riod, 4773. in a corner.

Julian Pe things are hidden from him; for this thing was not done Cesarea. VulgarÆra, 60.

27 King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? I know that thou believest.

28 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.

29 And Paul said, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost and altogether such as I am, except these bonds.

30 And when he had thus spoken, the king rose up, and the governor, and Bernice, and they that sat with them.

31 And when they were gone aside they talked between themselves, saying, This man doth nothing worthy of death or of bonds.

32 Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Cesar.

St. Paul being surrendered as a Prisoner to the Centurion,

is prevented from completing this Journey, by returning
to Antioch, as he had usually done.

ACTS xxvii. 1.
1 And when it was determined that we should sail into
Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners
unto one named Julius, a centurion of Augustus’ band".

41 St. Luke here relates that, “ when St. Paul was sent from
Cesarea to Rome, he was with the other prisoners committed to
the care of Julius, an officer of the Augustan cohort, that is, a
Roman colort, which had the bonour of bearing the name of the
emperor. Now it appears from the account, which Josephus
bas given in bis second book on the Jewish war (a), that when
Felix was Procurator of Judea, the Roman garrison at Cesarea
was chiefly composed of soldiers who were natives of Syria.
But it also appears, as well from the same books (b), as from the
twentieth book of his Antiquities (c), that a small body of Ro.
man soldiers was stationed there at the same time, and ibat this
body of Roman soldiers was dignified with the title of ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ, ,
or Augustan, the same Greek word being employed by Jose-
phus, as by the author of the Acts of the Apostles. This select
body of Roman soldiers had been employed by Cumanus, who
immediately preceded Felix in the Procuratorship of Judea, for
the purpose of quelling an insurrection. And when Festus,
who succeeded Felix, had occasion to send prisoners from Cesa-
rea to Rome, he would of course intrust them to the care of an
officer belonging to this select corps. Even here then we have
a coincidence, which is worthy of notice-a coincidence which
we should never have discovered, without consulting the writ-
ings of Josephus. But, that which is most worthy of notice is
tbe circumstance, that this select body of soldiers bore the title
of Augustan. This title was known of course to St. Luke, who
accompanied St. Paul from Cesarea to Rome. But that, in the
ime of the Emperor Nero, the garrison of Cesarea, which con-
isted chiefly of Syrian soldiers, contained also a small body of

Jalian Pe.

Cesarea. riod, 4773. Vulgar Era,

The fourth Journey of St. Paul. 60.

St. Paul commences his Voyage to Rome, as a Prisoner.

ACTS xxvïi. 2.
2 And entering into a ship of Adramyttium, we launch-
ed, meaning to sail by the coasts of Asia ; one Aristar-
chus', a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us.

The Ship arrives at Sidon, from whence it proceeds to


ACTS xxvii. 3, 4.
3 And the next day we touched at Sidon. And Julius
courteously entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go
unto his friends to refresh himself.

4 And when we had launched from thence, we sailed
under Cyprus, because the winds were contrary.

After changing their Ship at Tyre, they proceed to Cnidus,
Salmone in Crete, and the City of Lasea.

ACTS xxvii. 5-8.
5 And when we had sailed over the sea of Cilicia and
Pamphylia, we came to Myra, a city of Lycia.

6 And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria?,
sailing into Italy; and he put us therein.

7 And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed unto Crete, over against Salmone ;

8 And, hardly passing it, came unto a place which is called The fair havens; nigh whereunto was the city of Lasea.

Roman soldiers, and that they were dignified by the epithet
Augustan, are circumstances so minute, that no impostor of a
later age would have known them. And they prove incontes-
tably, that the Acts of the Apostles could bave been written only
by a person in the situation of St. Luke.

(a) Bell. Jud. lib. i. cap. 13. sect. 7. (b) Antiq. Jud. lib. xx. cap. 6.
(c) Bishop Marsh's Lectures, part v. pp. 82. 84.' Horne's Addenda to
2nd. edit. of Crit. Introduct. p. 741.

