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provided for in this part to meet specific requirements, Subject to approval by the ASD (MRA&L). 2. Counseling and rehabilitation. Separation processing may not be initiated until the member has been Counseled formally concerning deficiencies and has been afforded an opportunity to Overcome those deficiencies as reflected in appropriate Counseling or personnel records except when the Military Department concerned provides in its implementing document that Counseling and rehabilitation requirements are not applicable for the Specific reason for Separation. 3. Characterization or description. Characterization of Service or description of a separation shall be in accordance with Section C. of part 2. 4. Procedures. The procedures established by the Military Departments shall be consistent with the procedures contained in this part insofar as practicable.
PART 2–GUIDELINES ON SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
A. Separation. 1. Scope. This general guidance applies when referenced in part 1. Further guidance is set forth under the Specific rea,SOnS for Separation in part 1. 2. Guidance. a. There is a Substantial investment in the training of persons enlisted Or inducted into the Military Services. As a general matter, reasonable efforts at rehabilitation should be made prior to initiation of Separation proceedings. b. Unless separation is mandatory, the potential for rehabilitation and further useful military service shall be considered by the Separation Authority and, where applicable, the Administrative Board. If separation is warranted despite the potential for rehabilitation, Consideration should be given to suspension of the Separation, if authorized. C. Counseling and rehabilitation efforts are a prerequisite to initiation of Separation proCeedings Only insofar as expressly set forth under Specific requirements for separation in part 1. An alleged Or established inadequacy in previous rehabilitative effortS does not provide a legal bar to Separation. d. The following factors may be considered On the issue of retention or separation, depending On the Circumstances of the Case: (1) The Seriousness of the Circumstances forming the basis for initiation of separation proceedings, and the effect of the member’s continued retention. On military discipline, good Order, and morale. (2) The likelihood of Continuation or recurrence of the Circumstances forming the basis for initiation of Separation proceedings. (3) The likelihood that the member will be a disruptive or undesirable influence in present or future duty assignments. (4) The ability of the member to perform duties effectively in the present and in the
future, including potential for advancement or leadership. (5) The member’s rehabilitative potential. (6) The member’s entire military record. (a) This may include: 1 Past contributions to the Service, assignments, awards and decorations, evaluation ratings, and letters of commendation; 2 Letters of reprimand or admonition, Counseling records, records of nonjudicial punishment, records of conviction by courtmartial and records of involvement with CiVilian authorities; and 3 Any other matter deemed relevant by the Board, if any, or the Separation Authority, based upon the Specialized training, duties, and experience of persons entrusted by this part With recommendations and decisions on the issue of separation or retention. (b) The following guidance applies to conSideration of matter under subparagraph A.2.d.(6)(a): 1 Adverse matter from a prior enlistment Or period of military Service, such as records Of nonjudicial punishment and convictions by courts-martial, may be considered only When Such records would have a direct and Strong probative value in determining whether separation is appropriate. The use of Such records Ordinarily shall be limited to those Cases involving patterns of conduct manifested Over an extended period of time. 2 ISO1ated incidents and events that are remote in time normally have little probative value in determining whether administrative Separation should be effected. 3. Limitations on separation actions. A member may not be separated on the basis of the following: a. Conduct that has been the subject of judicial proceedings resulting in an acquittal or action having the effect thereof except in the following Circumstances: (1) When Such action is based upon a judiCial determination not going to the guilt or innocence of the respondent; or (2) When the judicial proceeding was conducted in a State or foreign court and the Separation is approved by the Secretary conCerned. b. Conduct that has been the subject of a prior Administrative Board in which the Board entered an approved finding that the evidence did not sustain the factual allegations Concerning the Conduct except when the Conduct is the Subject of a rehearing or— dered On the basis of fraud or collusion; or C. Conduct that has been the Subject of an administrative Separation proceeding resulting in a final determination by a Separation Authority that the member Should be retained, except in the following CirCumStanceS: (1) When there is subsequent conduct or performance forming the basis, in whole or in part, for a new proceeding;
(2) When there is new or newly discovered evidence that was not reasonably available at the time of the prior proceeding; or (3) When the Conduct is the Subject of a rehearing ordered on the basis of fraud or collusion. B. Suspension of Separation. 1. SuSpension. a. Unless prohibited by this part a separation may be suspended for a specified period of not more than 12 months by the Separation Authority or higher authority if the circumstances of the Case indicate a rea,Sonable likelihood or rehabilitation. b. During the period of Suspension, the member shall be afforded an Opportunity to meet appropriate Standards Of Conduct and duty performance. c. Unless Sooner vacated Or remitted, execution of the approved Separation Shall be remitted upon completion of the probationary period, upon termination of the member’s enlistment or period of obligated Service, or upon decision of the Separation Authority that the goal of rehabilitation has been achieved. 2. Action during the period of SuspenSion. a. During the period of Suspension, if there are further grounds for Separation under part 1, One or more of the following actionS may be taken: (1) Disciplinary action; (2) New administrative action; Or (3) Vacation of the SuspenSiOn accompanied by execution of the Separation if the member engages in conduct Similar to that for which Separation was approved (but Suspended) or otherwise fails to meet appropriate Standards Of Conduct and duty performance.
