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D'Amaull, three or four years ago, at the Baron Darricau, felt himself obliged “ to mouth of the Gaboon, on the pretext of protest against any treaty with the Gaboon making it a mere depot for the stores of chiefs without the approbation of the their cruisers, and for the protection of French government;" adding, “ that every their trade on the river. Over the heads treaty having for its object an establishment of the defenceless people they have now, of what nature soever is null by virtue of prehowever, assumed the sovereignty of the viously existing treaties made with France." country, forbidding any other flag to be The Ethiope made no treaties with the chiefs; shown than the flag of France. All ves- but simply ascended the Gaboon, considersels entering the Gaboon are compelled to ably above the point reached by the Baron report themselves at Fort D'Amaull; and Darricau, whose board, in charge of a nato deposit their registers and papers with tive, was exhibited for a consideration. The the commandant till their departure from French will here re-enact the mysteries of the river. With this regulation the Ethi- Tahiti, unless firmly and promptly met in ope had to comply. But so deeply rooted competition by the long established commust have been the alarm of the French/ merce of Britain on the Gaboon from Ferrespecting the motives of the English mis- nando Po. They have no right to close up sion, that the day after the Ethiope's re- the commerce of this African river. turn to Fort D'Amaull, Monsieur, the
From the Edinburgh Review.
THE PAPAL STATES-PIUS IX.
1 Degli ultimi Casi di Romagna: di Massimo d'Azeglio. Lugano : 1846. 2. The present Movement in Italy. By the Marquis Massimo D'Azeglio. London:
There is once more a chance for Italy; and that the right divine to govern wrong" it comes from an unexpected quarter-from would be ever voluntarily resigned by the Rome itself. On crossing from the Roman possessor of it? Certainly not the Italian territory into Tuscany, every tourist, struck people : nor the historians of the successors by the contrast, has long exclaimed—“See of St. Peter-from Hildebrand to Gregory the abominable misgovernment of the Pa- the Sixteenth. Truly Pius IX. has taken trimony of the Church.” Political philoso- kings, and Christendom, and Austria, by phers have long quoted its condition as surprise. proof positive and irresistible, of the effects It is no slight evil to an English diocese, of putting temporal power into spiritual when its Bishop is more bent on aggrandizhands; and as being the crowning example ing a family than on looking after his clergy of Clarendon's celebrated maxim—that the and his poor-on saving money than on savclergy took worse measures of affairs than ing souls. What a terrible thought, thereany other class that could read and write.fore, that nepotism (both word and thing) Italian patriots have long mourned over the should have come out of the treasures of the unfortunate geographical position of the Vatican, to corrupt the world by fatal exPapal States, stretching from sea to sea, amples of a perpetual breach of trust-in and thus offering an insurmountable barrier what ought to have been the purest of all to any prospect of a sound Italian nation- earthly places! and that the worst governality. The doctrine of the Holy Alliance ed state in Europe should have been that, (and latterly of the Monarch of the Barri- which was under the immediate authority cades), that political reforms must come of the Holy See ! Yet there is another from above, and that whenever it was other thought almost as painful. Contrary to all wise, foreign sovereigns should interfere, for reasonable expectation, and beyond our the protection of their order-appeared to most sanguine hopes, Providence has at shut the gates of hope on Italy. For, under length raised up a reforming Pope ; for the these circumstances (as in our protected removal of such fearful contradictions, and states in India), who could have anticipated for the deliverance of these unhappy provinces from the misery and scandal of many the Austrian; and that there should never ages. Pius IX. is a ruler, resolute as Lu- arise an Italian nationality or an Italian ther, yet gentler than Melancthon. His nation.
