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ing technologiese things on autechnology, and that sells in
The CHAIRMAN. I mean, it is not just the R&D. They may be ahead in the R&D.
Mr. BARTON. We want the jobs, and we want the manufacturing jobs in the United States.
The CHAIRMAN. Well, more than that. We want the manufacturing technology. I mean, it is like the Japanese. We invented so many of those things on automobiles, invented it here, but they learned the manufacturing technology and that is why they sell more Toyotas and other automobiles than GM sells in some respects. At least, that is why they are getting more of the market, and so that is what I am interested in, is learning that technology.
Thank you very much.
Senator FORD. Thank you, Joe. We appreciate your coming and we will continue to work with you and look forward to it.
The next witness this morning is the Honorable D. Allan Bromley, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Good morning, Mr. Bromley.
I understand you have a time schedule this morning?
Senator FORD. We will be delighted to try to accommodate you in any way in order to have your testimony, and you can highlight your statement, whatever, and I will try to limit my questions, give you some in writing, so if you want to proceed we look forward to your testimony.
STATEMENT OF DR. D. ALLAN BROMLEY, DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
Dr. BROMLEY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have provided formal testimony and I will not do more than touch on that. I would like to add a few additional points in my oral presentation with your permission.
Senator FORD. Your text will be included in the record as if given, Mr. Bromley, and you may proceed.
Dr. BROMLEY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I am of course delighted to be here with you this morning to discuss the Department of Energy's proposed budget for research and fundamental physical sciences activities, including the Superconducting Super Collider. In my view the research that is supported by the Department of Energy is a very important component of our Nation's science and technology enterprise in that it has consistently been of very high quality with very substantial benefits to our society.
In general, I would have to emphasize the very high priority that this administration places on research and development as an investment in the Nation's future. This was demonstrated, of course, in the President's budget submission to you a few months ago, and even in areas of basic research, such as the kind of research we are discussing today, I believe that investments in science and technology can pay important economic and social dividends.
Just to pick an example more or less at random, we now use po sitron-emission tomography-PET scans-not only to observe the structure but also the realtime function of the human brain. This is a remarkable technology that allows diagnosis and clinical study of the function of the brain in this, the decade of the brain. It is important to remember that this technology derived from studies that had nothing to do with this area but were designed to understand the behavior of radioisotopes and were part of the Department of Energy program.
At the same time, sir, I feel it very important to emphasize that basic research is inherently valuable above and beyond its possible utility. The expansion of knowledge that is involved-and I do not think I need to convince any of you gentlemen-is an adventure on which our society is embarked and I, for example, consider myself singularly fortunate to have been able to spend so many decades of my career on that adventure. The question that emerges simply is, what can we afford on the frontiers of human knowledge? That, gentlemen, is a decision that ultimately is yours.
The President's 1991 budget affirms the key role of science and technology in our Nation's economic competitiveness, security, and quality of life, as well as the fundamental value of scientific research. It calls for $71.2 billion in Federal research and development, an increase of 7 percent. Special consideration has been given to civilian R&D, which would rise 12 percent, and to basic research, which would go up by 8.
I think it is important, if I may, sir, to emphasize that in the formulation of such a budget there are certain fundamental criteria, and in coming up with this budget there were three that we applied. If I could take a moment to emphasize them. First, we believe that it is essential to provide support for those programs that address national needs and national security concerns. This includes, for example, such things as environmental cleanup, improvement of science and mathematics education, development of our presence in space, and the maintenance of the defense technology base.
Second, we believe that we have a major obligation to support basic research, specifically university-based, individual investigator, small-group research, which I feel still constitutes the heart and backbone of our science and technology enterprise. This is the reason, for example, why this administration supports very firmly the doubling of the NSF budget by 1993.
Third, Mr. Chairman, we have to provide, I would submit, the funding for the scientific infrastructure and facilities that will keep this country at the forefront of advancing intellectual frontiers. Large facilities are essential if American science is to remain at those research frontiers, and once the facilities such as the Superconducting Super Collider are built they will serve literally thousands of scientists and make possible scientific understanding, as we have heard before, not only of our universe but of ourselves and of the role that we play in that universe.
The influence of these priorities can be seen in the Department of Energy basic research programs that we are discussing today. Funding for each of the areas that we are discussing would rise under the 1991 budget, as I shall discuss in a moment. But first,
Mr. Chairman, with your indulgence, I would take a moment to emphasize that the kind of priorities I have just mentioned influence other areas of the DOE budget that we are not specifically addressing this morning, including basic research conducted in the Department's biological and environmental research programs.
I have in mind two specific areas: the U.S. Global Change Research Program, where the DOE portion will increase by 33 percent; the human genome project, in which DOE shares $46 million; and, in addition, DOE funding for programs in science, mathematics and engineering education, which are slated to rise by 47 percent in this coming year.
Now, funding for the Superconducting Super Collider, Mr. Chairman, as you know, falls within the budget of the General Science and Research Division, and the proposed funding for SSC in 1991 is set at $318 million, up 46 percent.
SSC has been approved by two Presidents and by the Congress. There have always been two very important provisos attached to those approvals. The first is that one-third of the cost, whatever that cost might be, must be borne from non-Federal sources. The second is that moving forward with the SSC must not cut into the underlying science and technology base of the Nation.
Both of these provisos continue to apply. If I might elaborate on the second, the administration has in fact requested increases for nuclear physics, high-energy physics and basic energy science programs within the DOE, and thus we are continuing to support the efforts of individual investigators while going forward with important national facilities.
