You swear positively that Mr. Newman did Was it after you came into the room some not call me a rascal ? You heard me, I an. time, that I began to speak about the king swer no.

I only heard by piece-meals, except when you Did you not see Mr. Newman put his fist exerted yourself. into my face?-Yes.

There is nothing else you can swear to, Was not that previous to my having ad-only what you have mentioned _No. dressed myself to the company?-No, it was At what period do you think that I drank afterwards

“ The overthrow to the present systems of Now, Sir, what part of the room were you government throughout Europe" -Towards in, when you heard me drink these toasts -- the latter end, at the last glass of punch. Not a great way from you, a little farther And are you sure these are the very words from you than I am now.

I uttered ?-Yes. Did I drink them as toasts to the company

White Newman swom. at large, or to my friend ?-You drank them I live in Newgate-street with my father; I to your friend at first, but you drank them so was in the London coffee-house on the 30th loud that they could be heard all over the of September; I went in there between eight coffee-room.

and nine; the prisoner at the bar and anoWas it not after Mr. Newman called me a ther gentleman were sitting in a bos, opposite rascal, and put his fist in my face, that I to where I sat down. gave the loast on my legs ?-It was, I said How many do you think there were in the so before.

coffee-room at that time!--I should suppose Did I seem to have given Mr. Newman any a dozen, not more; they were talking very provocation to induce him to put his fist in loud, but I did not hear any of their convermy face, and call me a rascal -No doubt of sation, till they gave “ The French republic!" it, he was the first man who came up to you, as a toast aloud, -I mean the prisoner gave it and then you held up your stick in a menacing to the person who was with him; it was as posture.

loud as I speak now; I heard it distinctly, Was he not approaching my box in a me- and I believe every gentleman in the coffeenacing posture?-No otherwise than showing room did; I got up, and went to Mr. Leech, indignation at your behaviour.

the master of the coffee-bouse, who was at You did not hear me call the king a German the upper end of the room; I asked him if hog-butcher?-Perhaps that question may as he suffered that toast, “ The French repubwell not be asked me. Certainly I did hear lic !" to be drank in his coffee room? I do you call the king a German hog-butcher, that not know whether Mr. Hudson heard me or he had sold his troops at thirty pounds a no ; Mr. Leech said, it was too bad. I called head; that is as near the words as I can re for a glass of punch, and drank his majesty's collect.

health, and the royal family; which was reCourt. What were the words ? -That he peated, I believe, by every gentleman in the had sold his subjects for thirty pounds a head. room, and immediately - The King! The

Did he say what subjects ?- I was not close King! The King !" resounded from all parts enough to hear; he said the prince of Hesse of the room, except from the prisoner. Then Cassel did the same.

a dispute arose between the prisoner and myPrisoner. Pray, Mr. Leech, were these all self; he gave it repeatedly again,“ The French the words I uttered ?-I cannot answer that Republic;" he was sitting when I went to question; I wonder you should put it. him; I said he had no right to drink that

You have seemed to select them very toast in the public cotfee room; he called me nicely however ; was it not in consequence of a rascal and scoundrel several times, and some paragraphs in the newspapers that I held his stick in my face, and I held mine, made these observations ?—That I cannot but we neitherof us struck one another. When say; it did not appear to me that these were I said he had no right to drink that toast in observations that could be made from any a public coffee-room, he drank that toast again, thing in a paper.

and said that I was a rascal and scoundrel The jury want to hear nothing of you but and had no business with him; he made use evidence; did I not read the newspaper aloud, of very ill language to me, to wish me to strike and were there not paragraphs tending to that him, but I laid my stick on the opposite box, effect, which induced me to make use of some and told him I was determined not to strike of these expressions?-When you read the there was a great dispute in the coffee-room; newspaper so very loud I was not in the room; he said I was a rascal

, he had Lavater, he you had read your paper aloud, and had two could read it in my face; and an officer was glasses of punch before I came into the room, sent for, and he was taken into custody. and I begged to keep out till I was forced in. Prisoner. You say, you came into the cof

And you came in very apropos when I was fee-room between eight and nine o'clock; uttering these words. Did you hear the can you recollect what period between eight .whole of that conversation concerning the and nine ?-I suppose it was as near the half king?-I did.

hour as could be. At what period did you come in ?-I had Did I address myself to you when you been out of the room half an hour.

came into the room?-You did not.

