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the Indians by force; and for centuries past they according to their singular polity, were anhave regarded the priests only in the light of ty- nually granted and resumed by the State. rants, who make religion a cloak for the most It is no wonder indeed that here and there scandalous pecuniary extortions, and whose con- these conduits have perished, if, as Dr. duct is in direct opposition to the doctrines they profess. If they render to them unconditional Tschudi was told, some of the water-pipes obedience, accompanied by a sort of timid reve. were of gold. But above all there are vast rence, it is to be attributed less to the operation of remains of palaces, fortresses, and temples. the Christian principle than to a lingering attach- “ The walls of these edifices," writes Dr. ment to the theocratic government of the Incas, Tschudi,“ were built of square stones, so which has impressed the Peruvians with a sacred finely cut and joined so closely together, awe of religion.” – Ib., p. 482.
that between any two there is not sufficient But the traveller still contemplates the space to insert the edge of the thinnest pamonuments of the departed magnificence per.” In the royal palace at Cuzco, and and the wisdom of the Incas' rule, and so in the Temple of the Sun, there was a cefar bears witness to the romance of their ment of melted gold and silver. In ordigrandeur and the happiness of the people. nary cases, however, the stones so poised The great military road from Cuzco to and fitted were supported by their own Quito may be traced by many remains weight. Dr. Tschudi supposes that these throughout its vast length, crossing as it stones, some of which are from twelve to did the awful heights of the Cordillera, sixteen feet long, from eight to ten high, spanning with its pensile bridges the and of the same breadth, were worked by most terrific ravines, and throwing off the friction of a harder stone, and afterto all the more important points its lateral wards polished by pyritous plants. They branches, so as to afford the most complete are of various shapes, some square, others means of communication, in the days when polygonal, and even spherical. But how the llama was the only beast of burden to they were extracted from the quarry, or elethe inhabitants of the whole empire. It was vated to their present heights, passes his from twenty-five to thirty feet broad, paved comprehension. The Peruvians seem to with large flat stones. At every interval have been ignorant of the lever and the of about twelve paces there was a row of pulley, and of all machinery of the kind : smaller stones laid horizontally and a little nothing therefore remains but the labor of elevated, so that the road ascended, as it thousands of men. If then Niebuhr's thewere, by a succession of terraces. It was ory, that all such colossal works necessarily edged on each side by a low parapet. Many imply not merely a monarchical or aristoof the stations for the messengers, who cratic government, but an oppressive and kept up a sort of human electric telegraph tyrannical abuse of despotic power—(and on this great road, are still entire. Each the fortresses seem to have been more giof these was on a hillock, and a signal being gantic constructions than the temples) - we hoisted to the next station, the messenger must make great reservations from the mild was met half-way by one from that station, and beneficent and parental sway of the Inand so the intelligence travelled on with cas. Yet even then we can hardly close great rapidity. And not messages alone, these two works without a painful and but luxuries : “ The royal table in Cuzco somewhat compunctious feeling : in the nowas served with fresh fish, caught in the sea ble words of Mr. Wordsworthnear the Temple of the Sun in Xurin, a distance of more than 200 leagues from
“Men are we, and must grieve when even the shade Cuzco.” Besides these messenger-stations,
Of that which once was great is passed away." vestiges of many of the broad round towers which were used for magazines of grain, are seen in the Altos of Soutbern and Central Peru. The aqueducts, by which the most barren sand-wastes and arid hills were con- GIGANTIC BIRDS' NestS.-Mr. Gould describes verted into fruitful plantations, are to be the Wattled Talegalla, or Brush Turkey, of Aus. traced throughout the whole of Peru. tralia, as adopting a most extraordinary process of Where the watercourses have been de- heap of decaying vegetable matter as a depository
nidification. The birds collcct together an immense stroyed, the limits of the Tapu lands for the eggs, and trust to the heat engendered by de(square fields of uniform size, surrounded composition for the development of the young. by low stone walls) are discernible. These were the allotments to the people, which,
from Fraser's Magazine,
CHARTLEY CASTLE AND THE FERRERS FAMILY.
LAURENCE, EARL FERRERS; WHITEFIELD; AND LADY HUNTINGDON.
