ter. So no more fibbing, Schlosser, if you satire were obscure by comparison withplease.

Voltaire's. True, the Frenchman's examBut there remains behind all these la- ple of a scholar, viz. the French Salmabors of Pope, the “Dunciad,” which is sius, was most accomplished. But so was by far his greatest. I shall not, within the the Englishman's scholar, viz. the English narrow bounds assigned to me, enter upon Bentley. Each was absolutely without a a theme so exacting ; for, in this instance, rival in his own day. But the day of I should have to fight not against Schlosser Bentley was the very day of Pope. Pope's only, but against Dr. Johnson, who has man had not even faded; whereas the day thoroughly misrepresented the nature of of Salmasius, as respected Voltaire, had the “ Dunciad,” and, consequently, could gone by for more than half a century. As not measure its merits. Neither he, nor to Dacier, “which Dacier, Bezonian :” Schlosser, in fact, ever read more than a The husband was a passable scholar-but few passages of this admirable poem. But madame was a poor sneaking fellow, fit onthe villany is too great for a brief exposure. ly for the usher of a boarding-school. All One thing only I will notice of Schlosser's this, however, argues Schlosser's two-fold misrepresentations. He asserts (not when ignorance---first, of English authors; sedirectly speaking of Pope, but afterwards, cond, of the “ Dunciad ;) ---else he would under the head of Voltaire) that the French have known that even Dennis, mad John author's trivial and random Temple de Gout Dennis, was a much cleverer man than "shows the superiority in this species of most of those alluded to by Voltaire. poetry to have been greatly on the side of Cibber, though slightly a coxcomb, was the Frenchman." Let's hear a reason, born a brilliant man, Aaron Hill was so though but a Schlosser reason, for this lustrous, that even Pope's venom fell off opinion: know, then, all men whom it con- spontaneously, like rain from the plumage cerns, that "the Englishman's satire only of a pheasant, leaving him to "mount far bit such people as would never have been upwards with the swans of Thames "---and, known without his mention of them, whilst finally, let it not be forgotten, that Samuel Voltaire selected those who were still call- Clarke Burnet, of the Charterhouse, and ed great, and their respective schools." Sir Isaac Newton, did not wholly escape Pope's men, it seems, never had been fa- tasting the knout ; if that rather impeaches mous-Voltaire's might cease to be so, but the equity, and sometimes the judgment of as yet they had not ceased ; as yet they Pope, at least it contributes to show the commanded interest. Now mark how 1 groundlessness of Schlosser's objection--will put three bullets into that plank, rid- that the population of the Dunciad, the dle it so that the leak shall not be stopped characters that filled its stage, were inconby all the old hats in Heidelberg, and siderable. Schlosser will have to swim for his life. First, he is forgetting that, by his own previous confession, Voltaire, not less than Pope, had “immortalized a great many It is, or it would be, if Mr. Schlosser insignificant persons ;" consequently, had were himself more interesting, luxurious to it been any fault to do so, each alike was pursue his ignorance as to facts, and the caught in that fault; and insignificant as craziness of his judgment as to the valuthe people might be, if they could be "im- ation of minds, throughout his comparison mortalized," then we have Schlosser him- of Burke with Fox. The force of antitheself confessing to the possibility that poetic sis brings out into a feeble life of meaning, splendor should create a secondary interest what, in its own insulation, had been lanwhere originally there had been none. Se-guishing mortally into nonsense. The condly, the question of merit does not rise darkness of his " Burke ” becomes visible from the object of the archer, but from the darkness under the glimmering that steals style of his archery. Not the choice of upon it from the desperate common-places victims, but the execution done is what of his “ Fox.” Fox is painted exactly as counts. Even for continued failures it he would have been painted fifty years ago would plead advantageously, much more by any pet subaltern of the Whig club, enfor continued and brilliant successes, that joying free pasture in Devonshire House. Pope fired at ån object offering no sufficient The practised reader knows well what is breadth of mark. Thirdly, it is the gross- coming. Fox is “ formed after the model est of blunders to say that Pope's objects of of the ancients ”_Fox is “simple”---Fox