Did I appear to be addressing myself to the came into the coffee-room ?-A little after company You drank that toast aloud. seven.

Did I desire the company to join with me? Ilow long do you think I reinained there? You did not.

-For more than till half after eight. Did not you come up to me, and call me a Do you think I remained there till three rascal? -Not before I went to Mr. Leech. quarters past eight?--I do not think you were

You did not call me a rascal before I spoke taken away till nine. to you?-By no means in the world.

Was I taken away before nine?-I do not I think ynu put your fist in my face?-I did know. not.

In what part of the coffee-room was it you What induced you to come to my box at sat?--In the next box to you, with my back all 7–Why, your giving “ The French Re-against your's. public.”

Was Mr. Newman sitting with me?- No. You had no other provocation from me; Was Mr. Buchanan?-He was sitting at how long do you think I gave this after you the end of that box. came into the coffee-room, before I was con Then perhaps Mr. Buchanan sat nearer to veyed out of it?-I think it may be three mc than you did ?-No, I do not think he quarters of an hour.

did, because my back was close to you. Then it must be past nine o'clock ?-I think At what time did I drink “ the French Re. it was.

public" ?-You drank several toasts of that Did you hear me give any other toasts than nature. those you have mentioned?-I did not; I How long do you think I had been there heard riotous behaviour.

before I drank the toast you charge me with? I think, when you were before the magis- --Perhaps an hour. trate, you said you heard me call his majesty Do you recollect how many glasses of a German hog-butcher ? —No, I did not ; I punch I had while I was there ? _You drank came in afterwards.

three. What did you conceive that I was taken How many glasses of punch do you think out of the coffee-room for?--For breeding a I had dragk before I had made use of these riot.

expressions ?—You were drinking the second. Did I strike any body!—I did not see you. You are sure of that?

I have said it. Did not I desire the constable to take a Have not you sworn that I drank “ The gentleman into custody, who, I swore posi- French Republic”? –Yes. tively, had struck me?-You did.

And now cannot you fix on any period at Was he taken into custody ?-Ile was not. all that I did drink it in ?-Not within five

You are sure, that I did not connect any minutes. other words with the toast that you have You recollect how many glasses of punch sworn to ?- I did not hear any other. I drank; how many had I drank before I Thomas Griffith Vaughan, sworn.

used these words ?–I can charge you with

drinking a great many toasts, some of them I live in Bristol; I am a merchant there : in the first glass, and some in the second. I was at the coffee-house this evening.

Answer that question; at what glass of Will you be so good as to tell us whether punch was it I drank the toast in question ?you heard any toast given by the prisoner, At the last glass. and what it is!--I heard many toasts given, Did you see any body attempt to interrupt and drank; I heard two particularly given by me, in the course of my being in that coffee. the prisoner at the bar, - Equality !" “ The room?-Not till you had drunk “The French Republic of France; may ít triumph over Republic," in opposition to the toast given, Europe !" There were many toasts, and some and generally received,-" The King.”. repeatedly given; but these two I have a Did you see any body interrupt me then? perfect recollection came from the prisoner, Yes, Mr. Newman. or words to a similar import.

Did I address myself, in any period of this Do you recollect any expressions relative discourse, to you ?>No, not at all. to the king ?-Yes.

Did you see me address myself to any body Were any such expressions as these used else?-Yes, to Mr. Newman, and to several by the prisoner at the bar,--that the king was persons in the room after the toast was a German hog-butcher, that he sold his sub- given. jects of Hanover to the government of this Did I give the toast to Mr. Newman?

country, to be butchered at thirty-pounds a You gave it generally; you gave it very head; and that the prince of Hessc-Cassel loud in opposition to the toast of “The did the same by his subjects; and that he King," which was the sentiment of the comhad no doubt but the king of England was in pany partnership with him, and received fifteen | Did you see Mr. Newman put his fist in pounds a' head back again of it, from my face, or attempt to do it?-I did not; ! the prince of Hesse-Cassel?—He said these saw him hold up his stick to you, and I words.

came to him, and desired him io put down Prisoner. What hour might it be when I his stick.

