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at this moment prefix + dip
one of them flew on to the floor and exploded double dip + down run (J); double dip ending in drop + suffix (M)
33. but it's an ill wind that blows nobody any good prefix + double dip 34. and at any rate this relieved the footman from his state of indecision prefix + triple dip + down run
35. his immediate mission was clearly to remove it prefix + double dip + down run (J); prefix + multiple dip ending in drop + suffix (M) 36. Dodo threw herself back in her chair dip (J); dip with prefix (M) 37. with a peal of laughter prefix + down run
"Go on, go on" she cried down run (J); down run beginning with lift (M)
"You are too splendid gradient prefix + down run 40. tell us what you write the presto on" dip + suffix
"I can't waste another moment" prefix + dip ending in drop + suffix 42. said Edith level or up run (may be treated as part of preceding
43. I'm in the middle of a most entrancing motif gradient prefix + dip ending in drop + down run
44. which is working out beautifully prefix + dip ending in drop + suffix 45. do you mind my smoking in the drawing room? dip, with first high on do (J); prefix + dip, with first high on mind (M)
46. I'm awfully sorry prefix + dip, ending in drop and lift
47. but it makes all the difference to my work gradient prefix + down run 48. burn a little incense there afterwards dip ending in drop + suffix 49. do send me a bone, Dodo dip beginning with lift (J); with drop (M) 50. come and hear me play the scherzo later on dip + down run
51. it's the best thing I've ever done prefix + dip ending in drop Oh lift and drop
53. by the way down run beginning with lift (J); up run ending in drop (M)
54. I telegraphed to Herr Truffen to come tomorrow prefix + double dip 55. he's my conductor, you know dip + suffix
56. You can put him up in the village or the coal hole if you like prefix + triple dip, first high on put (J); prefix + triple dip, ending with drop and lift, and with first high on up (M)
57. he's quite happy if he gets enough beer prefix + double dip (J); prefix + double dip, ending in drop and lift (M)
58. he's my German conductor, you know prefix + dip + suffix 59. I made him entirely prefix + dip ending in drop + suffix
60. I took him to the Princesse the other day double up run ending in lift when I was at Aix up run
and we all had beer together gradient prefix + down run
in the verandah of the Beau Site prefix + down run (J); prefix + dip, ending in drop (M)
64. You'll be amused with him." up run ending in drop + suffix
Oh, rather," said Dodo lift and drop + lift and drop + up ran "that'll be all right dip
he can sleep in the house up run ending in drop
will he come early tomorrow? dip (J); prefix + dip, with high on come (M)
let's see down run
70. tomorrow's Sunday gradient prefix + down run
71. Edith! down run
72. I've got an idea! prefix + down run, high on got (J); up run ending
in drop (M)
73. we'll have a dear little service in the house gradient prefix + down run 74. we can't go to church if it snows prefix + double dip, ending in drop and lift
75. and you shall play your mass prefix + dip
76. and Herr what's his name shall conduct gradient prefix + dip 77. and Bertie and Grantie and you and I'll sing triple up run + down run (J); triple up run ending in drop (M)
78. won't it be lovely? dip ending in drop + suffix
79. you and I'll settle all that this afternoon dip + down run (J); double dip ending in drop (M)
80. telegraph to Truffle dip
81. or whatever his name is up run
to come by the eight-twenty gradient prefix + down run
83. then he'll be here by twelve prefix + dip (J); prefix + dip, ending in drop and lift (M)
84. and we'll have the service at a quarter past." gradient prefix +
85. Dodo, that'll be grand," said Edith dip, ending in drop + suffix
86. "I can't wait now prefix + dip ending in drop and lift
87. Goodbye dip (J); up run ending in drop and lift (M)
88. hurry up my breakfast dip (J); prefix + dip + suffix (M)
89. I'm awfully sharp-set ". prefix + dip
90. Edith went back to the drawing room double dip (J); prefix + lift, or + down run (in either case beginning with back) (M)
91. whistling in a particularly shrill manner dip + gradient suffix
In any investigation of pitch patterns the unit must be the phrase, of course. Upon examining the phrases of our passage (each phrase will be referred to by its number as given above), I found abundant evidence of the existence of two distinct patterns, patterns to which I have given the names dip and run. The dip follows the general pitch sequence high-low-high. Hence the name.
