At length, after a life of untold exer- | man was disgusted by the excesses of his tions, his health gave way. He became mother's zeal, and the phraseology of the nervous,"

" the prelude to more serious “ elect." She survived him, and, as he maladies.' Lady Huntingdon attended up-left no issue, the horors of the Hastings's on him with all the kindliness of a gentle were carried by Lady Moira into the Rawnature, and the zeal of a votary. She took don family. him journeys, and tried to cheer his droop- With Lady Huntingdon expired much of ing spirits, but in vain. It was her lot to the zeal of the fashionable world. Ancient survive him long. He died in 1770, at beauties of the court of George II. returned Newburyport, on his way to Boston, in into the boson of the Church. The doors the United States, after preaching two of Tottenham Court Chapel and the Tahours in the open air on the day before bernacle at Moorfields, head-quarters of the his decease. Seven years after his death," elect ladies, were no longer crowded his body was found perfect, without a trace with coroneted chariots. The “ elect” reof decomposition upon it, by an admirer turned into the common herd of men who who inspected it in the coffin. Soutbey played basset, and women who loved drives was informed that this circumstance was and the Rotunda. owing to the vast quantity of nitre with which the earth abounds at Newburyport; but by the elect this curious fact, for so it seems to be, was deemed a miracle: a be lief which shows how completely Supersti

REFUGE FOR UNFORTUNATE FEMALES.-- A quotation justifies her name in every sect, whe- tion which closed the first review in our last Gazete ther

among the ardent Calvinist or the (p. 651, col. 1) fervently appealed to woman to bedreamy enthusiastic believer in The Lives

come the savior and protector of the miserable and

sinful of their sex. It is with a strong feeking toof the Saints. Thirteen times did White-wards the importance and beauty of such a mission field cross the Atlantic, and he preached that we have heard with intense satisfaction of a more than 18,000 sermons.

design in progress, at the expense of Miss Burdetz His noble and sorrowing proselyte sar- cause

Coutts, to perform a divinely benevolent act in this vived until 1791.

cause. As we are informed, Miss Coutts has deterAs her last hour ap- mined to prepare a domicile at Shepherd's Bush, un. proached, the aged lady remarked, - der judicious and merciful regulations, capable of

“My work is done, and I have nothing lodging a considerable number of inmates. These now to do but to go to my Father.”

inmates are to be discharged female prisoners, who

have been condemned for offences, punished and She desired that her remains might be then thrown upon the world, characterless, tainted, dressed in the white silk garments in which abandoned, and helpless. To these the gates of she had attended the opening of the chapel reformation will be opened. They will be instructin Goodman's Fields; and she expired in and religion. They will be taught the means of in

ed in the consoling and upholding value of morals that state of ecstatic hope and joy which dustry whereby they can earn their bread. They might be anticipated from the mingled ro- will be rescued from the necessity of guilt; and if mance and earnestness of a character so

not doomed to ruin by evil dispositions which canbeautiful, tinged with views which we feel virtuous members to society, instead of being out

not be changed, they will be restored, repentant and to be mistaken, but which we are compelled casts and curses to that and to themselves. The to admire as lofty, disinterested, and de- pattern of this application of wealth let us hope will vout. Her college in South Wales fell not be lost. It is a glorious beginning, and worthy away after her death, being unendowed ; and blessings will follow it. On the face of the

of the most exalted humanity, -a sequel to Howard, and that at Cheshunt has, as far as we are earth there lives not a class of human beings more informed, no further benefit from her in need of succor than the class of which we have bounty than the united names of White-spoken. Unless there is some such feeling and symfiled and Lady Huntingdon.

pathy for them they are doomed, without a chance

of redemption, to certain wretchedness and crime, A severer affliction than even the early as the consequence of one error. Surely it is time death of her children, attended Lady for legislation to mingle philanthrophy with stern Huntingdon's weary pilgrimage of life justice, and not, under the semblance of a slight

punishment, doom our fellow creatures to worse Her eldest son, the young earl, had im- than transportation or in prisonment for life. We bibed the principles of Bolingbroke and hail the present movement with warm hopes, and Chesterfield. She sorrowed over the young it likely to bear. Mr. Chesterton, the experienced and still loved sceptic; and in vain did and worthy Governor of Coldbathfields, is, we are Theophilus Lindsay, a preacher, suggest told, superintending the preparations of The Befuge. for her relief the notion of temporary hell. It is not impossible that the young noble


From the Westminster and Foreigo Quarterly Review.