· Was that Mr. Newman holding his stick | newspaper ?-I believe you were reading that up to me previous to, or after my addressing the king had been a fox-hunting, and Mr. him?-After

Pigott expressed great surprise that the king Did you hear Mr. Newman call me a should take diversions of ihat kind while his rascal? - I did not; I heard you call him one subjects were engaged in a war; then you

But before I addressed inyself to him, did began exclaiming that the king was a German not you hear him call me a rascal?--I did hog-butcher. not.

You said, that I said, none but a German And if he had done so, you must have heard hog-butcher could be guilty of such practices? him?—Probably I should.

- That was by way of explanation; you geDid you, in the conversation you have nerally summed up pretty fully. I believe stated, hear me make use of any other words you meant all that the words could coaves, than these you have mentioned? Were these that I have given before. expressions not mixed with other words? - What did you hear me say about the prince Yes, there were several general expressions of Hesse-Cassel? -That you had no doubt afterwards; as that none but a German hog- but he was in partnership with the king of butcher could be guilty of such practices. England, and that he received fifteen pounds

I wish to ask you a serious question, whe- a head, as half the consideration. ther I did not apply the words, none but a Will you swear that I used these words, German hog-butcher could be guilty of such in partnership with the king of England? practices, instead of the king being a German -It was, or words to that full meaning. hog-butcher?-Both, I believe; I charge you Did you hear me make use of the term, with the first positively, and I believe you king of England ?—You said the king, measspoke the last.

ing the king of England. I suppose it is not possible you could be That is your meaning I suppose? --You had mistaken in these words ?-I am pretty confi- expressed the king of England before. dent. You receive no kind of emolument for ap: to the charge ; and founded his defence, first,

The Prisoner replied, for nearly two hours pearing against me this day?-I expect to be on the illegality of his first caption in the paid my expences.

You have not applied for any part of the house of Mr. Leech, there being no law at. credit loan?-I have not.

lowing Mr. Leech to order him into custody

for mere words. I believe your circumstances are not in the best situation ?-They are not.

Secondly, that when he drank « The I believe you are either in a bankrupt state, the present governments in Europe," by the

French Republic," and “ an overthrow to all or making up your affairs ? —No, I am not : French republic might be understood the good I have no other end than a man of honour, of the French people; and that as an Eng; and the common rights of mankind.

Are you positive ihat I drank an overthrow lishman, when he drank the overthrow of a to the present systems of government through out Europe, it might naturally be supposed

the present systems of government throughout Europe ?-I am positive you did, and you he excepted his own country. proposed it. Did not you, in a former examination, say king was a German hog-butcher, it was a

And ihirdly, with regard to his saying the that I spoke in a language which you did not understand ?-It was so in the beginning of comparison he used, in which he saw no your conversation ; I much wondered that great harm; and with regard to the king's two men sitting so close together, should selling his IIanoverian subjects to the British talk so extraordinarily loud, so I looked round government, and what he said about the to see what sort of people they were; in con- he did say it, from existing treaties sanctioned

prince of Hesse-Cassel, he was warranted, if sequence of which, Dir. Pigott noticed me looking at you; then a sort of conversation by parliament. in French, or some other language, passed The Jury relurned a verdict of Guilty. between you; so you went on in another language for some time, and you entereil into an argument in a language which I did not un Mr. Hudson was sentenced to be impriderstand; I suppose you spoke in that lan-soned two years in Newgate, to pay a fine of guage when you found it necessary to put an two hundred pounds, to be further imprisoned end to the argument that had attracted at- until such fine be paid, and to find security tention.

for his good behaviour for two years, himself Did not the conversation at first originate in two hundred pounds, and two sureties in from a paragraph which I was reading in the one hundred pounds each.

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1033] Proceedings against Arch. Hamilton Rowan. A. D. 1793.


584. Proceedings in the Case of Archibald Hamilton Rowan,

Esq., on an Ex-Officio Information, filed against him by
the Right Hon. Arthur Wolfe, his Majesty's Attorney-
General for the Kingdom of Ireland, for publishing a
Seditious Libel: 33 & 34 GEO, III. A. D. 1793-4.