If I could first take up the budget of basic energy sciences, the administration has requested a 14 percent increase in funding, bringing the total to $649 million. This funding will allow U.S. synchrotron light sources and other facilities to be operated at levels that would let us reap the scientific reward of the investments that you gentlemen have helped us make in these facilities.
Increased funding will also provide for continued construction of the new light sources that have been enthusiastically supported both by industrial and academic workers. This is a new era in materials science that depends on the existence and the availability of very large facilities that originally were developed in particle physics.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to simultaneously provide broad increase in the basic energy sciences for individual sciences and groups this year, except in a few explicitly identified areas of special importance; high-performance computing, which we have discussed before, sir, is one of those areas. We plan to use mechanisms that I have described previously such as the Federal Coordinating Council, FCCSET, to develop programs for these priority areas and to identify other areas where future increases in research support at the Federal level will be urgently required and justified.
The nuclear physics program in DOE is slated for a 14.2 percent increase. This program supports about 50 percent of the universitybased research in this discipline within the United States. Most of the increased funding will be used, Mr. Chairman, to permit additional utilization of some facilities in high-priority sub-areas, new instrumentation, particularly for university groups, and increased
operating costs generally. We will also provide funding for continued construction of the CEBAF accelerator and for initiation of the construction of a very exciting new project, which will be absolutely unique in the world, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which will be built using part of the investment that already was made in the colliding beam accelerator on Long Island. This collider will again take us back to the first microseconds of the life of this universe, and it is a program that I support enthusiastically.
In the high energy physics program, the 1991 budget calls for an increase of 6.7 percent. This will keep U.S. activity in this very important forefront area moving forward in parallel with the construction of the Superconducting Super Collider.
It will permit effective utilization of our three major accelerators-Fermilab, SLAC, and the Brookhaven AGS—each of which occupies a unique niche world-wide, and each of which will retain the participation of the young scientists who will be developing their careers and who will be ready when the SSC is completed to exploit that facility aggressively.
Let me turn to the SSC itself. It, in my view, is an essential tool that is required for the next major step forward in a fundamental understanding of the forces of nature and of matter itself.
Research in particle physics over the past two decades has resulted in what I consider to be an absolutely historic advance. The theory that has tied together the electromagnetic and weak forces of nature is truly an historic advance. It has been dramatically successful in predicting, ahead of measurement, the masses of both the W and Z particles and has provided a standard model, or the base for a standard model, that is by far the most successful model that has yet been advanced to describe the fundamental aspects of our universe. Within this past two years, Mr. Chairman, work that has gone on measuring the lifetime of the Z particle has given us what I again consider a truly exciting result; namely, that there are only the three families of fundamental particles and no more. And that kind of limiting on the number of particles involved in the construction of our universe is, I think, truly fundamental.
Now, in March 1986 the SSC design group settled on 20 TeV per beam as the appropriate energy for a machine to investigate the kind of questions that this understanding lays out for us. The question of where does mass come from, for example, or how did the mass and energy in the universe originate. And these are questions that underlie everything else that we understand and hope to understand about nature. So this design group developed a site-independent conceptual design that, as was stated earlier, was estimated to cost $5.9 billion. That was a conceptual design estimate.
After the selection of the Ellis County, Texas, site, the professional group that will be charged with actually building this accelerator, bringing it into operation, incorporated new information. As always in such circumstances, they were somewhat more conservative than the conceptual design group. They took into account the experience developed at the HERA accelerator in West Germany and on the basis of this, Mr. Chairman, decided that two significant design changes were required: the first reflecting the fact that in the magnets there is always, if you will, a certain small ripple effect at the end. In order to keep that ripple effect from making the performance less than promised, it became essential to increase the energy of the injector from one to two TeV to make the beam stiffer as it entered the main accelerator. Secondly, in order to avoid losing part of this precious beam as it circulates on the 54mile loop of the magnets themselves, it became essential to increase the bore of the magnet from 4 to 5 centimeters.
Now, both of those changes are reflected in additional cost. Earlier this year, a HEPAP subpanel chaired by Professor Drell, who will be testifying later this morning, confirmed the critical importance of the design goal of 20 TeV. That group concluded, and I quote, “If the beam energy drops appreciably below 20 TeV, one cannot guarantee sensitivity to important new phenomena and, therefore, encounters the serious risk that the SSC might fail to deliver on its promise to elucidate the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking."
The subpanel also concurred with the SSC Laboratory's proposal to modify the magnet aperture and injection energy to achieve the goal that had been set forward on the basis of the physics.
The President's budget for 1991 requests, as I noted, $318 million for the SSC, and we believe that this will allow the project to proceed expeditiously. Work, quite correctly, will be focused particularly on the critical issue of the 5-centimeter superconducting dipole magnets. I have said on earlier occasions that I view the successful fabrication first of full-size prototype magnets and then of magnets constructed on an industrial scale as critically important milestones for the project.
There is no question, however, Mr. Chairman, in my mind, that these magnets can and will be made to work. The important and most difficult task will be that of developing manufacturing techniques for the mass production of these magnets with the requisite combination of throughput and quality control. But here, too, let me emphasize that I have faith in our industry. Our industry can do this.
The superconducting super collider then, sir, has enormous scientific merit. It will be essential to unraveling fundamental mysteries that are at the forefront of modern physics.
We in the administration are committed to making this project a great success, and we propose to do so while providing strong support for individual scientists in this and in other areas of science. We look on the SSC as a critical part of this administration's initiative to strengthen America's position as a world leader in science and technology. And that, Mr. Chairman, concludes my opening remarks. I would welcome your questions.
[The prepared statement of Dr. Bromley follows:]