CHARTLEY, like the early renown of the But, before I enter upon these details of Ferrers family, is now no more. Adjoin-horror, let me give a slight review of those ing the parish of Stone, in Staffordshire, members of the Shirley family who have it stood formerly in an extensive park, and shed just lustre on their name. To Sir possessed all the attributes of a strong ba- Thomas Shirley, the first baronet of his ronial abode in the middle ages. Built house, the public owe three distinct MS. round a court, and embattled at the top, it histories of the Shirley family, which are was enriched along the sides with curious preserved in the British Museum. But the specimens of carved wood. The arms of three brothers, celebrated as the three Shirthe Devereux and Ferrerses were conspicu- leys, were the scions of that branch of the ous there, and over the gateway was a head family which settled in Sussex. The little in profile, surmounted with a crown. There work entitled Travels of Sir Robert, Sir was a moat, likewise, of which the remains Thomas, and Sir Anthony Shirley, has still show the original dimensions of the more the character of romance than truth. pile;
but this pile itself was consumed by These gentlemen flourished in the sixteenth fire in 1781. Chartley had, however, its century, and their adventures were celedays of dignity; for the godly Earl of brated in an indifferent tragedy, entitled, Chester held his court here so early as the The Three English Brothers; but, as Fulthirteenth century, and Mary, Queen of ler remarks," the affidavit of a poet carScots, passed a portion of her captivity rieth but a small credit in the court of under the dark shadow of its roof.
And now let your chronicler connect the Chartley came into the possession of the Ferrers family with this ill-starred struc- Shirleys from the Devereux family, after ture, and show upon what grounds the the death of the last Earl of Essex of that Chartley Ferrerses merit a more particular name. It was not, however, at any time, notice than others of their name and house. the principal residence of the family; for
The surname of this noble race is Shir- they owned, likewise, the estate of Staunley. Their relation to Chartley originated ton Harold, in Leicestershire, and having not in any kindred with that Earl of Fer- improved and ornamented it at a large exrers who, after the death of the founder, penditure of money, they naturally set up possessed the castle; nor was it till the their abode there, visiting Chartley but at time of Charles II. that Chartley came into intervals. their possession.
At his beautiful seat in Leicestershire, Of Saxon descent (Sewallis of Etingdon lived Laurence, the fourth Earl Ferrers. was the head of their line), their chief seat No one has disputed either the acquirelay in Warwickshire; whence, in process ments or the natural abilities of this unhapof time, they stretched themselves out in py peer ; but he seems to have been cursed various directions. They eminently dis- with violent passions, which he made no eftinguished themselves in the reign of Ed- fort to subdue, and which were quite unfetwai III. In the reign of James I., Sir tered by any of those gentler affections Henry Shirley aspired to the hand of the which sometimes supply the place of a sense daughter of Robert Devereux, Earl of Es- of duty, sex, and obtained it.
The great civil war Laurence succeeded his uncle, Henry, bowed them down for a season ; but, under third Earl Ferrers, under very peculiar cirCharles II., they revived, and became, at cumstances. The latter had been long a length, ennobled, with the title of Lord lunatic, and being placed, by the authority Ferrers of Chartley.
of a statute of lunacy, in confinement, he Such were the destinies of this race, till, died, after a short lucid interval, insane. in modern times, a stain was affixed on its The Lady Barbara Shirley, aunt to Earl reputation, and a tragedy, dark as ever Laurence, had also died insane. These lover of romance coveted, sullied its bright facts were urged as sufficiently accounting honor.
for his savage character ; but, perhaps, its growth may be as justly traced back to his Lady Ferrers thus became free ; but almaking in early life what was then called though she had endured every possible vathe grand tour; during which he contracted riety of cruelty, her lord felt deeply their a habit of drinking, and became more than separation,-perhaps from shame-perhaps commonly imbued with the vices which from some lingering admiration of his inwere then too common among the younger jured wife-perhaps from the annoyance of portion of our aristocracy.
