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disciplinary research and for the transfer of scientific knowledge and technological know how between the public and private sectors.

As one component of the Investing in the Future theme, the President's FY 1991 budget requests a significant increase ($31 million) for construction and improvement of national user facilities in the BES program. The major increment in this category supports continued construction of the 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source at the Argonne National Laboratory. A 6 GeV synchrotron radiation source was accorded highest priority for new construction by a 1983 advisory group drawn from the synchrotron radiation users community. This priority was affirmed by the Major Materials Facilities Committee of the National Academy of Sciences and has subsequently been reaffirmed by several other advisory groups. When completed in 1996, this facility will provide uniquely brilliant beams of hard x-rays for research in a diverse array of fields, including physics, chemistry, materials and surface science, biology, and medicine.

It makes absolutely no sense to build these splendid facilities facilities that set the stage for great forward strides - unless we are prepared to operate them, and to support the scientists who use them, in such a way as to reap the scientific and economic rewards of the research they make possible. The President's budget takes this into consideration by adding approximately $32 million to provide a more healthy level of funding for operating the Programs's existing user facilities. It is my intention to work through the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) new Committee on Physical, Mathematical and Engineering Sciences; through the President's Courcil of Advisors on Science and Technology; and through other mechanisms -- to help identify those areas of research that offer particular scientific promise, and thus would merit increased funding in future-year budgets. One such area, high performance computing, has already been so identified by FCCSET: the President's FY 1991 budget requests substantial increases (up 10 percent, to $48 million) for related research in the Applied Mathematical Sciences Program within BES.

General Science and Research

The fundamental sciences supported through the General Science and Research budget are Nuclear Physics, High Energy Physics, and the Superconducting Super Collider Project.

The DOE Nuclear Physics Program provides over 80 percent of the overall funding, including facilities, and supports approximately one-half of the university-based research, in this discipline in the U. S. The Program operates major user facilities at six laboratories, as well as

several recently upgraded university laboratory accelerators. Apart from construction, the funding proposed by the President for this Program represents an increase of 11 percent ($24 million) to be used to offset increased operating costs of several national user facilities, to fund increased levels of activity in high-priority subareas, and for new instrumentation.

An increase of $17 million is requested for construction projects in the FY 1991 Nuclear Physics Program budget. This increase provides for the continued construction of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF, $65 million) on schedule. When completed in 1993, this electron accelerator will provide beams with energies up to 4 GeV for precision investigations of the relationships between quark-based and nucleon-based phenomena in nuclei. The construction of CEBAF was initiated in 1987 following its identification by the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) as the highest-priority project for the field.

Another Irvestment for the Future in the President's budget is the $15 million request to initiate construction of the Relativistic Heavy lon Collider (RHIC). The accelerator, to be built in existing tunnels at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be a unique facility for the production and study of a form of matter - the quark-gluon plasma -that existed briefly in the early moments of the universe. This project, costing $397 million, was identified in the NSAC Long Range Plan of 1990 as its highest-priority new construction project for nuclear physics.

I should note at this point that the nuclear and high energy physics communities have a long tradition of reaching consensus decisions to build new facilities to replace existing ones that no longer provided access to forefront research. Accelerators whose capabilities were no longer competitive were either upgraded (in a few cases), decommissioned, or turned to other uses by other research disciplines. Their operations were no longer funded by nuclear physics or high energy physics budgets. My point is that construction of new facilities represents building for the future rather than propagating the past: good scientists have little interest in the latter. It is for this reason that I believe we should proceed with RHIC and with the SSC, and in this context that I would ask you to understand the Administration's policy that new construction - the SSC - should not interfere with the conduct of research in other areas.

The DOE High Energy Physics Program supports research groups at more than 100 universities and at 11 DOE laboratories. The Program provides over 90 percent of the overall funding for high energy physics in the U. S. and supports approximately 70 percent of the universitybased research. In the President's budget for FY 1991, DOE funding for

high energy physics research will increase by about 7 percent to $140 million. The Program operates three natio:al accelerator centers, each of which provides particular research capabilities that are unmatched worldwide. The Administration's FY 1991 budget increases the funding for facility operations to $279 million (up 7 percent) and provides $12 million toward construction of a $23 million upgrade of the Fermilab linac injector. Major recently completed upgrades at the Stanford Linear Collider and at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are now in operation. The accumulator/booster ring being constructed at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron is scheduled for commissioning in FY 1991. These facilities will keep the U. S. program highly competitive for the next several years, while the SSC project (discussed below) moves forward.

The Superconducting Super Collider is the essential tool required for the next major step toward unlocking the fundamental secrets of matter and energy. When completed it will be the world's preeminent facility for high energy physics research well into the next century. The scientific need for a major step in energy into the multi-TeV range began to emerge in the early 1980s, and by 1983 the High Energy Physics Advisory Committee (HEPAP) was recommending "the immediate initiation of a multi-TeV, high-luminosity proton-proton collider project...."

