than if he were to dash yourselves honestly disgusted with the Pulhimself violently at once against the broad- pit, ye who, examining its effects upon soside of the age itself, still the existing Pul- ciety, have reluctantly observed how genpit of a country, if at all ancient, always is erally antiquated it has grown, how comand must be such an unabsorbing institu- paratively ineffective for any powerful action, that, for a person out of it, any other tion upon the general mind; or whu, subpossible way of dealing with the age will jecting yourselves to its influence, have be immensely preferable. But, on the found that the waters of preaching scarceother hand, when the object is not to effect ly ever rise up to you, and that a church such a special revolution of opinion as may to you is only pleasant as being a place appear desirable for the purposes of the where the body being still, old thoughts moment, but to do something generally ef- and memories come sweeping unbidden fective for the age, in the desirableness of through the mind in throngs, while the which all are agreed, there can be no voice of the preacher is humming agreedoubt that it would be a great economis- ably in the ear; and who have thence coning of time and strength, habitually to re- cluded that an institution, which is reduced cognize the Pulpit as the institution, the to the disgraceful necessity of defending itaffecting of which, is tantamount to affect- self by accusing a hard and impossible ing the age. And all are agreed that it sense of duty, and telling people that it is would be a great matter if, by any means, all their own fault if they do not profit by there could be purchased for the whole its lessons, is less than useless,-come, we sluggish mass of modern society an instan- say, cast aside all these inevitable assotaneous accession of earnestness, enthusi- ciations of thought with the degradation asm, and moral force.

of the present, and, going back to the No one can deny that the Pulpit is a no- original conception of the thing, acknowble institution. Think what it is, keeping ledge, as we are sure you must, that this its more sacred aspect out of the question. setting apart of one day in seven, to be Take our own island as the instance. Every specially devoted to the cultivation of reseventh day, at least, the whole population ligious feeling, and this instituting of the of the island are supposed (it is but a sup- art of preaching, are among the grandest position) to lay aside the occupations of the bequests of the Past to the world. Somepast six days, and to assemble in parties, thing of the sort has always existed. All larger or smaller, according to their cir- nations, of any degree of refinement, have cumstances, in buildings erected for the had periodically recurring days for expresspurpose ; where they sit and listen to ad- ing the religious sentiment with peculiar dresses on important subjects froin persons pomp and circumstance, and so fostering whose special function it is to prepare such it; and, besides the Priests, whose function addresses. This is hearing preaching, as was not understood to be that of instructdistinct from worship. Now we do not ing, and the Orators, whose function was think it possible to represent the insti- specific, no age has wanted Philosophers tution more baldly than we have done; and who made it a point to go about sowing yet, even in this representation, there is the seeds of their opinions in conversation. enough to throw one whose conceptions But there is no mistaking the gigantic are quick, into an attitude of wonder and originality of that plan of operating upon ejaculation. To think that over the face the human mind which Christianity laid of this island, in its thickly inhabited hold of. It was supperadding the function towns, in its quiet villages, in its green of Preacher to that of Priest; we might aland cultivated tracts, in its woody valleys, most say it was substituting the one for the and on its bleak, bare hills, there are other. Now the mere invention by Chrisstrewed about 20,000 buildings appropri- tianity of this scheme of setting up in the

OCTOBER, 1844. 11

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