His nation. The instant, therefore, that a own people fall on their knees, at his amnes- spark of life appears in Italy, the hoof of ties and ordinances, with a deeper reverence the Croat is set in motion to tread it out. than under his most solemn benedictions It is true, after the disturbances of 1830 before the steps of St. Peter's. The arms, in the Papal states had been put down, which were turned against his predecessors, that Austria went through the form of joinin periodical insurrections from 1820 tó ing the other four great powers (May, 1831) 1845, are now all united enthusiastically in a memorandum to Gregory XVI., then in his defence. Wherever he appears, newly elected Pope, recommending certain gratior it dies, et soles melius nitent; and the reforms as essentially necessary. This was, political horizon is clearing day by day however, a pure formality : for, on Cardinal from Civita Vecchia to Ancona. Yet, in Bernetti's attempting to give effect in part the face of virtues so unexampled, and of to the recommendation, Austria interfered. the festive happiness of a whole people, Her interests are so diametrically opposed what at this moment do we see arrayed to those of Italy, that Azeglio assumes it as against him ?-Austrian bayonets glittering a fact, of which there can be no question ; across the Po, and the treacherous combi- and he assumes accordingly, that no jusnations of the wily spider of the Palais tice is to be expected from her. Royal! Pius IX. might have made his peo- But what are we to say to France ? That ple miserable with impunity. His prede- great country can have no manner of intercessors had done so. But let him try to est in the degradation of Italy. Quite the make them happy, and it is at the peril of contrary. But, if her government had his crown-perhaps of his life. This is the frankly played into the hands of Austria reverence of Roman Catholic princes for the from the first, its policy would not have head of their Church—this his reward for been more fatal to Italy than it actually daring to introduce the virtues of the Gos- has been ; while it would have saved that pel among the principles of his civil govern- unhappy country from no end of hopes and ment! Father Ventura, the celebrated struggles--encouraged only to be betrayed. Theatine preacher, declared not long ago, The French occupation of Ancona, as exthat his Holiness had not a friend among plained by Cassimir Perrier to the ChamEuropean Sovereigns—except England and ber in 1832, had two objects: in the first the Turk.- Vi assicuro, che il Papa non ha, instance, the protection of the Papal states fra i Sovrani, nessuno amico, eccetuati sem- against Austria ; but, in the next place, pre pero l' Inglese e il Turco. We still the introduction of those administrative hope, however, notwithstanding what passed reforms, which are a better security to gonot long ago at Cologne, that Prussia might vernments than the repression of periodical also have been added.
rebellions. Ancona, however, was afterIt is a wretched thing to have an interest wards evacuated; with no further security that anybody should be made unhappy for this last object than may be supposed through the misconduct of another. Yet to be contained in the brilliant speeches this was long the relation of Russia to Po- which M. Guizot and M. Duchatel (the land. It is now the relation of Austria to present ministers), as well as the Duc de Italy. Russia prevented Poland from im- Broglie and M. Thiers, made on the occaproving her constitution, that she might be sion. And now that the Pope himself has so much the more easily dismembered and turned reformer, what mist is again poisonabsorbed. From her Lombardo-Venetian ing the policy of the Tuileries > Instead of provinces, Austria watches every movement co-operating to raise up two noble nations in the rest of Italy, with the same object. in the two peninsulas, the French people, She has, unfortunately, a direct interest, so proud (and justly) of their nationalitythat the several members of the great Ita- are made to look like conniving parties to lian family should continue jealous of each other : that the Italian part of Italy should infame società Ferdinandea), we have to thank the be more uneasy and worse governed* than tional and truly Italian spirit (Byron called them
generous nature of the Romagnuoli, and their na
"two-legged leopards'). They prefer any evil be*“ Austria knows this well; and knows, too, how fore submission to the common enemy. But the to profit by it. If the subjects of the Papal govern- Papal government, we must admit, has left nothing ment do not seek to be joined to Austria (as many undone, on its side, to reduce them to accept this believe and say, and propagate the thought, colla | hard alternative."-Azeglio, 1845.5