b. Prior to vacation of a suspension, the
member Shall be notified in Writing of the basis for the action and Shall be afforded the opportunity to Consult with Counsel (as provided in paragraph B.1.f. Of part 3) and to Submit a Statement in Writing to the Separation Authority. The respondent shall be provided a reasonable period of time, but not less than 2 working days, to act on the notice. If the respondent identifies Specific legal issueS for Consideration by the Separation Authority, the matter Shall be reviewed by a judge advocate or civilian lawyer employed by the government prior to final action by the Separation Authority. C. Characterization of Service or Description of Separation. 1. Types of characterization or description. a. At Separation, the following types of characterization of service or deScription of Separation are authorized under this part: (1) Separation with characterization of Service as Honorable, General (under honorable conditions), or Under Other Than HonOrable ConditionS. (2) Entry Level Separation. (3) Order of release from the custody and Control of the Military Services by reason of Void enlistment Or induction.
(4) Separation by being dropped from the
rolls of the Service.
b. Any of the types of separation listed in this Section may be used in appropriate cirCumstances unless a limitation Set forth in this Section or in part 1 (Reasons for Separation). 2. Characterization of service. a. General conSiderations. (1) Characterization at separation Shall be based upon the quality of the member's service, including the reason for separation and guidance in paragraph C.2.b., below, Subject to the limitations set forth under Various reasons for separation in part 1. The Quality of Service will be determined in a CCOrdance With Standards Of acceptable perSonal conduct and performance of duty for military personnel. These Standards are found in the 10 U.S.C., Sections 801–940, UCMJ, directives and regulations issued by the Department of Defense and the Military Departments, and the time-honored Customs and traditions of military Service. (2) The quality of Service of a member on active duty Or active duty for training is affected adversely by conduct that is of a nature to bring discredit on the Military Services or is prejudicial to good Order and discipline, regardless of whether the conduct is Subject to UCMJ jurisdiction. Characterization may be based on Conduct in the Civilian Community, and the burden is on the reSpondent to demonstrate that Such COnduct did not adversely affect the respondent’s Service. (3) The reasons for Separation, including the Specific Circumstances that form the basis for the Separation, Shall be considered On the iSSue Of Characterization. As a general matter, Characterization will be based upon a pattern Of behavior rather than an isolated incident. There are Circumstances, however, in which the Conduct or performance of duty reflected by a Single incident provides the basis for Characterization. (4) Due Consideration shall be given to the member’s age, length of Service, grade, aptitude, physical and mental Condition, and the Standards of acceptable conduct and performance of duty. b. Types of characterization. (1) Honorable. The Honorable characterization is appropriate when the quality of the member’s Service generally has met the Standards of acceptable conduct and performance of duty for military perSonnel, or is otherwise SO meritorious that any other Characterization would be clearly inappropriate. In the case of an HOnOrable DiScharge, an Honorable DiScharge Certificate (DD Form 256) will be awarded and a notation Will be made On the appropriate copies of the DD Form 214/5 in accordance with 32 CFR part 45 (DOD Directive 1336.1). (2) General (under homorable conditions). If a member’s Service has been honeSt, and faithful, it is appropriate to characterize that service under honorable Conditions. Characterization of Service as General (under honorable conditions) is Warranted when Significant negative aspects of the member’s Conduct or performance of duty outweigh positive aspects of the member’s military record. (3) Under Other Than Honorable Conditions. (a) This characterization may be issued in the following Circumstances: 1 When the reason for Separation is based upon a pattern of behavior that constitutes a significant departure from the conduct expected of members of the Military Services. 