is “natural"'---Fox is “chaste"---Fox is to be free from the throes of growth. “ forcible;" Why yes, in a sense, Fox is Where expansion is hopeless, it is little even forcible :" but then, to feel that he glory to have escaped distortion. Nor is it was so, you must have heard him ; where any blame that the rich fermentation of as, for forty years he has been silent. We grapes should disturb the transparency of of 1847, that can only read him, hearing their golden fluids. Fox had nothing new Fox described as forcible, are disposed to to tell us, nor did he hold a position amongst recollect Shakspeare's Mr. Feeble amongst men that required or would even have alFalstaff's recruits, who also is described as lowed him to tell anything new. He was forcible, viz. as the “most forcible Fee-helmsman to a party; what he had to do, ble.” And, perhaps, a better description though seeming to give orders, was simply could not be devised for Fox himself---so to repeat their orders---"Port your helm, feeble was he in matter, so forcible in man- said the party ; “ Port it is,” replied the ner; so powerful for instant effect, so im- helmsman. But Burke was no steersman ; potent for posterity. In the Pythian fury he was the Orpheus that sailed with the of his gestures---in his screaming voice---in Argonauts; he was their seer, seeingʻmore his directness of purpose, Fox would now in his visions than he always understood remind you of some demon steam-engine on himself; he was their watcher through the a railroad, some Fire-king or Salmoneus, hours of night; he was their astrological that had counterfeited, because he could interpreter. Who complains of a prophet not steal, Jove's thunderbolts ; hissing, for being a little darker of speech than a bubbling, snorting, fuming; demoniac gas, post-office directory? or of him that reads you think--gas from Acheron must feed the stars for being sometimes perplexed ? that dreadful system of convulsions. But But, even as to facts, Schlosser is always pump out the imaginary gas, and, behold! blundering. Post-office directories would be it is ditch-water, Fox, as Mr. Schlosser of no use to him; nor link-boys; nor blazrightly thinks, was all of a piece---simple ing tar-barrels. He wanders in a fog such in his manners, simple in his style, simple as sits upon the banks of Cocytus. He in his thoughts. No waters in him turbid fancies that Burke, in his life-time, was with new crystallizations; everywhere the popular. Of course, it is so natural to be eye can see to the bottom. No music in popular by means of wearisome tedioushim dark with Cassandra meanings.

" that Schlosser, above all people, indeed, disturb decent gentlemen by “al- should credit such a tale. Burke has been lusions to all the sciences, from the integral dead just fifty years, come next autumn. calculus and metaphysics to navigation !" I remember the time from this accident, Fox would have seen you hanged first. that my own nearest relative stepped on a Burke, on the other hand, did all that, and day of October, 1797, into that same suite other wickedness besides, which fills an 8vo of rooms at Bath (North Parade) from page in Schlosser ; and Schlosser crowns which, six hours before, the great man had his enormities by charging him, the said been carried out to die at Beaconsfield. Burke (p. 99), with “ wearisome tedious- is, therefore, you see, fifty years. Now,

Among my own acquaintances are ever since then, his collective works have several old women, who think on this point been growing in bulk by the incorporation precisely as Schlosser thinks ; and they go of juvenile essays (such as bis “Eurofurther, for they even charge Burke with pean Settlements,” his “Essay on the Sub“ tedious wearisomeness." Oh, sorrowful lime,” on “Lord Bolingbroke,” &c.,) or woe, and also woeful sorrow, when an Ed (as more recently) by the posthumous pubmund Burke arises, like a cheeta or hunting lication of his MSS.;* and yet, ever since leopard coupled in a tiger-chase with a German poodle. To think, in a merciful “Of his MSS."- And, if all that I have heard spirit, of the jungle---barely to contem- be true, much has somebody to answer for, that so plate, in a temper of humanity, the incom- little has been yet published. The two executors of prehensible cane-thickets, dark and bristly,

Burke were Dr. Lawrence, of Doctors' Commons,

a well-known M.P. in forgotten days, and Windinto which that bloody cheeta will drag that ham, a man too like Burke in elasticity of mind unoffending poodle!

ever' to be spoken of in connexion with forgotten But surely the least philosophic of read things. Which of them was to blame, I know not. ers, who hates philosophy “ as toad or asp,” But Mr. R. Sharpe, M.P., twenty-five years ago, must yet be aware, that, where new growths of his conversation, used to say, that one or both of are not germinating, it is no sort of praise the executors had offered him (the river) a huge