Court of King's-BencDUBLIN. of and concerning the government, state, and

constitution of this kingdom, according to the

tenor and effect following, that is to say, The Information was as follows :

"The Society of United Irishmen at DubOf Trinity Term in the thirty-third year of lin, to the volunteers of Ireland. Willian the reign of our sovereign lord George the Drennan, chairman, Archibald Hamilton Third, now king of Great Britain, and so Rowan, secretary--Citizen soldiers, you first forth, and in the year of our Lord one thou took up arms to protect your country from sand seven hundred and ninety-three. foreign enemies, and from domestic dis

turbance; for the same purposes it now beCounty of the City of 7 Be it remembered comes necessary that you should resume

Dublin, to wit. that the right how them; a proclamation has been issued in nourable Arthur Wolfe, attorney-general of England for embodying the militia, and a our present sovereign lord the king, who for proclamation has been issued by the lord our said lord the king prosecutes in this be

• lieutenant and council in Ireland,' (meanhalf, in his proper person comes into the ing a proclamation which issued under the court of our said lord the king, before the great seal of the kingdom of Ireland, the king himself, at the city of Dublin, in the eighth day of December, one thousand seven county of the said city, on the eighth day of hundred and ninety-two), "for repressing June in this same term, and for our said

all seditious associations; in consequence lord the king gives the Court here to under of both these proclamations it is reasonable stand and be informed, that Archibald Ha-' to apprehend danger from abroad and danmilton Rowan, of the city of Dublin, esquire, ger at home, for whence but from apprebeing a person of a wicked and turbulent dis hended danger are these menacing preparaposition, and maliciously designing and in- tions for war drawn through the streets of tending to excite and diffuse amongst the this capital?! (meaning the city of subjects of this realm of Ireland, discontents, Dublin) or whence if not to create that jealousies, and suspicions of our said lord the internal commotion which was not found, king and his government, and disaffection to shake that credit which was not affected, and disloyalty to the person and government to blast that volunteer honour which was of our said lord the king, and to raise very

hitherto inviolate, are those terrible suggesdangerous seditions and tumults within this tions and rumours and whispers that meet kingdom of Ireland, and to draw the govern ' us at every corner, and agitate at least our ment of this kingdom into great scandal, in

• old men, our women, and our children? famy, and disgrace, and to incite the subjects

whatever be the motive, or from whatever of our said lord the king to attempt, by force quarter it arises, alarm bas arisen; and you and violence, and with arms, to make altera- volunteers of Ireland, are therefore sumtions in the government, state, and constitu-moned to arms at the instance of governtion of this kingdom, and to incite his majes-ment, as well as by the responsibility atty's said subjects to tumult and anarchy, and tached to your character, and the permato overturn the established constitution of nent obligations of your institution. We this kingdom, and to overawe and intimidate will not at this day condescend to quote authe legislature of this kingdom, by an armed thorities for the right of having and of using force, on the sixteenth day of December, in arms, but we will cry aloud, even amidst the thirty-third year of the reign of our said the storm raised by the witchcraft of a propresent sovereign lord George the third, by clamation, that to your formalion was owing the grace of God of Great Britain, France, the peace and protection of this island, to and Ireland, king, defender of the faith, and your relaxation has been owing its relapse so forth, with force and arms, at Dublin into impotence and insignificance, to your aforesaid, to wit, in the parish and ward of renovation must be owing its future freedom Saint Michael the archangel, and in the and its present tranquillity; you are therecounty of the said city, wickedly, maliciously, fore suminoned to arms, in order to preserve and seditiously, did publish, and cause and your country in that guarded quiet which procure to be published, a certain false, wick may secure it from external hostility, and to ed, malicious, scandalous, and seditious libel, maintain that internal regimen throughout

the land, which, superseding a notorious that seduction made them soldiers, but * police or a suspected militia, may preserve nature made them men. We address