Examples: 6, 7, 36J, 45J, 66, 68J, 80, 87J, 88J. In all these the phrase begins and ends with a high pitch, while the intermediate stages are low in comparison. The number of members of the sequence is in theory unlimited but in practice not great. A dip sequence may be formulated as hlh, where h stands for "high," I for "low." A fuller formulation would be hxlxh, where x stands for pitches intermediate between high and low, but such pitches need not be present. Furthermore, 7 may and commonly does stand for more than one member (or syllable). In our formula, then, h represents the extremes, 7 the body of the dip. Again, we find phrases where the pitch sequence is not high-low-high but rather high-low-high-low-high. This may be called a double dip. Examples: 8, 90J. Similarly, one may have triple and even quad- › ruple dips. Thus, 8 may be read as a triple dip.
If we examine more closely our highs, we see that they are not all alike, but fall into three classes, viz., rising, level, and falling. Thus, in 18, Dear begins with a high that reaches its peak only on the second element of the diphthong; such a rising high may be called a lift. Similarly 49J. Likewise, a falling high appears in 11M, 53M, 85. This kind of high I call a drop. I have no special term to suggest for the level high of 66, 80, etc. Finally, we have the drop and lift, as in 20, 22M, 83M.
Dips often appear in expanded form. The expansion is due to the inclusion of a prefix, a suffix, or both. The expanded formula reads phlhs. The prefix is a short introduction used to give the dip a running start, as it were. It occurs in two varieties, the simple and the gradient. The simple prefix consists of one or more syllables, usually of mean pitch but in any case on the same level. Examples: 1 (one-syllable), 25 (two-syllable), 9 (threesyllable). The gradient on the other hand gives a gradual rise to the initial high of the dip. It is much less frequent than the simple prefix. Examples: 24a, 43. The suffix serves as a kind of tailpiece to the dip. Like the prefix, it is usually simple, as 14 (onesyllable), 40 (two-syllable), 44 (three-syllable), 55 (three-syllable). It may follow a level high, as 14, or a drop, as 59.
The run differs from the dip in that one direction of movement is maintained throughout its duration. Three varieties of runs occur: monotone, or level runs; ascending, or up runs; and de
scending, or down runs. Examples: level runs, 4 (these are rare); up runs: 4, 11M, 12, 53M, 60, 61, 64, 67, 81, 87; down runs: 13, 17, 23, 37, 38, 39 etc. The formula for the level run is m (where m stands for mean pitch); for the up run, lxh; for the down run, hal. In a fuller form, i. e., with provision for prefix and suffix, the formulas for up run and down run read lxhs and phal respectively. Runs, like dips, may be double. Examples: 3 (down), (up).
The level run occurs rarely. As its name implies, it is uniform in pitch throughout. This pitch is usually mean. Level runs are rarely long; they occur most often in tags, like 4 and 42. Up runs end on a level high, as 12, a lift, as 60, or a drop, as 67. They may be without a suffix, as 11M, or may be followed by a simple suffix, as 64. I have however found no case where an up run was followed by a gradient suffix. The down run may begin on a level high, as 69, a lift, as 53J, or a drop, as 23. It may be preceded by a simple prefix, as 13 (one-syllable), 17 (two-syllable). Occasionally we find a gradient prefix, as 62, 73, followed by a down run, but this is rare.
Some pitch patterns appear to be neither dips nor runs, but rather compounds of dips and runs. Examples: 5, 21, 29, 30, 34, 43, 50.
Now as to the differences between Mr. Jones and me in our intonation. First of all, Mr. Jones uses down runs more than I do. In place of these I often have dips or up runs, ending in a drop. Examples are numerous: 9, 11, 32, 35, 53, 63, 72, 77, 79. The drop of course serves the same function as Mr. Jones's down run, but the tonic effect is concentrated in a single syllable with me, while Mr. Jones spreads it out over several syllables. My method is more dramatic, perhaps; Mr. Jones's, more placid. Secondly, Mr. Jones often uses a drop where I use drop and lift. Examples: 22 and 24 (note funeral march and nocturne in 24). Or he may use a lift where I use drop and lift. Examples: 56, 57, 83, 87. The use of drop and lift is supposed to be especially characteristic of American English, and I find some confirmation of this. Drop and lift sometimes appears in British usage too, however, as in 20. Thirdly, Mr. Jones's initial high may appear earlier in the phrase than mine, or, if there are more than two highs, his initial high is more likely to be the dominant. Examples: 20, 36, 45, 56, 57,
68, 88, 90. This peculiarity of British intonation has doubtless often come to the reader's notice. An American feels that the early appearance of the first high is somewhat mechanical, while his own high falls on the really important word. I don't know how an Englishman would feel about it.1
The Johns Hopkins University.
1 Since writing this paper I have become acquainted with Mr. H. E. Palmer's English Intonation (Heffer), a book of great interest and value to students of pitch. Mr. Palmer's treatment of the subject is so different from mine that I need do no more than call the reader's attention to his work,