some secret compact, by which France is slaughters, those exiles, of the tears of so many to give up Italy to Austria, on condition unhappy persons, you will have to render an acthat Spain is delivered over to the matri- count to God-you, their governor, and not your monial designs of the house of Orleans !-a Their blood will be rained down upon your head;
wretched subjects, trodden under your feet. turn of affairs this, surely, in which France their sorrows, their tears, will be judged of by that has no more interest than glory. It will tribunal before which there come neither crowns, be a difficult task for any future historian nor sceptres, nor 'tiaras-things which have of “ modern European civilization ” to re- mouldered in the grave—but where only is preconcile any conscientious sympathy in its sented the naked human soul, with no safeguard progress, with these transactions. Who- against the sword of eternal justice, but the ever wishes to study severe morality on pa- will be weighed in those incorruptible scales, in
shield of its own innocence; where your deeds per, will do well to read M. Guizot's writ- which the least of injuries done to the least of ings: whoever wishes to study loose moral- men, weighs heavier than all the thrones and all ity, illustrated by examples, cannot do the sceptres of the universe. better than track him in his late ministerial " Either all that you are teaching of the justice
of God, and of his tremendous judgments in anoIf ever a nation assumed a moral attitude ther life, is false: And then my words are folly, which entitled it to the confidence of neigh
and you will do ill to heed them : Or, what you boring powers, it is the Moderate and and you believe that God will one day require of
are teaching is true, and you are persuaded of it, Progressive party, now happily a great ma
you a reason for your works : I gave you a people, jority throughout Italy, and represented by what have you done with them? And then, tell the Pope himself. The Moderate party is me, tell me by what name your actions must be become so numerous as to be the National then described ! Tell me, what possible explanaparty. Their great rule of conduct has tion can be rendered of the course you are pursu. been, to substitute appeals to reason, in ing: Tell ine; for of myself I can neither find
one nor divine one. the place of appeals to force: to for
The powerful of the earth
urge ward the governments, in order that revo- But thongh they may do so, you dare not, you
the others, may laugh me to scorn as a declaimer. lution may be anticipated by reform: and cannot
, without making yourself and your words, to keep back the people, in order that no a lie.'-—(Degli ultimi Casi di Romagna, 1845.) pretext may be given for Austrian intervention. The first year of the Pontificate of Pius IX. was born at Sinigaglia, May, Pius IX., so regarded, would make an an- 1792, of the family of Mastai. He was nus mirabilis in any history.
sent on a mission, many years ago, to Chili. A few months before the late Pope was From what we have heard of his musings passing to his last account, Azeglio laid at with one of his colleagues, as they sate on the old man's feet a glowing picture of the deck, during the silent watches of the night, terrible effects of his misrule, and of what he can have wanted no other warning than was his awful responsibility. Gregory must his own enlightened conscience, now that have trembled even in St. Peter's chair, as the awful responsibility has been brought he read of righteousness, temperance, and home to his own person. Vedremo grandi judgment to come.
cose, prophesied his colleague on his elec* Either my accusations,' said Azeglio, are ca
tion. It may be a cruel alternative, which lumnies--if so, prove it-Or, it is true, 'that One Metternich, and Metternich’s abettors, set who preaches justice, and sits in its highest before him. But he must not quail. There charge, is himself committing injustice. And are those who can only “ kill the body, and then, it is reasonable to ask of him--if there are after that, have no more that they can do." two Gospels, and two morals, or only one-if he Be not afraid of them ! While, upon all is convinced or no, of that which he is preaching who are wicked enough to seek to swamp and teaching to the world ? It is then reasonable in blood the fruitful seeds of this great poto ask of him, to deny one of two things—either his teaching or his actions : to demand of him, if litical (and, sooner or later, religious) rein our age it be lawful, or among things possi- formation, we could almost call down the ble, to maintain any authority whatever, upon the curse of Byron :-" The Huns are on the flagrant and perpetual denial of its own proper Po. The dogs! the wolves ! may they principles : if there be a man in the world who perish like the host of Sennacherib! Let can have a right to set at defiance the reason of all it be still a hope to see their bones piled mankind: and if it be not too great an absurdity like those of the human dogs at Morat in to suppose that mankind will quietly resign themselves to the multitude of evils which must en