that triumph which virtue had acquired In 1752, Lord Ferrers married; the un- over vice. "The Earl now grew evidently happy object of his choice was Mary, the worse ; he was often absent from Staunton sister of Sir William Meredith. Gentle Harold, and preferred living in lodgings at and timid, this lady soon experienced the Muswell Hill, frequently boarding at a most brutal treatment from her husband. small public-house kept by a Mrs. WilViolent fits of passion were, perhaps, scarce- liams. His temper became so furious, that, ly so intolerable as the direful suspicion of in the company of his equals, he could not every connexion, the endless and bitter jea- restrain it; and when on a visit to Lord lousies by which those storms of fury were Westmoreland, he quarrelled with Sir fed, like a turbid stream from a foul source. Thomas Stapleton, and purposed adverNor could anything be more revolting to tising that gentleman in all the newspapers a young and refined woman than the Earl's as a coward if he did not give him satisfacordinary demeanor. Wine, in which he tion. In short, his conduct became so outhabitually indulged to excess, infuriated rageous, that a consultation was held by him to what appeared madness. His his friends as to the expediency of taking calmer moments were diversified by making out a commission of lunacy against him ; mouths in the looking-glass, and spitting but they were deterred from that step by upon it; or grinning, clenching his fists, considering that his intervals of sanity were walking up and down the room, biting his long, and that his lordship might avenge lips, and tearing the pictures. These were himself by suing them for scandalum magthe amusements of his sober hours; and natum ; and thus he was left to pursue his even in these tranquil moments violent and own unhallowed course. His excesses were causeless bursts of passion would shake the the amusement of the low, the horror of fortitude of the stoutest of his companions. his equals. One day he rescued his horse Sometimes at table fierce attacks and bitter from the stables of his friend Mrs. Wilrailings broke up all peace. One day he liams, the publican, striking the poor wofollowed his brother, Mr. Walter Shirley, man down to the ground first. Next, he up stairs, and planting himself with his might be seen, in the company of the lowback to the fire, in the presence of the la- est characters, breaking poor Mrs. Wildies, broke out into insulting and violent liams's glasses, and threatening to strangle language, without, apparently, the slightest her if she opposed him. Sometimes he laprovocation. To these vehement passions mented these fits of lunacy, as he called there was not the alleviation of a generous them, and cautioned others not to be afand feeling temper, such as often accom- fronted at his behavior. But, during all panies a disposition of the kind. Lord this time, he conducted his affairs with the Ferrers was wholly devoid of honor; re- greatest exactness and penetration; and morse was unknown to him : he lived only those who had to deal with his lordship for himself, and tyrannised over all around soon found out that it would require more him. His younger brothers and sisters than ordinary skill to deceive him. It was could not obtain from him the fortunes left stated on his trial by the Earl's attorney, to them, without lawsuits, and hence he that he suffered the ill-fated peer to perwas continually at warfare with these, his form several legal acts which were necessanearest connexions. His lady, however, ry to cut off an entail, and this he would was by far the greatest sufferer, and at not have permitted bad he not been conlength her forbearance was exhausted. She vinced of the Earl's sanity. From this appealed to the law for redress, and ob- singular case some conclusions relative to tained a divorce by Act of Parliament; the different degrees of madness have been and by the same act it was ordered, that a deduced; but it has been admitted, even receiver of the rents accruing from Lord by those who were disposed to excusé Earl Ferrers' estates should be appointed, and Ferrers, that his was not that species of inshould apply those rents as the Act direct- sanity which may relieve an individual
That receiver was his victim, Johnson. from responsibility, because it prevents him
from distinguishing between right and so that three women servants alone remainwrong.