Histoire intime de la Russie sous les Empéreurs Alexandre et Nicolas, et particulière

ment pendant la crise de 1825. (Domestic History of Russia under the Emperors Alexander and Nicholas, and particularly during the crisis of 1825.) By J. H. SCHNITZLER. 2 vols. Paris : 1847.

four years.

This is in many respects a remarkable work. Persia, and Turkey, the affairs of Greece, Nearly a quarter of a century has elapsed the Polish insurrection, &c., &c. since the author (a Frenchman born and The copious journal which Schnitzler bred notwithstanding his German name) kept during his residence in Russia, and in first set foot in Russia, where he resided for which were recorded the fruits of his own

He arrived in St. Petersburg assiduous observation, and of his intercourse in time to witness the issue of one of the with persons from whom he could derive most formidable movements recorded in the original and authentic information, has lain annals of the empire, the conspiracy of intact until now, although it has always 1825 ; and he was present in St. Isaac's been his intention to make its contents Place, on the 26th of December, when public. Meanwhile his materials have Nicholas had to do battle for life and crown been accumulating during an interval of with his own revolted soldiery, before he twenty years; many new facts have become could grasp the awful

which had de- known to him, and old ones have gradually volved on him by the death of one brother assumed in his eyes a more distinct developand the abdication of another. It was a ment and significance. Such a slow prospectacle to absorb in its contemplation all cess of literary incubation is a rare phenothe powers of the soul, and determine their menon in these days, and is really deservbent for the remainder of a lifetime. The ing of no common admiration, for it is a impression it made on Schnitzler's mind is warrant that the author comprehends the testified by the assiduity with which he has importance and the difficulty of his task, ever since devoted himself to the study of and that he approaches it in a conscienthe Russian Empire, in all the details of tious spirit. This gratifying anticipation is its outward and inward life. The first confirmed by the general tone of Schnitzfruits of bis researches in this vast and im- ler's book, which bears strong internal eviperfectly explored field, have been given to dence of candor, honesty, and generosity, the world in several articles of the - Ency- He tells the truth without disguise, but also clopédie des Gens du Monde," a valuable without acrimony—a difficult matter when repository of science, literature, and art, the theme is Russia ; and the moderation of edited by himself; and in two substantive his language only gives the more weight to works, « Essai d'une statique générale de the grave censure, oftener implied than dil'Empire de Russie," and " La Russie, la rectly urged, in his pages, Pologne, et la Finlande." Statistics, geo- The contents of these volumes are congraphy, and ethnography, form the staple siderably diversified. The conspiracy of of these volumes, in which political ques- 1825 and its consequences form the nucleus tions, especially those of the present day, round which are agglomerated a variety of are only touched on incidentally. In the explanations, essays, and narratives. The work now before us, the author takes higher history of Alexander's reign is succinctly ground, enters into the domain of con- narrated, and this is followed by a circumtemporary history, and discusses the moral, stantial account of his death, which is shown social, and political physiology of Russia. to have been caused by a typhoid fever, It is his intention to publish a cycle of vo- caught in the Crimea, and not by poison. lumes, of which these two form the com- The latter opinion was for a long while very mencement, under the general title of generally entertained, and still holds its Etudes sur l’Empire des Tsars.” The ground in some quarters. Indeed, the prosubsequent portions will embrace the whole bability is, that Alexander only escaped history of the reign of Nicholas, and consist from assassination by a natural death; two of monographs on the wars in the Caucasus, I of the conspirators, Yakubovitch and Kakhofski, were bent on regicide, and mocked Three potent elements have coalesced at the scruples of their less ferocious con- together to produce our modern civilizafederates, whom they called in derision tion: these are the genius of Rome and her " the philanthropists.” Yakubovitch had solid and elaborate social institutions; those been turned out of the imperial guard in that took their growth in the wilds and 1817, for his conduct in a duel, and from forests of ancient Germany; and lastly, that moment vowed vengeance on the em- Christianity. To the combination of these peror. When he heard the news of Alex- three elements does Europe owe the pecuander's death, he ran like a madman to liar spirit that so strongly distinguishes her Ryleyef, the chief of the con-piracy of the from Asia, and which forms a common north, and bursting into his room, cried bond of union between all her peoples, out, foaming with rage : “ The emperor is whatever transient or secondary differences dead; you have all of you snatched him out may divide them. Russia, which is now a of my hands!"