· Aristarchus is mentioned, Col. iv. 10. as St. Paul's fellow prisoner; and in Philem. ver. 24. as his fellow.labourer. No records remain to enable us to elucidate bis history,

? For a very curious and interesting account of the ships of Alexandria, and the trade in corn between that place and Puteoli, see Bryant's treatise on the Euroclydon, Analysis of Mytho. logy, vol. v. p. 343. 349; and Hasæus: treatise in the Critici Sacri de navibus Alexandrinis, vol. xiii. p. 717, &c.




Julian Pe

SECTION IV. riod, 4773. Vulgar Æra,

St. Paul warns the Master of the Ship of the Danger they
were inThey attempt to reach Phenice in Crete.

ACTS xxvii. 9-13.
9 Now when much time was spent, and when sailing
was now dangerous, because the fast was now already
past, Paul admonished them,

10 And said unto them, Sirs, I perceive that this voy-
age will be with hurt and much damage, not only of the
lading and ship, but also of our lives.

11 Nevertheless, the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship, more than those things which were spoken by Paul.

12 And because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart thence also, if by any means they might attain to Phenice, and there to winter; which is an haven of Crete, and lieth toward the south-west and north-west.

13 And when the south wind blew softly, supposing that they had obtained their purpose, loosing thence, they sailed close by Crete.


The Ship is wrecked, but the Lives of all on Board are

saved, as St. Paul had foretold.

ACTS xxvii. 14. to the end.
14 But not long after there arose against ito a tem-
* There is some obscurity in this expression. Commentators
are divided, whether the wind arose against the island or the
ship. By the words kat' aurñs, Boisius and Wolfius understand
apupas, the ship. Boltenius refers it to tò aložov, ver. 10. and
thinks that airns is put for autoð. Kuinoel is of opinion that
the island is referred to.

Schleusner on this passage (voc. Ballû) interprets the words
kar' aŭtīs to mean the ship. It seems however evident, that
the island is meant, from the grammatical construction, and that
it refers to try Koörnv, in the preceding line. Our translation
points, though rather obscurely, to the same meaning (“ There
arosc against it"), which is rather more clearly expressed in the
Rheims translation—(“A tempestuous wind called Euro-Aquilo
drove against it”); and the Vulgate (" Misit se contra ipsam,
Cretam, scilicet, ventus typhonicus) and Castalio's version (“In
eam procellosus ventus impegit") agree in the same manner.

This acceptation of the signification of this passage contradicts the idea that the wind Euroclydon blew from a northerly quarter, as it must in such case have driven the vessel from the island, and not towards it, as it appears to have done. The course of the wind from the south-east would impel the ship to. wards the island of Crete, though not so directly but that they might weather it, as they in fact did, and got clear, though it appears that they incurred some risk of being wrecked, when running under, or to the south of the island of Clauda, or Gaudos, which lies opposite to the port of Phenice, the place

Julian Pe- pestuous wind, called Euroclydon.

Cesarea. riod, 4773. Vulgar Æra,

15 And when the ship was caught, and could not bear 60.

up into the wind, we let her drive.
where they proposed to winter.- See Kuinoel Comm. in Lib.Hist.
N. T. in loc.--the dissertation on St. Paul's voyage.--Ap. Class.
Journ. No. 38, p. 202, and Bryant. Wolfius quotes at length
the passage in Boisius, referred to by Kuinoel.

* This wind is generally supposed to be that tempestuous and
uncertain wind, wbicb blows from all directions, and is called a
Levanter. "The Euroclydon," says Dr. Shaw,“ seems to have
varied very little from the true east point ; for, as the ship could
not bear åvropoalueiv, loof up, against it, ver. 15. but they
were obliged to let her drive, we cannot conceive, as there are
no remarkable currents in that part of the sca, and as the rud.
der could be of little use, that it could take any other course
than as the winds directed it. Accordingly, in the description
of the storm, we find that the vessel was first of all under the
island of Clauda, ver. 16. which is a little to the southward of the
parallel of that part of the coast of Crete, from whence it may bo
supposed to have been driven; then it was tossed along the bot-
tom of the Gulpha of Adria, ver. 27. and afterwards broken to
pieces, ver. 41. at Melita, which is a little to the northward of
the parallel above mentioned ; so that the directiou and courso
of this particular Euroclydon, seems to have been first at east
by north, and afterwards pretty nearly east by south.”