Fox, ness,



then, in spite of growing age and growing compass, could not, from necessity of nabulk, are more in demand. At this time, ture, abstain from such speculations. For half a century after his last sigh, Burke is a man to reach a remote posterity, it is popular; a thing, let me tell you, Schlos- sometimes necessary that he should throw ser, which never happened before to a wri- his voice over to them in a vast arch-it ter steeped to his lips in personal politics. must sweep a parabola-which, therefore, What a tilth of intellectual lava must that rises high above the heads of those next to man have interfused amongst the refuse and him, and is heard by the bystanders but scoria of such mouldering party rubbish, to indistinctly, like bees swarming in the force up a new verdure and laughing har- upper air before they settle on the spot fit vests, annually increasing for new genera- for hiving. tions ! Popular he is now, but popular he See, therefore, the immeasurableness of was not in his own generation. And how misconception. Of all public men, that could Schlosser have the face to say that he stand confessedly in the first rank as to was ? Did he never hear the notorious an- splendor of intellect, Burke was the least ecdote, that at one period Burke obtained popular at the time when our blind friend the sobriquet of “ dinner-bell ?” And why? Schlosser assumes him to have run off with Not as one who invited men to a banquet the lion's share of popularity. Fre, on by his gorgeous eloquence, but one that the other hand, as the leader of opposition gave a signal to shoals in the House of was at that time a household term of love Commons, for seeking refuge in a literal or reproach, from one end of the island to dinner from the oppression of his philoso. the other. To the very children playing in phy. This was, perhaps, in part a scoff of the streets, Pitt and Fox, throughout his opponents. Yet there must have been Burke's, generation, were pretty nearly as some foundation for the scoff, since, at an broad distinctions, and as much a war-cry, earlier stage of Burke's career, Goldsmith as English and French, Roman and Punic. had independently said, that this great Now, however, all this is altered. As reorator

gards the relations between the two Whigs “ went on refining,

whom Schlosser so steadfastly delighteth to And thought of convincing, whilst they thought of misrepresent, dining.”

“Now is the winter of our discontent I blame neither party. It ought not to be

Made glorious summer expected of any popular body that it should for that intellectual potentate, Edmund be patient of abstractions amongst the in- Burke, the man whose true mode of power tensities of party-strife, and the immediate has never yet been truly investigated; whilst necessities of voting. No deliberative body Charles Fox is known only as an echo is would less have tolerated such philosophic known, and for any real effect of intellect exorbitations from public business than the

upon this generation, for anything but "the agora of Athens, or the Roman senate. So far the error was in Burke, not in the House 1807 sleeps where the carols of the larks

whistling of a name,” the Fox of 1780---of Commons. Yet, also, on the other side, are sleeping, that gladdened the springit must be remembered, that an intellect of tides of those years sleeps with the roses Burke's combining power and enormous that glorified the beauty of their summers.* travelling trunk, perhaps an Imperial or a Salisbury • A man in Fox's situation is sure, whilst living, boot (equal to the wardrobe of a family), filled with to draw after him trains of sycophants; and it is the Burke's MSS., on the simple condition of editing evil necessity of newspapers the most independent, them with proper annotations. An Oxford man, and that they must swell the mob of sycophants. The also the celebrated Mr. Christian Curwen, then public compels them to exaggerate the true propormember for Cumberland, made, in my hearing, the tions of such people as we see every hour in our same report. The Oxford man, in particular, being own day. Those who, for the moment, modify, or questioned as to the probable amount of MS., depos- may modify the national condition, become preposed, that he could not speak upon oath to the cubical terous idols in the eyes of the gaping public; bat contents; but this he could say, that, having stripped with the sad necessity of being too utterly trodden up his coat sleeve, he had endeavored, by such poor under foot after they are shelved, unless they live in machinery as nature had allowed him, to take the men's memory by something better than speeches in soundings of the trunk, but apparently there were Parliament. Having the usual tate, Fox was comnone; with his middle finger he could find no bot- plimented, whilst living, on his knowledge of Ho tom; for it was stopped by a dense stratum of MS.; meric Greek, which was a jest: he knew neither below which, you know, other strata might lie ad more nor less of Homer, than, fortunately, most Enginfinitum. For anything proved to the contrary, the lish gentlemen of his rank; quite enough that is to trunk might be bottomless,

read the “ Diad" with unaffected pleasure, far too Vol. XII. No. IV.