province of this great confederation, was An interesting and instructive chapter is for a long while beyond its pale; hence the devoted to the moral condition of Russia many striking points of difference that still under Alexander, and to the history of the exist between its people and those living secret societies which were called into ex. west of them. Of the three elements above istence by causes mainly attributable to his mentioned, one has been wanting to it altofatal weakness and inconsistency. The gether; of the second, it has but a few isotrial of the conspirators is dwelt on at con-lated portions, and the third has entered siderable length, and occasion is thence into it under a peculiar form, hardly favorataken to survey the whole field of Muscovite ble to intellectual emancipation. legislation. The grand question of the emancipation of the serfs is discussed; the “ The Roman sway never extended to the north defects of the existing Russian institutions of Europe and Asia. That cold and silent region re

mained inaccessible to the ancients who were accusare laid bare, and several institutions are tomed to the cheerful sunshine and a sky almost enumerated of which the empire stands always cloudless. It was shrouded from them in a in need, and which are totally wanting. veil of mystery, and dreaded by them as the home “ Thus," says Schnitzler, we have en of magic powers; and if they knew by report that deavored to make amends for the silence it contained precious metals, they never thought which the Russian writers are constrained to nf possessing themselves of treasures which they observe ; we have proved the urgent need of supposed were guarded hy monstrous creatures, reforms, and have ventured to tell a mighty grittins, dwarfs, or giants, and tribes to whom their nation and its government what Europe fear, attributed the strangest and most repulsive

imagination, or rumors propagated by design or expects, before she will definitively recognise forms. Thus, then, the eagles of the Cæsars never them as members of the great family.” penetrated these regions, whilst the Germanic in

Two appendices, occupying together vasion, which was destined to renovate the Roabout a third of the volumes, consist of man world, flowed in quite another direction. fifty-five miscellaneous sketches, notes, That it did indeed slightly touch the still sparse and illustrations, many of which contain population of ancient Sarmatia, was owing to the

adventurous spirit of some of its wandering sons matter both recondite and instructive. Thus the entire work forms a sort of com- allurement of booty or warlike glory, and caring

--true knight-errants, always accessible to the mon-place of the modern history and bio- nothing for any danger or any distance. These graphy of Russia ; it is a budget stuffed Normans having established themselves in Nov. full of facts of all kinds, and in order to gorod and Kief, influenced, of course, in some deincrease its utility, the author has annexed gree, the habils and social organization of those

localities; but their numbers being comparatively to it a remarkably copious, exact, and convenient index.

small, they soon merged in the Slavonic race,

which after the lapse of a century retained few But we have not yet completed our enu-traces of its contact with the Teuton stock. As meration of the matter contained in these for the third element, Christianity, it was not well-filled volumes; we have yet to speak from Rome, the common metropolis of the west, of the introduction, to us the most interest- that Russia received it, but from Constantinople, ing part of all. It is a general survey of the masters of which city, disregarding the essence all that is known of the past and present of that law of charity, had converted it into an fortunes of Russia, made with a view to

instrument of despotism, whilst the clergy had solve the question :—Whence comes she, about barren subtleties, so that the spirit of truth,

paralysed its generous force by their idle disputes and whither is she going? Let us follow inherent in the Gospel, was smothered in a uniour author in this inquiry.

versal formalism."


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“ In the west, Italy and Germany were the honor. Religion then acquired an auxiliary in sources of modern civilization, whilst that of Rus- loyalty; and by and by were established those sia proceeded from the Greeks of the Lower Em- notions of rigorous morality from which the really pire; a worn out people, lapsed into second civilized man derives his rules of conduct, without childhood, bent beneath a despotic yoke, and ever sceking to evade their inflexible law. among whom religion, itself enslaved, had lost its “ Nor was this all. Implicated in the schism of regenerating virtue. For in Constantinople the the East, and consequently cut off entirely from church was become the humble handmaid of the the great Catholic family, Russia was left unaided state, the lustre of which it exalted without excit. at the most disastrous period of her history, when ing its jealousy; whereas in the west, a priest, the hordes of Genghis Khari, issuing from the deseated on the tomb of St. Peter, boldly constituted serts of Middle Asia, fell upon her like swarms himself the guardian of Gospel freedom, and never of locusts, and reduced her to hard slavery. At feared to encounter even the sceptres of kings first, perhaps, the united efforts of chivalry would with his pastor's crook, when he thought that have been inadequate to stem a torrent that afterdanger threatened the spiritual interests of his wards bore them down at Liegnitz and Wahlstatt ; flock.