The learned Jacob Bryant (a) examines at great length the decision of Dr. Bentley, who endeavoured to prove that the Euroclydon was the same as Euro-Aquilo, in the Vulgato ; and though it is not found in any table of tbe winds among either the Greek or Roman writers, nor in the temple of the winds of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, at Athens, that it corresponded to the wind Cæcias Kautas. Mr. Bryant contends there was no such wind as Euro-Aquilo. An anonymous writer, No.38, of the Class. Journ, has drawn up the argument iu a very satisfactory

The Latin Vulgale translation, that of Castalio, and some others, render the word Euroclydon, by Euro-Aquilo, a word found no where else, and inconsistent in its construction with the priociples on which the names of tbe intermediate or compound winds are framed. Euronotus is so called, as intervening between Euro and Notus, and as partaking, as was thought, of the qualities of both. The same holds true of Libonotus, as being interposed between Libs and Notus. Both these compound winds lie in the same quarter, or quadrant of the circle, with the winds of which they were composed; and no other wind intervencs. But Eurus and Aquilo are at ninety degrees distance from each other; or, according to some writers, at fifteen degrees more, or at 105 degrees; the former lying in the south-cast quarter, and the latter in the north-east; and two winds, one of which is the east cardinal point, intervene, as Cæcias and Subsolanus. The Carbas of Vitruvius occupies the middle point between Eurus and Aquila, in his scheme of the winds ; but this never had, nor could have, the appellation of Euro-Aquilo, as it lies in a diferent quarter, and the east point is interposed, which could scarcely have been overlooked in the framing of a compound appellation. The word Euroclydon is evidently composed of Eurus, or. Evpos, the south-east wind, and alvowv, a wave, an addition bighly expressive of the character and effects of this wind, but probably chiefly applied to it when it became typhonic or tempestuous. Indeed the general character voder which Eurus is described, agrees perfecùy with




Julian Pe. 16 And running under a certain island which is called Cesarea. riod, 4773. Clauda, we had much work to come by the boat: Valgar Æra, 60.

17 Which when they had taken up, they used helps, undergirding the ship ; and, fearing lest they should fall into the quicksands, strake sail, and so were driven.

18 And we being exceedingly tossed with a tempest, the next day they lightened the ship;

19 And the third day we cast out with our own hands the tackling of the ship.

20 And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small tempest lay on us, all hope that we should be saved was then taken away.

21 But after long abstinence, Paul stood forth in the midst of them, and said, Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me, and not have loosed from Crete, and to have gained this harm and loss.

22 And now I exhort you to be of good cheer: for
there shall be no loss of

man's life

among you, but of
the ship.

23 For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and whom I serve,

24 Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Cesar : and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.

25 Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer: for I believe God, that it shall be even as it was told me.

26 Howbeit, we must be cast upon a certain island.

27 But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria", about midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near tu some country:

the description of the effects of the wind wbich caused the dis-
tress related in the account of this voyage.

(a) Bryant's Analysis of Mythology, vol. v.p. 330-341. Shaw's Travels,
4to. edit. p. 329. edit. 2. p. 331. Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage, &c.
No.38, of the Class. Journ. Etym. M. tupwv yap ésiv » tõdvéus opóopa
πνοή, δς και ευροκλύδων καλείται. and Hesychius τυφών ο μέγας
άνεμος. The Alexandrian ΜS. and the Vulgate read for ευροκλύδων-
&vpakúlwv, Euro-Aquilo. ap. Kuinoel.

3 The island on which St. Paul was shipwrecked was in Adria.
Kuinoel, and the commentators who adopt the general opinion,
that St. Paul was wrecked at the African Malta, interpret
Adria, in a very wide sense, of the sea between Greece, Italy,
and Africa, in such manner, that the Ionic, Cretic, and Sicilian
seas, are comprehended under that appellation. Bryant, in bis
dissertation above referred to, limits the application of the word,
to the waters of the golf, still called the Adriatic.

The Adriatic Sea in early ages comprebended only the upper part of the Sinus Ionicus, where was a city and a river, both called Adria, from one of which it took its name. It afterwards was advanced deeper in the gulf; but never so engrossed it as to lose its original name. It was called for many ages promiscuonsly, the Adriatic and Ionian Gulf. Thucydides (lib. i.), Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. lib. viji. cap. s.), and Polybius (lib.

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