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There is no subject perpetually before our chaffy: but so also is the husk of the cocoaeyes more imperfectly understood than Qua- nut, and of fifty other fruits. Now we have kerism. There is a prevalent idea, amount- no more right to judge the Quaker than the ing perhaps to a knowledge, that Quakers cocoa-nut by its exterior alone : it is not are a sect addicted to broad-brimmed hats, only unfair to the object but unjust towards collarless coats, a peculiar phraseology, silent ourselves. Let us, however, pause for a meetings, and the acquisition of money; moment over the husk itself, the quaintness, propensities which rarely engender any bet- oddity, perhaps ugliness, of the costume, the ter feeling than contempt; for the man who mode of address, &c.: it should be distinctis too well-bred to express it in the same ly understood, that these peculiarities are way cherishes the same feeling as the boy not of themselves considered in the light of who hoots after the drab-garbed Quaker in good deeds, but often serve as a protection the street. Nineteen-twentieths of our against evil deeds. The true Quaker has countrymen believe a Quaker to be infinite- a decided objection to amalgamate with that ly inferior to themselves: to the brutal, he world whose fashions and excesses he has is an object of abuse; to the rude, of ridi-conscientiously renounced; and these pecucule; to the supercilious, of contempt; to liarities act as a universally accepted apolothe kind-hearted, of pity : but all agree in igy for his not mingling in the scenes in which looking down upon him as from some very others can perceive no harm; races, hunting, decided elevation. It is difficult to dissipate theatres, balls, concerts, cards, drinks—ocfeelings which flatter our self-esteem, and cupations held to be almost necessary to whatever places another permanently below people of the world, and, to use the most us certainly administers to that quality: we circumspect phraseology, tolerated by their are pleased to have an opportunity of de- religious instructors-are forbidden to the spising, and often absolutely plume ourselves Quaker: from his youth upwards he is on despising, courteously and religiously, taught to avoid them. Abstinence from kindly and conscientiously.

these indulgences is inculcated with the first We are willing to believe that this rela- lessons of religion ; and intellect has no tive position between the Quaker and the sooner dawned than his moral education man of the world arises entirely from the begins. This abstinence from occupations fact already adduced, that Quakerism is cominon in the world has become so notoimperfectly understood : we see the husk, rious that the Quaker garb is a sufficient we taste it and find it unpalatable, bitter,' apology for non-indulgence. It would be Vol. XII. No. I.


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out of place at all public amusements; in all, ment, sprinkling of infants, bowing at the
scenes of riot and intemperance; so that, name of Jesus," &c. But Queen Elizabeth,
whatever the inclination, the Quaker, in whose memory as a Protestant Reformer is
Quaker garb, dare not mingle in such com- so highly cherished by the Episcopalian
pany. The husk, as we have termed it, Church, insisted on the re-introduction of
worn under parental authority, thus becomes these observances, and took care that they
a safeguard and protection to the young, – should be rigidly enforced. The act of
a protection even against inclination; for Conformity was passed in 1554, and by this
we are not to suppose the youth of any sect all the Romish ceremonies which the Queen
devoid of the taste for amusement which is or her advisers were pleased to continue,
a characteristic of that period of our exist- became law, in opposition to the principles
ence. In after years, the man has often to and entire spirit of the Reformation. This
look back with gratitude on the protecting of course induced violent discontent; and
power of that garb, and those peculiarities, very many of the true reformers refused to
which he felt irksome as a youth; and see- comply, and formed small associations on
ing the service they rendered to himself, he principles opposed to one or other of the
inculcates their observance on his successors, prescribed forms. Hence arose those nume.
indeed, enforces it, so long as parental author- rous bodies of Dissenters, which, in the time
ity endures. Thus, however much we may of Charles I., had become so powerful; and
be inclined to dislike or censure these pecu- which, however they might differ on other
liarities, we shall find it difficult to deny points, were unanimously agreed in denying
their utility; and we shall also find that a the divine right of Bishops, and thus ren-
portion of our feeling of contempt arose from dered themselves obnoxious to ecclesiastical
an insufficiency of our own information. We authorities. But, amidst all the distaste for
are ever too ready to smile at what we do certain forms and ceremonies, no sect ven-
not understand; and, in our journey through tured to proscribe them all, it was left for
life, we often feel the smile of scorn dissi- George Fox to found a religion on the New
pated by an enlarged power of comprehen- Testament alone; to dispense with all priest-
sion, and succeeded by respect, and perhaps craft, and priesthood, with all forms and
even by admiration. While on the subject observances and ceremonies, and to declare
of dress, we may further remark that the that worship was a spiritual act between
Quaker garb is professedly a mere retention man and his Maker, a tribute to be offered
of the usual costume of that period when independently of human assistance and unac-
Quakers were first associated as a body, and companied by any human inventions. Our
a refusal to comply with the ever-changing author informs us that-
vagaries of fashion. So much for the husk.