2. When the reason for Separation is based upon one or more acts or Omissions that constitute a significant departure from the conduct expected of members of the Military Services. Examples of factors that may be considered include the use of force Or Violence to produce serious bodily injury or death, abuse of a special position of trust, disregard by a Superior of Customary Superior-subordinate relationships, acts Or OmisSions that endanger the Security of the United States Or the health and Welfare of Other members of the Military Services, and deliberate acts Or Omissions that Seriously endanger the health and Safety of other perSOIlS. (b) This characterization is authorized Only if the member has been afforded the Opportunity to request an Administrative Board, except as provided in Section L. of part 1 (Separation in Lieu of Trial by CourtsMartial). C. Limitations on characterization. Except as Otherwise provided in this paragraph, Characterization will be determined Solely by the member’s military record during the Current enlistment or period of service to which the Separation pertains, plus any extensions thereof prescribed by law or regulation or effected with the Consent Of the member. (1) Prior Service activities, including reCOrdS Of COnviction by COurtS-martial, records of absence without leave, Or CommisSion of other Offenses for which punishment was not imposed Shall not be COnSidered. On the iSSue Of Characterization. To the extent that Such matters are COnSidered On the iSSue of retention Or Separation (SubSection A.2. Of this part 2), the record Of proceedingS may reflect express direction that Such information Shall not be Considered. On the issue of Characterization. (2) Preservice activities may not be consid— ered on the iSSue Of Characterization except as follows: in a proceeding Concerning fraudulent entry into military Service (SubSection E.4. Of part 1), evidence of preservice misrepresentations about matters that would have precluded, postponed, or otherwise affected the member’s eligibility for enlistment Or induction may be considered on the iSSue Of Characterization. (3) The limitations in SubSection A.3., above, as to matters that may be considered
On the issue of Separation are applicable to matters that may be considered on the issue Of characterization. (4) When the Sole basis for Separation is a Serious Offense which resulted in a conviction by a Court-martial that did not impose a punitive discharge, the member’s Service may not be characterized Under Other Than Honorable Conditions unless such characterization is approved by the Secretary conCerned. (5) Conduct in the Civilian Community of a member of a reserve component who is not On active duty Or active duty for training may form the basis for characterization Dnder Other Than Honorable Conditions Only if Such conduct affects directly the performance of military duties. Such conduct may form the basis of Characterization as General (under honorable Conditions) Only if Such Conduct has an adverse impact. On the Overall effectiveness of the Service, including military morale and efficiency. (6) A member’s voluntary Submission to a DOD treatment and rehabilitation program (for personal use of drugs) and evidence provided voluntarily by the member concerning perSonal use of drugs as part of initial entry into Such a program may not be used against the member On the iSSue of characterization. This limitation does not preclude the following actions: (a) The introduction of evidence for im– peachment Or rebuttal purposes in any proCeeding in which the evidence of drug abuse (Or lack thereof) has been first introduced by the member; and (b) Taking action based on independently derived evidence, including evidence of drug abuse after initial entry into the treatment and rehabilitation program. (7) The results of mandatory urinalysis may be used on the issue of characterization except as provided in the Deputy Secretary Of Defense Memorandum, “Alcohol and Drug Abuse,” December 28, 1981, and rules promulgated thereunder. 3. Uncharacterized separations. a. Entry Level Separation. (1) A Separation Shall be deScribed as an Entry Level Separation if separation processing iS initiated while a member is in entry level status, except in the following Circumstances: (a) When Characterization Under Other Than Honorable Conditions is authorized under the reason for Separation (part 1) and iS warranted by the Circumstances of the Ca,Se; Or (b) The Secretary Concerned, On a Case-byCase basis, determines that characterization of service as Honorable is clearly warranted by the presence of unusual Circumstances involving personal conduct and performance of military duty. This Characterization is authorized when the member is Separated under part 1 by reason of Selected changes in service obligation (Section B.), Convenience of the Government (Section C.), Disability (Section D.), Secretarial Plenary Authority (SectOn O.), Or an approved reason established by the Military Department (Section P.). (2) In time of mobilization or in Other appropriate circumstances, the ASD (MRA&L) may authorize the Secretary Concerned to delegate the authority in Subparagraph (1)(b), above, (Concerning the Honorable characterization) to a general