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code never pardoned in villains of low degree.

Junius was in the situation of Lord Byron's Schlosser talks of Junius, who is to him, Lara, or, because Lara is a plagiarism, as to many people, more than entirely the of Harriet Lee's Kraitzrer. But this man, enigma of an enigma, Hermes Trismegistus, because he had money, friends, and talents, or the mediæval Prester John. Not only instead of going to prison, took himself off are most people unable to solve the enigma, for a jaunt to the continent. From the but they have no idea of what it is that continent, in full security and in possession they are to solve. I have to inform Schlos- of the otium cum dignitate, he negotiated ser that there are three separate questions with the government, whom he had alarmabout Junius, of which he has cridently no ed by publishing the secrets which he had distinct knowledge, and cannot, therefore, stolen.' He succeeded. He sold himself have many chances to spare for settling to great advantage. Bought and sold he them. The three questions are these :-A. was; and of course it is understood that, Who was Junius ? ' B. What was it that if you buy a knave, and expressly in conarmed Junius with a power so unaccounta- sideration of his knaveries, you secretly unble at this day over the public mind ? C. dertake not to hang him. “Honor bright !” Why, having actually exercised this power, Lord Barrington might certainly have inand gained under his masque far more than dicted Junius at the Old Bailey, and

had a he ever hoped to gain, did this Junius not reason for wishing to do so ; but George come forward in his own person, when all III., who was a party to the negotiation, the legal danger had long passed away, and all his ministers, would have said, with to claim a distinction that for him (among fits of laughter—“Oh, come, now, my lord, the vainest of men) must have been more you must not do that. For, since we have precious than his heart's blood ? The two bargained for a price to send him out as questions, B and C, I have examined in past a member of council to Bengal, you see times, and I will not here repeat my expla- clearly that we could not possibly hang him nations further than to say, with respect to before we had fulfilled our bargain. Then the last, that the reason for the author not it is true we might hang him after he comes claiming his own property was this, because back. But, since the man (being a clever he dared not; because it would have been man) has a fair chance in the interim of infamy for him to avow himself as Junius; rising to be Governor-General, we put it to because'it would have revealed a crime and your candor, Lord Barrington, whether it published a crime in his own earlier life, would be for the public service to hang his for which many a man is transported in our excellency ?” In fact, he might probably days, and for less than which many a man have been Governor-General, had his bad has been in past days hanged, broken on the temper not overmastered him. Had he not wheel, burned, gibbeted, or impaled. To quarrelled so viciously with Mr. Hastings, say that he watched and listened at his it is ten to one that he might, by playing master's key-holes, is nothing. It was not his cards well, have succeeded' him. As it key-holes only that he made free with, but was, after enjoying an enormous salary, he keys; he tampered with his master's seals; returned to England—not Governor-Genehe committed larcenies; not, like a brave ral, certainly, but still in no fear of being man, risking his life on the highway, but hanged. Instead of hanging him, on petty larcenies—larcenies in a dwelling- second thoughts, Government gave him a house-larcenies under the opportunities of red ribbon. He represented a borough in a confidential situation--crimes which for- Parliament. He was an authority upon

Inmerly, in the days of Junius, our bloody dian affairs. He was caressed by the Whig little to revise the text of any three lines, without party: He sat at good men's tables. He making himself ridiculous. The excessive slender- gave for toasts-Joseph Surface sentiments ness of his general literature, English and French, at dinner parties—" The man that betrays" may be seen in the letters published by his Secre- | [something or other]—“the man that tary, Trotter. But his fragment of a History, pub- sneaks into” (other men's portfolios, perlished by Lord Holland, at two guineas, currently sold for two shillings (not two pence, or else haps] -—" is ”-aye, what is he? Why he I have been defrauded of ls. 10d.), most of all pro- is, perhaps, a Knight of the Bath, has a claims the tenuity of his knowledge. He looks sumptuous mansion in St. James's Square, upon Malcolm Laing as a huge oracle; and having dies full of years and honor, has a pompread even less than Hume, a thing not very easy, with great naiveté cannot guess where Hume pick- ous funeral, and fears only some such epied up his facts.

taph as this—“Here lies, in a red ribbon,

the man who built a great prosperity on long since disposed of. In fact, it is not too the basis of a great knavery." I complain strong a thing to say—and Chief Justice heavily of Mr. Taylor, the very able un- Dallas did say something like it—that if masquer of Junius, for blinking the whole Mr. Taylor is not right, if Sir Philip Franquestions B and C.