the blessings of peace by a vigilani prepa- you without any authority save that of • ration for war.-Citizen soldiers, to arms, reason, and if we obtain the coincidence * take up the shield of freedom and the l. of public opinion, it is neither by force pledges of peace-peace, the motive and nor stratagem, for we have no power end of your virtuous institution—war, an 'to terrify, no artifice to cajole, no fund occasional duty, ought never to be made an 'to seduce; here we sit without mace or occupation; every man should become a beadle, neither a mystery nor a craft, nor a • soldier in the defence of his rights; no man corporation; in four words lies all our power

ought to continue a soldier for offending the-universal emancipation and representarights of others; the sacrifice of life in the tive legislature--yet we are confident that service of our country is a duty much too on the pivot of this principle, a convention, honourable to be intrusted to mercenaries, still less a society, still less a single man, and at this time, when your country has, by will be able first to move, and then to raise public authority, been declared in danger, the world: we therefore wish for Catholic we conjure you by your interest, your duty, emancipation without any modification, but • and your glory, to stand to your arms, and still we consider this necessary enfranchise' in spite of a police, in spite of a fenciblement as merely the portal tothe temple of na

militia, in virtue of two proclamations, totional freedom ; wide as this entrance is, wide * maintain good order in your vicinage, and enough to admit three millions, it is narrow • tranquillity in Ireland; it is only by the mi- when compared to the capacity and compre• litary array of men in whom they confide, hension of our beloved principle, which takes * whom they have been accustomed to revere in every individual of the Irish nation, casts * as the guardians of domestic peace, the pro- an equal eye over the whole island, embraces * tectors of their liberties and lives, that the all that think, and feels for all that suffer; present agitation of the people can be stilled, the Catholic cause is subordinate to our that tumult and licentiousness can be re cause, and included in it; for, as United pressed, obedience secured to existing law, Irishmen, we adhere to no sect, but to and a calm confidence diffused through the society-to no cause, but Christianity-to public mind in the speedy resurrection of a no party but the whole people. In the sinfree constitution,' (meaning that the peo 'cerity of our souls do we desire Catholic ple of Ireland had not at the time of the emancipation : but were it obtained tu-morpublishing aforesaid a free constitution) of row, to-morrow would we go on as we do liberty and of equality, words which we use to-day, in the pursuit of that reform, which • for an opportunity of repelling calumny, and would still be wanting to ratify their liberties

of saying, that by liberty we never under as well as our own. For both these purposes • stood unlimited freedoin, nor by equality it appears necessary that provincial conventhe levelling of property or the destruction 'tions should assemble preparatory to the of subordination; this is a calumny invented convention of the Protestant people; the that faction, or that gang, which misre- legates of the Catholic body are not justified presents the king to the people, and the in communicating with individuals or even people to the king, traduces one half of the bodies of interior authority, and therefore an nation to cajole the other, and by keeping assembly of a similar nature and organizaup distrust and division wishes to continue tion is necessary to establish an intercourse • the proud arbitrators of the fortune and fate of sentiments, an uniformity of conduct, an

of Ireland; liberty is the exercise of all our united cause and an united nation; if a rights, natural and political, secured to us convention on the one part does not soon • and our posterity by a real representation of follow, and is not soon connected with that

the people ; and equality is the extension of on the other, the common cause will split " the constituent to ihe fullest dimensions of into the partial interest, the people will the constitution, of the elective franchise to relapse into inattention and inertness, the

the whole body of the people, to the end union of affection and exertion will dissolve, ' that government, which is collective power, and too probably some local insurrections,

may be guided by collective will, and that instigated by the malignity of our common • legislation may originate from public reason, enemy, may commit the character and risk • keep. pace with public improvement, and the tranquillity of the island, which can be • terminate in public happiness. If our con obviated only by the influence of an assembly

stitution be imperfect, nothing but a reformarising from, assimilated with the people, 'in representation will rectity its abuses; if and whose spirit may be, as it were, koit

it be perfect, nothing but the same reform with the soul of the nation, unless the sense • will perpetuate its blessings. We now ad of the Protestant people be on their part as • dress you as citizens, for to be citizens fairly collected and as judiciously directed,

you became soldiers, nor can we belp • unless individual exertion consolidates into wishing that all soldiers, partaking the collective strength, unless the particles unite passions and interest of the people would into one mass, we may perhaps serve some remember, that they were once citizens, person or some party for a little, but the


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