Switzerland, which I have seen. "-(Ravensue? On the contrary, it is reasonable to tell na : 1821.) him :--Of the risings of Romagna, of those
The boldness with which, in treating of
the last movement in Romagna, Azeglio re-| IX., who is ever to be found where there is buked one Pope, will relieve him of all sus- a question of an evil to be banished, and a picion of flattering another. For all that good to be obtained, represents the moral Pius IX. has accomplished during the first principle in its most heavenly form, on the year of his pontificate, we can therefore Pontifical throne; and by his means we safely refer our readers to Azeglio's recent look for its entire restoration." appeal to Europe, on the present movement When we hear that the Jews have startin Italy. “That throne,” he declares, ed the inquiry (not very unlike their ques“ which tottered under his feet, when he as- tion in Oliver Cromwell's time) whether cended it, is now the firmest in Europe. the reforming Pope might not be the MesThe religious regeneration in the populace siah ?- since his own Christian population is most remarkable. We see them influ- have applied to their new sovereign the enced by the great example of virtue and words of the Gospel, “Fuit homo missus à self-denial, presented to them by the Pon- Deon cui nomen erat Johannes”-we may tiff. Outbreaks of hatred are more and pardon Azeglio for welcoming in bim, not
The thought of Pius IX. suf- only the political regenerator of his country, fices to restore them to good feeling. Pius! but “the real Apostle of religious truth.”
From Tait's Magazine.
SCHLOSSER'S LITERARY HISTORY OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
BY THOMAS DE QUINCEY.
(Concluded from the Eclectic Magazine for November.)
Pope, by far the most important writer, , be fine in a melo-drama, with Bengal lights English or Continental, of his own age, is burning on the stage. But, if ever he said treated with more extensive ignorance by such a naughty thing, he forgot to tell us Mr. Schlosser than any other, and (except- what it was that had made him angry; by ing Addison) with more ambitious injustice. what title did he come into alliance with A false abstract is given, or a false impres- the Divine wrath, which was not likely to sion, of any one amongst his brilliant works, consult a savage ? And why did his wrath that is noticed at all; and a false sneer, a hurry, by forced marches, to the Adriatic ? sneer irrelevant to the case, at any work dis- Now, so much do people differ in opinion, missed by name as unworthy of notice. The that, to us, who look at him through a tethree works, selected as the gems of Pope's lescope from an eminence, fourteen centuries collection, are the “ Essay on Criticism,” distant, he takes the shape rather of a the “Rape of the Lock," and the" Essay Mahratta trooper, painfully gathering chout, on Man. On the first, which (with Dr. or a cateran levying black-mail, or a deJohnson's leave) is the feeblest and least cent tax-gatherer with an ink-horn at his interesting of Pope's writings, being sub- button-bole, and supported by a select parstantially a mere versification, like a metri- ty of constabulary friends. The very natucal multiplication table, of common places ral instinct which Attila always showed for the most mouldy with which criticism has following the trail of the wealthiest footbaited its rat-traps; since nothing is said steps, seems to argue a most commercial worth answering, it is sufficient to answer coolness in the dispensation of his wrath. nothing. The “Rape of the Lock” is Mr. Schlosser burns with the wrath of Attitreated with the same delicate sensibility la against all aristocracies, and especially that we might have looked for in Brennus, that of England. He governs his fury, if consulted on the picturesque, or in Attila also, with an Attila discretion in many the Hun, if adjured to decide æsthetically, cases ; but not here. Imagine this Hun between two rival cameos. Attila is said coming down, sword in hand, upon Pope (though no doubt falsely) to have described and his Rosicrucian light troops, levying himself as not properly a man so much as chout upon Sir Plume, and fluttering the the Divine wrath incarnate. This would dove-cot of the Sylphs. Pope's “ duty it