He it is that has set- cis is not Junius, then was no man ever yet tled the question A, so that it will never hanged on sufficient evidence. Even conbe re-opened by a man of sense. A man fession is no absolute proof. Even confesswho doubts, after really reading Mr. Tay- ing to a crime, the man may be mad. lor's work, is not only a blockhead, but an Well, but at least seeing is believing: if irreclaimable blockhead. It is true that the court sees & man commit an assault, several men, among them Lord Brougham, will not that suffice ? Not at all : ocular whom Schlosser (though hating him, and delusions on the largest scale are common. kicking him) cites, still profess scepticism. What's a court ? Lawyers have no better But the reason is evident: they have not eyes than other people. Their physics are read the book, they have only heard of it. often out of repair, and whole cities have They are unacquainted with the strongest been known to see things that could have arguments, and even with the nature of the no existence. Now, all other evidence is evidence.* Lord Brougham, indeed, is held to be short of this blank seeing or generally reputed to have reviewed Mr. Tay- blank confessing. But I am not at all sure of lor's book. That may be : it is probable that. Circumstantial evidence, that mulenough : what I am denying is not at all tiplies indefinitely its points of internexus that Lord Brougham reviewed Mr. Taylor, with known admitted facts, is more impresbut that Lord Brougham read Mr. Taylor. sive than direct testimony. If you detect And there is not much wonder in that, when a fellow with a large sheet of lead that by we see professed writers on the subject many (to wit 70) salient angles, that by bulky writers—writers of Answers and Re- tedious (to wit 30) reëntrant angles, fits futations, dispensing with the whole of Mr. into and owns its sisterly relationship to all T.'s book, single paragraphs of which would that is left of the lead upon your roof-this have forced them to cancel their own. The tight fit will weigh more with a jury than possibility of scepticism, after really read- even if my lord chief justice should jump ing Mr. T.'s book, would be the strongest into the witness-box, swearing that, with exemplification upon record of Sancho's judicial eyes, he saw the vagabond cutting proverbial reproach, that a man “wanted the lead whilst he himself sat at breakfast; better bread than was made of wheat or even than if the vagabond should prowould be the old case renewed from the test before this honorable court that he did scholastic grumblers “that some men do cut the lead in order that he (the said vanot know when they are answered.” They gabond) might have hot rolls and coffee have got their quietus, and they still con- as well as my lord the witness. If Mr. tinue to maunder" on with objections Taylor's body of evidence does not hold

water, then is there no evidence extant * Even in Dr. Francis's Translation of Select upon any question, judicial or not judicial, Speeches from Demosthenes, which Lord Brougham naturally used a little in his own labors on

that will. that theme, there may be traced several peculiarities But I blame Mr. Taylor heavily for of diction that startle us in Junius. Sir P. had them throwing away the whole argument applicafrom his father. And Lord Brougham ought not to ble to B and C; not as any debt that resthave overlooked them. The same thing may be seen in the notes to Dr. Francis's translation of Horace.ed particularly upon him to public justice ; These points, though not independently of much im but as a debt to the integrity of his own portance, become far more so in combination with book. That book is now a fragment; adothers. The reply made to me once by a publisher mirable as regards A; but (by omitting B fitted to lower Mr. Taylor's investigation with a and C) not sweeping the whole area of the stranger to the long history of the dispute. “I feel," problem. There yet remains, therefore, he said, " the impregnability of the case made out the dissatisfaction which is always likely to by Mr. Taylor. But the misfortune is, that I have arise--not from the smallest allegatio falsi, seen so many previous impregnable cases made out for other claimants." Aye, that would be unfortu- but from the large suppressio veri. B,

But the misfortune for this repartee was, that which, on any other solution than the one I I, for whose use it was intended, not being in the have proposed, is perfectly unintelligible, predicament of a stranger to the dispute, having now becomes plain enough. To imagine a Mr. Taylor's) to be false in their statements; after heavy, coarse, hard-working, government, which their arguments signified nothing. seriously affected by such a bauble as they

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