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OPINION OF AGRIPPA ON ST. PAUL'S CONDUCT.
riod, 4773. in a corner.
Julian Pe things are hidden from him; for this thing was not done Cesarea. VulgarÆra, 60.
27 King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? I know that thou believest.
28 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.
29 And Paul said, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost and altogether such as I am, except these bonds.
30 And when he had thus spoken, the king rose up, and the governor, and Bernice, and they that sat with them.
31 And when they were gone aside they talked between themselves, saying, This man doth nothing worthy of death or of bonds.
32 Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Cesar.
is prevented from completing this Journey, by returning
ACTS xxvii. 1.
41 St. Luke here relates that, “ when St. Paul was sent from
Cesarea. riod, 4773. Vulgar Era,
The fourth Journey of St. Paul. 60.
ACTS xxvïi. 2.
ACTS xxvii. 3, 4.
4 And when we had launched from thence, we sailed
ACTS xxvii. 5-8.
6 And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria?,
7 And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed unto Crete, over against Salmone ;
8 And, hardly passing it, came unto a place which is called The fair havens; nigh whereunto was the city of Lasea.
Roman soldiers, and that they were dignified by the epithet
(a) Bell. Jud. lib. i. cap. 13. sect. 7. (b) Antiq. Jud. lib. xx. cap. 6.
· Aristarchus is mentioned, Col. iv. 10. as St. Paul's fellow prisoner; and in Philem. ver. 24. as his fellow.labourer. No records remain to enable us to elucidate bis history,
? For a very curious and interesting account of the ships of Alexandria, and the trade in corn between that place and Puteoli, see Bryant's treatise on the Euroclydon, Analysis of Mytho. logy, vol. v. p. 343. 349; and Hasæus: treatise in the Critici Sacri de navibus Alexandrinis, vol. xiii. p. 717, &c.
DANGER OF THE VESSEL-CHAP. XIV.
SECTION IV. riod, 4773. Vulgar Æra,
St. Paul warns the Master of the Ship of the Danger they
ACTS xxvii. 9-13.
10 And said unto them, Sirs, I perceive that this voy-
11 Nevertheless, the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship, more than those things which were spoken by Paul.
12 And because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart thence also, if by any means they might attain to Phenice, and there to winter; which is an haven of Crete, and lieth toward the south-west and north-west.
13 And when the south wind blew softly, supposing that they had obtained their purpose, loosing thence, they sailed close by Crete.
The Ship is wrecked, but the Lives of all on Board are
saved, as St. Paul had foretold.
ACTS xxvii. 14. to the end.
Schleusner on this passage (voc. Ballû) interprets the words
This acceptation of the signification of this passage contradicts the idea that the wind Euroclydon blew from a northerly quarter, as it must in such case have driven the vessel from the island, and not towards it, as it appears to have done. The course of the wind from the south-east would impel the ship to. wards the island of Crete, though not so directly but that they might weather it, as they in fact did, and got clear, though it appears that they incurred some risk of being wrecked, when running under, or to the south of the island of Clauda, or Gaudos, which lies opposite to the port of Phenice, the place
Julian Pe- pestuous wind, called Euroclydon.
Cesarea. riod, 4773. Vulgar Æra,
15 And when the ship was caught, and could not bear 60.
up into the wind, we let her drive.
* This wind is generally supposed to be that tempestuous and
The learned Jacob Bryant (a) examines at great length the decision of Dr. Bentley, who endeavoured to prove that the Euroclydon was the same as Euro-Aquilo, in the Vulgato ; and though it is not found in any table of tbe winds among either the Greek or Roman writers, nor in the temple of the winds of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, at Athens, that it corresponded to the wind Cæcias Kautas. Mr. Bryant contends there was no such wind as Euro-Aquilo. An anonymous writer, No.38, of the Class. Journ, has drawn up the argument iu a very satisfactory
The Latin Vulgale translation, that of Castalio, and some others, render the word Euroclydon, by Euro-Aquilo, a word found no where else, and inconsistent in its construction with the priociples on which the names of tbe intermediate or compound winds are framed. Euronotus is so called, as intervening between Euro and Notus, and as partaking, as was thought, of the qualities of both. The same holds true of Libonotus, as being interposed between Libs and Notus. Both these compound winds lie in the same quarter, or quadrant of the circle, with the winds of which they were composed; and no other wind intervencs. But Eurus and Aquilo are at ninety degrees distance from each other; or, according to some writers, at fifteen degrees more, or at 105 degrees; the former lying in the south-cast quarter, and the latter in the north-east; and two winds, one of which is the east cardinal point, intervene, as Cæcias and Subsolanus. The Carbas of Vitruvius occupies the middle point between Eurus and Aquila, in his scheme of the winds ; but this never had, nor could have, the appellation of Euro-Aquilo, as it lies in a diferent quarter, and the east point is interposed, which could scarcely have been overlooked in the framing of a compound appellation. The word Euroclydon is evidently composed of Eurus, or. Evpos, the south-east wind, and alvowv, a wave, an addition bighly expressive of the character and effects of this wind, but probably chiefly applied to it when it became typhonic or tempestuous. Indeed the general character voder which Eurus is described, agrees perfecùy with
THE VESSEL IS WRECKED-CHAP. XIV.
Julian Pe. 16 And running under a certain island which is called Cesarea. riod, 4773. Clauda, we had much work to come by the boat: Valgar Æra, 60.
17 Which when they had taken up, they used helps, undergirding the ship ; and, fearing lest they should fall into the quicksands, strake sail, and so were driven.
18 And we being exceedingly tossed with a tempest, the next day they lightened the ship;
19 And the third day we cast out with our own hands the tackling of the ship.
20 And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small tempest lay on us, all hope that we should be saved was then taken away.
21 But after long abstinence, Paul stood forth in the midst of them, and said, Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me, and not have loosed from Crete, and to have gained this harm and loss.
22 And now I exhort you to be of good cheer: for
among you, but of
23 For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and whom I serve,
24 Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Cesar : and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.
25 Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer: for I believe God, that it shall be even as it was told me.
26 Howbeit, we must be cast upon a certain island.
27 But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria", about midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near tu some country:
the description of the effects of the wind wbich caused the dis-
(a) Bryant's Analysis of Mythology, vol. v.p. 330-341. Shaw's Travels,
3 The island on which St. Paul was shipwrecked was in Adria.
The Adriatic Sea in early ages comprebended only the upper part of the Sinus Ionicus, where was a city and a river, both called Adria, from one of which it took its name. It afterwards was advanced deeper in the gulf; but never so engrossed it as to lose its original name. It was called for many ages promiscuonsly, the Adriatic and Ionian Gulf. Thucydides (lib. i.), Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. lib. viji. cap. s.), and Polybius (lib.