was,” says this demoniac, to “scourge the as he was, in a decorous nation, and closely follies of good society,” and also “to break connected, upon principles of fidelity under with the aristocracy." No, surely? some- political suffering, with the Roman Cathothing short of a total rupture would have lics, to say little in his own defence. That satisfied the claims of duty ? Possibly ; defence, and any reversionary cudgelling but it would not have satisfied Schlosser. which it might entail upon the Quixote And Pope's guilt consists in having made undertaker, he left-meekly but also slyly, his poem an idyl or succession of pictures humbly but cunningly—to those whom he representing the gayer aspects of society as professed to regard as greater philosophers it really was, and supported by a comic in than himself. All parties found their acterest of the mock-heroic derived from a count in the affair. Pope slept in peace ; playful machinery, instead of converting it several pugnacious gentlemen up and down into a bloody satire. Pope, however, did Europe expectorated much fiery wrath in not shrink from such assaults on the aris- dusting each other's jackets; and Warburtocracy, if these made any part of his du- ton, the attorney, finally earned his bishopties. Such assaults he made twice at least ric in the service of whitewashing a writer, too often for his own peace, and perhaps who was aghast at finding himself first for his credit at this day. It is useless, trampled on as a deist, and then exalted as however, to talk of the poem as a work of a defender of the faith. Meantime, Mr. art, with one who sees none of its exquisite Schlosser mistakes Pope's courtesy, when graces, and can imagine his countryman he supposes his acknowledgments to Lord Zachariä equal to a competition with Pope. Bolingbroke sincere in their whole extent. But this it may be right to add, that the Of Pope's “ Homer" Schlosser thinks
Rape of the. . Lock was not borrowed fit to say, amongst other evil things, which from the “ Lutrin ” of Boileau. That it really does deserve (though hardly in was impossible. Neither was it suggested comparison with the German Homer "
" Lutrin." The story in Herodo- of the ear-splitting Voss), “that Pope tus of the wars between cranes and pigmies, pocketed the subscription of the Odyssey,' or the Batrachomyomachia (so absurdly and left the work to be done by his underascribed to Homer) might have suggested strappers." Don't tell fibs, Schlosser. the idea more naturally. Both these, there Never do that any more. True it is, and is proof that Pope had read; there is disgraceful enough, that Pope (like modern none that he had read the “ Lutrin,” contractors for a railway or a loan) let off nor did he read French with ease to him- to sub-contractors several portions of the self. The “ Lutrin," meantime, is as undertaking. He was perhaps not illiberal much below the “Rape of the Lock” in in the terms of his contracts. At least I brilliancy of treatment, as it is dissimilar know of people now a days (much better in plan or the quality of its pictures. artists) that would execute such contracts,
The “ Essay on Man" is a more thorny and enter into any penalties for keeping subject. When a man finds himself at- time at thirty per cent. less. But navies tacked and defended from all quarters, and and bill-brokers, that are in excess now, on all varieties of principle, he is bewilder- then were scarce.
Still the affair, though ed. Friends are as dangerous as enemies. not mercenary, was illiberal in a higher He must not defy a bristling enemy, if he sense of art ; and no anecdote shows more cares for repose; he must not disown a pointedly Pope's sense of the mechanic zealous defender, though making conces- fashion, in which his own previous share of sions on his own behalf not agreeable to the Homeric labor had been executed. It himself; he must not explain away ugly was disgraceful enough, and needs no exagphrases in one direction, or perhaps he is geration. Let it, therefore, be reported recanting the very words of his guide, truly: Pope personally translated one-half philosopher, and friend,” who cannot safe of the “Odyssey”-a dozen books he ly be taxed with having first led him into turned out of his own oven; and, if you temptation; he must not explain them add the Batrachomyomachia, his dozen was away in another direction, or he runs full a baker's dozen. The journeymen did the tilt into the wrath of mother Church—who other twelve; were regularly paid ; reguwill soon bring him to his senses by pen- larly turned off when the job was out of ance. Long lents, and no lampreys allow- hand; and never once had to “strike for ed, would soon cauterize the proud flesh of wages.” How much beer was allowed, I heretical ethics. Pope did wisely, situated cannot say. This is the truth of the mat