Court-martial convening authority with respect to members Serving in Operational units. (3) With respect to administrative matters outside this part that require a Characterization as Honorable or General, an Entry Level Separation shall be treated as the required characterization. This provision does not apply to administrative matters that expressly require different treatment of an Entry Level Separation except as provided in subparagraph (4), below. (4) In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 1163, an Entry Level Separation for a member of a Reserve Component Separated from the Delayed Entry Program is “under honorable conditions.” b. Void enlistments Or inductions. A member shall not receive a discharge, characterization of Service at Separation, Or an Entry Level Separation if the enlistment Or induction is void except. When a constructive enlistment arises and Such action is required under Subparagraph (3), below. If Characterization or an Entry Level Separation is not required, the Separation shall be described as an Order of release from custody or control of the Military Services. (1) An enlistment is void in the following Circumstances: (a) If it was effected without the voluntary Consent of a person who has the capacity to underStand the Significance of enlisting in the Military Services, including enlistment of a person who is intoxicated or insane at the time of enlistment. 10 U.S.C. 504; Article 2(b), UCMJ. (b) If the person is under 17 years of age. 10 TJ.S.C. 505. (C) If the person is a deserter from another Military Service. 10 U.S.C. 504. (2) Although an enlistment may be void at its inception, a Constructive enlistment, shall arise in the Case of a person Serving with a Military Service who: (a) Submitted voluntarily to military authority; (b) Met, the mental competency and minimum 10 U.S.C. age qualifications Of Sections 504 and 505 of, at the time of voluntary submission to military authority; (c) Received military pay or allowances; and (d) Performed military duties. (3) If an enlistment that is void at its inCeption is followed by a constructive enlistment within the same term of Service, char
acterization of Service or description of separation shall be in accordance with subsection C.2. or paragraph C.3.a. of this part 2, as appropriate; however, if the enlistment was Void by reason of desertion from another Military Service, the member shall be separated by an order of release from the custody and control of the Service regardless of any Subsequent Constructive enlistment. The ocCurrence of Such a constructive enlistment does not preclude the Military Departments, in appropriate cases, from either retaining the member or separating the member under Section E. Of part 1 on the basis of the CirCumstances that occasioned the original void enlistment or upon any other basis for separation provided in this part. C. Dropping from the rolls. A member may be dropped from the rolls of the Service when Such action is authorized by the Military Department Concerned and a characterization Of Service or other description of Separation is not authorized or warranted.
PART 3—PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATION
A. Scope. 1. The supplementary procedures in this part are applicable only when reQuired under a Specific reason for separation (part 1). These procedures are subject to the requirements set forth in part 1 with respect to Specific rea,Sons for Separation. 2. When a member is processed. On the basis of multiple reasons for Separation, the following guidelines apply to procedural reQuirements (including procedural limitations On Characterization of Service or description Of Separation): a. The requirements for each reason will be applied to the extent practicable. b. If a reason for separation set forth in the notice of proposed action requires processing under the Administrative Board Procedure (Section C., below), the entire matter shall be proCeSSed under Section C. C. If more than One reason for Separation is approved, the guidance on characterization that provides the greatest latitude may be applied. d. When there is any other clear conflict between a specific requirement applicable to One reason and a general requirement appliCable to another reason, the Specific requirement shall be applied. e. If a Conflict in procedures cannot be reSolved on the basis of the foregoing prinCiples, the procedure most favorable to the reSpondent, Shall be used. B. Notification Procedure. 1. Notice. If the Notification Procedure is initiated under part 1, the respondent Shall be notified in Writing of the matter set forth in this Section. a. The basis of the proposed Separation, inCluding the Circumstances upon which the action is based and a reference to the applicable provisions of the Military Department’s implementing regulation.