but at least with such help the struggle might have “ Russia then remained without the pale not been prolonged, Christian heroism might bave only of the Roman world, but likewise of the Latin found a field for its display; and the fall might world, in the full extension of that term. By the have been less deep and less ignominious. The former cause she was deprived of a positive code mere idea of having the eyes of all Europe, benton of law—the fruit of a culture already ancient- the spectacle of its resistance, the certainty of exand of the heritage of institutions which, even at citing the sympathies of the whole civilized world, this day, have not yet lost all their value; whilst, might have exalted to the loftiest pitch the courage by not acknowledging the authority of the popes, of a people, noi chivalric indeed, but not insensiwho were then the defenders of the rights of ble to military glory, strongly attached to the faith thought and the representatives of the spiritual prin- of their fathers, and animated by an ardent love ciple amidst the violence of the middle ages, she of country. Be this as it may, no'appeal was was cut off from that great movement of the made to the valor of the warriors of the west; they Christian world that tended so directly to civiliza- were unmoved by the news of the Mongol invation ; and the generous passions of our ancestors sion, and saw in it no reason for undertaking a crufound no echoes in her vast solitudes. Though sade to which the Church cared not to invite them. visited, as we have said, by Norman warriors, Vladimiria and Muscovy, remote provinces of who presented to it at least a glimpse of the ad- Kief, recently founded in the midst of Finnish poventurous life of the valiant heroes of the west, pulations, addicted to Paganism, were at the most Russia never was acquainted with feudalism ;* known only by name; besides which, schismatics that vast and glittering net-work, that compressed were, in the eyes of the heroes of the Cross, scarce. so strongly, indeed, beneath its iron meshes, the ly Christians The Russians were completely races of Roman and Teutonic descent, but which overthrown in two battles (1224 and 1237), and covered them, at the same time, as with a tutelary subjected to the dominion of the Golden Horde and ægis, beneath which they found order and systema- the Khan of the Steppes. Then ensued a pros. tic organization ; habits of life controlled by cer- tration which lasted two centuries, and left profound tain laws; and the means of instruction placed traces in the character of that people, European in within the reach of the humblest localities. “Rus origin, as well as the Celts and Germans, but which sia went her own way, and remained sequestered had been already fashioned 10 Oriental slavery by from Europe. She alone, or nearly so, in all its connexion with Byzantium, and on which its Christendom, responded not to the cry of religious conquerors imposed in a still higher degree, the enthusiasm which was the precursor not only of immobility of Asiatic usages." the Crusades that immense mêlée in which the nations, by learning to know each other, extended Muscovy was now utterly forgotten by their respective horizons—but which was also the Europe, and even when it recovered from germ of chivalry. That institution, hy ratifying its fall, and the cross again supplanted the ihe influence of women, softened the general man- crescent on its steeples, it had lost its only ners ; and, by exalting the sanctity of oaths above channel of intercourse with Christendom all considerations, subjected the brute force and the selfish impulses of the warrior to the law of through the capture.of Byzantium by the

Turks. Meanwhile, other portions of the * The system of apanages established at first in Kief, and afterwards in other Russian grand princi- inheritance of the sons of Rurik the Norpalities, does not deserve this name; neither does man, claiming the exclusive right to bear serfdom (a thing of almost modern origin in Rus- the name of Russia, had acquired strength sia), constitute feudalism. In the latter we see a and importance, and had entered into the graduated scale of rank among men who know

The their own value, and limit it respectively; we behold communion of the Latin Church. a certain order, the pledge of progress, rather than union of Lithuania with Poland made the a tyranny pressing upon a great number, and divid- latter the irreconcilable enemy of Muscovy. ing society into two classes-masters and slaves. A long and bloody struggle, exasperated by in its early stage, and not in its state of decrepi- national and religious hatred, ensued betude.

tween them. The Poles won province after


province from their rivals, and at last be- branches of the Rurik fainily, and of nobles of more came masters of their most venerated sanc- or less ancient hereditary eminence; but the memtuary, the Kreml* of Moscow. The cause

bers of this caste were nothing without the favor of the Muscovites seemed hopeless, but they to which al mission could only be obtained through

of the Tsar, and without actual service of the state, retrieved their fortune by an extraordinary him. There was nothing chivalric or independent and almost incredible effort. Peace was in these nobles.