Research in particle physics over the iast twenty years, or so, has resulted in what I consider to be an historic advance - we have developed a theory that unifies the electromagnetic and the weak forces of nature. This theory successfully predicted the masses of the W and the Z particles, and provides quantitative agreement with a host of previously observed phenomena. The reason it took so long to achieve this unification is that the weak and the electromagnetic forces have very different manifestations at the energies we encounter in everyday experiments, and this masked the underlying symmetry the two forces. Now the question is, what causes the underlying symmetry to be broken? The SSC should provide us with definite clues to this fundamental mystery and to the related question of the origin of the masses of the kaown particles.

In March 1986 the SSC design group settled on 20 TeV per beam as the appropriate energy for the machine to investigate these questions and evolved a site-independent conceptual design for the collider that would cost $5.9 billion. After the selection of the Ellis County, Texas site for the proposed SSC Laboratory, detailed design studies incorporating new information from the magnet development program for the HERA accelerator under construction in Germany led the SSC Laboratory to conclude that the accelerator would not reach 20 TeV unless significant design changes were made. Specifically, the Laboratory proposed

increasing the aperture of the main-ring superconducting dipoles from 4 cm to 5 cm, and increasing the injection energy from 1 TeV to 2 TeV, and estimated the cost of the project at $7.8 billion.

Early this year, a HEPAP subpanel chaired by Professor Drell confirmed the critical importance of achieving the initial energy design goal of 20 TeV, concluding "If the beam energy drops appreciably below 20 TeV, one cannot guarantee sensitivity to these important new phenomena and, therefore, encounters the serious risk that the SSC might fail to deliver on its promise to elucidate the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking." The subpanel also concurred with the SSC Laboratory's proposal to modify the magnet aperture and injection energy to achieve this goal.

The President's budget for FY 1991 continues the SSC project forward with a request for $318 million. This is an increase of nearly $100 million over the FY 1990 level and it provides funding to proceed expeditiously with this project. The work will be focussed particularly on the critical issue of the 5 cm superconducting dipole magnets. I have said on the occasion of other Congressional Hearings that I view the successful fabrication, first of full size prototype magnets, and then of the industrialization of the magnet construction program as critically important milestones for the project. There is really no question in my mind that the magnets can be made to work. The important and more difficult task will be to develop manufacturing techniques for the mass production of magnets with the requisite combination of throughput and quality control. Here, too, I have faith in our industry.

The Superconducting Super Collider has enormous scientific merit. It will be critical to unraveling the fundamental mystery of the origin of the masses of the known particles. We in the Administration are committed to making this project a great success, and we propose to do so while assuring strong support for individual scientists' research in this and other areas of science. The SSC is a critical part of the Administration's initiative to strengthen America's position as a world leader in science and technology.

I will be happy to answer your questions.

Senator FORD. Thank you, Dr. Bromley. We have been joined by two distinguished colleagues, and they may have an opening statement.

Senator Bumpers, do you have an opening statement?
Senator BUMPERS. I do not. Thank you.
Senator FORD. Senator Burns.
Senator BURNS. Mr. Chairman, I do not. Thank you.
Senator FORD. Thank you both for being here today.

Dr. Bromley, I have a couple of questions. And when we depend on those in the scientific community to give us some facts and to advise us and to carry out that advice and counsel, it takes money. And that is where we come in.

So let me ask you a couple of questions along that line. Are you concerned that the SSC may end up taking resources away from other areas of physics research supported by DOE?

Dr. BROMLEY. That is a perfectly reasonable worry, Mr. Ford. But I am convinced that, first of all, the proviso that was in the series of approvals as we have gone forward, that it not be built at the expense of the underlying program, is being taken very seriously by DOE.

I have talked with Admiral Watkins specifically on this point. I have, with him, looked at the out-year projections of the DOE budget and have been assured that in fact the intent of DOE in all its planning is to build SSC without cutting into the underlying program.

I would, of course, qualify that by noting, as I am sure we agree, that as the SSC program advances toward completion, there will clearly be a need to phase down some of the existing facilities as activity shifts to the SSC. Within high energy physics itself, I fully anticipate that there will be a shift of activities from other facilities to SSC.

But I am assured by the leadership in DOE. I believe those assurances that the SSC can be built without cutting into the remaining program.

And if I could add one other point, Mr. Chairman. I feel very strongly that we as a Nation do not invest adequately in research and development as an investment in our national future. Therefore, I believe that we are not playing a zero sum game here, despite the great difficulty that I recognize we face in the years ahead, given our deficit situation, and given the other very important demands on our budgets.

Senator FORD. Well, Doctor, it was everyone's impression, I think, and everyone is probably too broad, that the $5.9 billion cost for the SSC was a solid number, and I underscore solid number, at the time we in the Congress authorized construction last year.

Now the new estimate of $8 billion is based on new information about costs and new experience with accelerator magnets, as you so detailed. And such a big increase, so soon, of $2 billion has many people concerned.

How do you assess the probability that new information may come along to cause another big cost increase?

Dr. BROMLEY. I think that Senator Johnston made an excellent point earlier. I would return to it. And that is—well, let me first of

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