“ No reformer, prior to George Fox, had alto. We wish to place it in its true light, and to gether rejected ceremonies in the performance of remove those erroneous impressions which public worship, or ihe observance of any religious result from mistaking it for the kernel. rite upon admittance into a community of mem

Quakerism may be said to date its exist- bership: But he, regarding worship alone in the ence from the preaching of Fox; prior to light of a spiritual act, between the heart of man this some Quaker doctrines had been vague- waiting, and more particularly called upon his fol.

and his Maker, instiluled a worship of silent ly proinulged, but, under the majestic and lowers to rely upon that measure of divine light energetic mind of Fox, they received form or grace which it has pleased God to place in ihe and character; they became distinct and bearts of all men for their edification, guidance, intelligible; so that to him alone must be and right understanding of his revealed law, proattributed the establishment of the sect. It vided they are willing to submit to its silent teachwill be recollected by all who are conver-ings. He considered that it is only by the free sant with the history of the Reformation, becomes sanctified, and that, by it alone, men can

operation of this divine principle that the heart that the participators in that great move- become spiritually baptized into the Church of ment aimed at a far more extensive subver- Christ, or can become spiritually partakers of the sion of the ceremonies of the Romish Church body and blood of our Saviour. Which inward than they had the power to achieve ; thus and spiritual participation is the only true essential we find the more eminent of these reformers of these ceremonies, as practised by most of the inveighing bitterly against certain observan- Christian churches. Neither had any one, before ces, which, as they said, “plainly savor of this, called the attention of mankind so particupopery." Among such objectionable ob- Jarly to the marked distinction between the old

law of Moses and the new law of the Gospel ; servances are enumerated, “ figured music pointing out that the former, with its ceremonies and organs, the forms of sponsors, the use and ordinances, was expressly given to the Jews, of the cross in baptism, kneeling at the sacra- I and to them only; and, as St. Paul says, is to be

-P. 10.

looked upon by us as a schoolmaster to prepare | secration of churches and churchyards, all us for the better and more spiritual dispensation forms of prayer, written sermons; all were which ended the old law,* and in whose glad of no avail : churches themselves were sutidings the whole Gentile world are made partici: perfluous, and the sacredness of any edifice pators as well as the Jews. Nor had any one before endeavoured to establish a system of public declared a fable. This was atheism and worship of a nature so entirely spiritual, allowing treason in the eyes of the clergy, and of all of no prescribed act, either of prayer or of exhor- over whom their influence extended. tation. His object was to lead people back to the The boldness with which Fox preached primitive simplicity and purity of the Gospel pre these doctrines is shown in his own “ Jourcepts, to which the superstitious ceremonies of nal,” but there are other authentic sources the Romish Church were so glaringly opposed; to of information, which bear ample testimony call them off from all dependence upon outward ceremonies, to that inward and spiritual religion

to the courage he displayed by which alone they can know Christ to be their

« « When I heard the bell toll to call the peoGod and their Saviour; and to convince them that the mere knowledge and belief of what Christ had ple together in the steeple house, it struck at my done and suffered for them when personally upon life, for it was like a market bell to gather people earth, was not of itself sufficient to obtain this, together, that the priest might set forth his wares

for sale. Oh! the vast sums of money that are without a further knowledge, through the Holy Spirit, of his righteous government in their hearts.” got by the trade they make of selling the Scrip

iures, and by their preaching, from the highest

bishop to the lowest priest. What one trade in Since Christianity was first preached by the world is comparable to it? Notwithstanding the immediate followers of Christ, no such the Scriptures were given forth freely, Christ com doctrine as this had ever been broached. manded his ministers to preach freely, and the Peter, Mahomet, Luther, Wycliffe, Calvin, all covetous hitelings and diviners for money. But

prophets and apostles denounced judgment against Wesley, and the thousand minor powers in this free spirit of the Lord Jesus was I sent that have succeeded, all had their ceremo- forth to declare the word of life and reconciliation nies performed by priests; all looked on the freely, that all might come to Christ, who gives priest as a being whose offices were essen- freely, and renews up into the image of God, which tial to the safety of the soul. George Fox man and woman were in before they fello”. alone, of all the world, repudiated priestcraft, and dared to deny the right of a hu

Here we are presented with the origin of man mediator between God and man. He

the Quaker tenet against a paid clergy of acknowledged but one mediator; one whose services were not to be doled out in pittan- their founder the Quakers conceive them

any description ; and from the doctrines of ces apportioned to the coin returned. It selves called upon to protest openly against therefore is not remarkable that the priest- such a ministration of the Gospel, as being hood of whatever denomination should rise as one man against the Quaker, and de- contrary to the special injunctions of Christ, nounce him from the pulpit as an atheist Christian church. Hence, they refuse to

and the practices of the apostles and early and a traitor; an enemy alike to religion pay all tithes or church demands, patiently and to law. Such was the case ; and when submitting to the legal penalties attached to we remember how vast, how subtle, how such refusals, and to the rapacity of their ramified, how extended is that power and enemies, who, in the early periods of the influence he attacked, we cannot wonder society, carried their plunder to so great that the Quaker was hunted from place to

an excess as not only to involve many in place like a beast, was torn from his home total ruin, but also to subject them to long and family, was thrown into the most filthy and cruel imprisonments, which, in many dungeons, was flogged, maimed, crippled, cases of particular hardship, terminated in and murdered, merely on a false charge of death. Hence, in 1662, twenty died in difirreligion and disaffection, originating entirely ferent prisons in London, and seven more in the vengeance of a priesthood whose after their liberation, from their ill-treatoffices he declined, and with whose emolu- ment. In 1664 twenty-five died, and in ments the spread of such opinions must of

1665, fifty-two more. The number which necessity interfere. The license for mar- perished in this way, throughout the whole riage, the marriage form, the churching of kingdom, amounted to three hundred and women, the sprinkling of infants, the admi

sixty-nine. nistration of the sacrament, the ceremony of

It would be a subject of interesting inconfirmation, the funeral service, the con- quiry, but foreign to the objects of a literary . Gal. iii. 24, 25.

| review, whether the grand features of this

p. 46.

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