b. Whether the proposed Separation could result in discharge, release from active duty to a reserve component, transfer from the Selected Reserve to the IRR, release from custody or control of the Military Services, or other form of Separation. c. The least favorable characterization of Service or description of Separation authorized for the proposed Separation. d. The right to obtain copies of documents that will be forwarded to the Separation Authority supporting the basis of the proposed separation. Classified documents may be Summarized. e. The respondent’s right to Submit statement.S. f. The respondent’s right to consult with counsel qualified under Article 27(b)(1) of the UCMJ. Nonlawyer counsel may be appointed when the respondent is deployed aboard a vessel or in Similar Circumstances Of Separation from sufficient judge advocate resources as determined under Standards and procedures Specified by the Secretary Concerned. The respondent also may consult with civilian Counsel retained at the member’s Own expense. g. If the respondent has 6 or more years of total active and reserve military service, the right to request an Administrative Board (Section C.). h. The right to waive paragraphs d., e., f. Or g., above, after being afforded a reasonable Opportunity to Consult. With Counsel, and that failure to respond Shall Constitute a waiver of the right. 2. Additional notice requirements. a. If Separation processing is initiated on the basis of more than One reason under part 1, the requirement.S of paragraph B.1.a. apply to all proposed reasons for Separation. b. If the respondent is in Civil Confinement, absent without leave, or in a reserve Component not on active duty or upon transfer to the IRR, the relevant notification procedures in Sections D., E., Or F. Of this part 3 apply. C. Additional notification requirements are Set forth in part 1, Sections C. and D., when characterization of Service as General (under honorable conditions) is authorized and the member is processed for separation by reason of Convenience of the GOvernment. Or DiSability. 3. Response. The respondent shall be provided a rea,SOnable period of time, but not less than 2 Working days, to act. On the notice. An extension may be granted upon a timely showing of good cause by the respondent. The decision of the respondent on each of the rights Set forth in paragraphs 1.d. through g., above, and applicable provisions referenced in SubSection 2. Shall be recorded and signed by the respondent and counsel, Subject to the following limitation: a. If notice by mail is authorized under Sections D., E., or F. Of this part 3 and the reSpondent fails to acknowledge receipt Or Sub
mit a timely reply, that fact shall constitute a Waiver of rights and an appropriate notation Shall be recorded on a retained copy of the appropriate form. b. If the respondent declines to respond as to the Selection of rights, such declination Shall Constitute a waiver of rights and an appropriate notation Will be made On the form provided for respondent’s reply. If the reSpondent indicates that One or more of the rights will be exercised, but declines to sign the appropriate form, the Selection of rights Will be noted and an appropriate notation as to the failure to sign will be made. 4. Separation Authority. a. The Separation Authority for actions initiated under the NOtification Procedure shall be a special courtmartial convening authority or higher authority. The Secretary concerned also may authorize a commanding officer in grade 0–5 Or above with a judge advocate or legal adviSOr available to the command to act as a Separation Authority for a specified reason for Separation, subject to approval by the ASD(MRA&L). When the case has been initiated under the Administrative Board Procedure and the member has waived the right to a hearing under Section C.4., the Separation Authority Shall be an official designated under SubSection C.6., below. b. The action of the Separation Authority Shall be recorded. C. The Separation Authority shall determine whether there is Sufficient evidence to verify the allegations Set forth in the notifiCation of the basis for separation. If an allegation is not Supported by a preponderance Of the evidence, it may not be used as a basis for Separation. d. If there is a Sufficient factual basis for Separation, the Separation Authority shall determine whether separation is warranted under the guidance in Sections A. and B. of part 2. On the basis of that guidance, the Separation Authority Shall direct One of the following actions: (1) Retention; (2) Separation for a specific reason under part 1; Or (3) Suspended Separation in accordance with the guidance in Section B. part 2. e. If the Separation Authority directs separation Or SuSpended Separation. On the basis of more than One reason under part 1, the Separation Authority shall designate the most appropriate basis as the primary reason for reporting purposes. f. If Separation or a suspended separation is directed, the Separation Authority shall asSign a characterization or description in acCordance with section C. of part 2. g. Except when characterization Under Other Than Honorable Conditions is directed Or the member is Separated On the basis of homosexuality Or a void enlistment Or induction, the Secretary concerned may authorize