A still more ab. concluded, but the rivalry of the two na- solute, though less loathsome and less voluntary tions continued without intermission until servility prevailed among the lower classes.: the the complete subjection of one of them in middle class, few in number even at this day, conthe last century.

sisted then of but some hundred thousand families;

and the husbandmen, whose humble villages were A marvellous resurrection, begun under Ivan dispersed over vast deserts, attached to the soil III. Vassilievitch, continued under Ivan IV. Vas since the reign of Boris Godunof, and left in the silievitch, surnamed the Terrible, and consummat. utmost neglect by a heedless clergy, grovelled in a ed under the Tsars of the House of Romanof, re

state of debasing ignorance, from which their movealed a new power to the astonished gaze of notonous way of life afforded them litile opportuEurope. With wonder she beheld the blows nity of emerging. which those Muscovites, but recently the humble

“ Even in the upper ranks, life was without all subjects of the Mongols, now dealt out to all their charm. The women, shut up in the gyneceum, enemies, the Poles, the Swedes, and the Tartars had no influence over the men, who were like of the Crimea, vassals of Turkey. Thenceforth

themselves illiterate, and whose whole energy was it was no longer possible to ignore their existence; wasted, in ordinary times, in paltry intrigues, silly the name of Christians could no longer be refused quarrels for precedence, and endless outward obto those vanquishers of the Infidels, marching he servances of devotion. Encumbered with a beavy neath the banner of the cross; and Europe carried costume that impeded the free movements of the ber condescension towards them so far as to soli- body, they were no less cramped in mind, and were cit their alliance against the common enemy, the filled with a dread of their master, fostered by the Ottomans.”

minutiæ of an imperious etiquette, and by the ex

cessive cravings of their own ridiculous vanity." Nevertheless, under the first Tsars of the House of Romanof, the government of Rus

Such was the Russian people when Peter

the Great undertook its transformation. sia and the manners of her people stood in glaring contrast with those of her civilized He applied himself with an iron-strength of neighbors. The clergy were ignorant, and will to efface from his country every trace of contented to be so; and the religion they

the Oriental character, and to remodel its taught was a system of outward forms, des manners and customs after the example of titute of all life and spirit. The sovereign ceeded, at least with the upper classes ; but

Germany, Holland, and France. He sucwas a fetish, whom his subjects worshipped as it was scarcely possible so to change the with faces prostrate in the duste Of aris- habits of the great mass of the people in a tocracy there was scarcely a trace under a system that recognised only a despot and country of such vast extent, a yawning gulph his trembling slaves. If the phrase " The was opened between the immense majority of Tsar has ordained, the Boiars have advised,” nobles on the other, together with the middle

the nation on the one hand, and the civilized was ever seriously used, the case must have

classes of the German towns and provinces, been exceptional,

-and, at all events, there was an end to any such practice before the successively incorporated with the empire. reign of Alexis Mikhailovitch, the father of innovations, Peter understood civilization

Moreover, like a true Russian even in his Peter the Great.

only in its most palpable and material as“ Besides, the rank of Boiar was dependent on pects. He did all that energy, almost snthe good pleasure of the Tsar, and however high perhuman, could effect, to increase the that dignity may have been, it was not hereditary. wealth and strength of the people, but he There existed, indeed, a privileged class, consist- scarcely gave a thought to their moral and ing of the princes descended from the various intellectual culture.

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* This is the correct orthography. Kremlin is a “ Peter the Great marked out for Russia the plan French corruption of the Russian word Kreml or of her policy; to command the course of her own Kremla (pronounced kremlya, a dissyllable). In old rivers ; to keep the Baltic open to her vessels; Slavonic krem, kremer, signifies stone, and among to confine the Swedes to their peninsula, and weakall the Slavonians krem, or kreml, is the common designation for a fortified enclosure. Various Rus.

en Poland by fomenting its intestine divisions; to sian towns have each their Kreml, and in other Sla- profit as much as possible by the decadence of the vonic countries we find the fortified towns of Kre. Ottoman Empire, and attract within her sphere the menetz, Krementcharg, &c.

Christians of Asia subject to the Turks and the

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