ed in the house at Staunton Harold. The The act being passed which compelled hour specified was noted down in Lord Ferthe appointment of a receiver to his estates, rers' memory: it was three o'clock, and Lord Ferrers was permitted to select the punctually at that hour the victim arrived. person in whom that trust should be re- The unfortunate man was received at the posed. He chose Mr. James Johnson, who door by Lord Ferrers, and was directed to was his steward, and who had been reared wait in the still-room. After a time, his in the service of his lordship’s family. This lordship ordered Johnson into the parlor, selection was made under an impression and they entered it together, upon which that Johnson would be disposed to favor the door was closed and locked. What Lord Ferrers, and to betray his trust ; but then happened was afterwards made known that notion was soon set aside by the integ- by Lord Ferrers' confession. One of the rity of Johnson, who refused to oblige his maid-servants, it is true, hearing some high patron at the expense of his honesty. Upon words, went to the door of the parlor to this, Lord Ferrers formed as deep-laid a listen. She heard his lordship say, “ Down scheme as ever entered into the head of the on your knees, Johnson ! your time is come! children of evil. His first endeavor was to You must die!" Then there was the reeject Johnson from a farm which he had port of a pistol, and the affrighted woman been permitted to rent by a verbal promise fled to a different part of the house. Lord from the earl. This promise had been Ferrers, in his confession, declared, that given before Johnson was appointed receiver, he said to his steward, “ Johnson, you have but it had since been confirmed by the earl's been a villain ; if you don't sign a paper, trustees. Johnson could not, therefore, be confessing all your villany, I will shoot ejected. He would have done wisely to you !" Johnson refused to sign. Then yield the point, but the poor victim foresaw Lord Ferrers fired. The pistol was a good not his doom. He knew, indeed, that the one, for it had already been tried, and had greatest hatred of him had taken posses- carried its ball through a board. The aim sion of the earl's heart, who brought all was certain, and the ball penetrated into manner of charges against him ; but the the steward's body. He did not, however, brink of the precipice on which poor John- drop ; he rose, and was able to walk. son stood was now besprinkled with flowers. As Lord Ferrers looked upon his victim, The earl changed his behavior towards him. a momentary pang of compassion softened He began to dissemble; he smiled on the bis terrible heart: he quitted the room, victim whom he intended to destroy; he and went to seek assistance; and having became affable and good-humored. It is found one of the maid-servants, he ordered wonderful that Johnson, knowing his pa- her to return with him, and to assist Johntron from childhood, should have been de- son upstairs to bed. When she had reached ceived, but so it was. One day—it was on the parlor, the woman heard Lord Ferrers Sunday, the 13th of January, 1760,-Lord ask the murdered man how he was ? “ My Ferrers made an appointment with his lord,” replied the steward, “I am a dying steward to come to him on the Friday fol- man- --send for my children !" lowing. A calm interval of four or five That request was complied with: his days intervened; it was passed by Lord daughter came. She was conducted by Ferrers in maturing his scheme. Beneath Lord Ferrers himself to the room where her the roof of Staunton Harold lived a cer- father lay, and told by his lordship that he tain Mrs. Clifford, whose connexion with had shot him, and had intended to do so. Lord Ferrers was notorious, and who had Then, as he stood in the presence of the borne him four children. It is remarkable, fainting man, his rage returned; he atthat he wished either to save this woman tempted to pull off the bed-clothes, but was from any participation in his offence, or that prevented by the daughter, who, perhaps, he dreaded her interference. He, there- anticipated a further revenge, a fresh act of fore, desired her to absent herself at a cer- barbarity; and too just were her fears. tain hour on the day of his appointment A surgeon named Kirkland was sent for with Johnson, and to take her children with by Lord Ferrers, from Ashby-de-la-Zouche. her; and accordingly they walked over to This person did not, however, proceed imher father's house, two miles distant from mediately to the Hall, but called at the Staunton Harold. The two men servants Lount, Johnson's house, where he found in his lordship's service were also sent out; Lord Ferrers lurking about. He went to
him—the earl desired he would come on, peration. A fearful scene ensued. At first, and attend to Johnson, as he had shot him. Lord Ferrers spoke temperately, merely While they walked to the Hall, he told the insisting that the steward should own that surgeon that if anybody attempted to seize he had been a villain to him.” The him he would shoot him; and he was as- wounded man only answered by requesting sured that Mr. Kirkland would not suffer that his lordship would let him alone at his lordship to be seized, since Johnson was that time. Lord Ferrers, upon this, in fury, not dead. "At this time, the British peer, attempted to pull off the bed-clothes, and far more to be commiserated than the it was feared he would have struck Johnsteward who lay in agonies, was partially son, had not the poor man, prompted by intoxicated; and, under that influence, he the surgeon, defenceless and wounded, at confessed his premeditated guilt, and de- last faltered out, “ that he owned he was a clared that if Johnson died, he would volun- villain.” Lord Ferrers then left the room, tarily surrender himself to the House of and the murdered and the murderer met no Lords. The surgeon, alarmed at his threat- more on this side of the grave. ened violence, or softened by his fears, The sorrowing daughter stood trembling adopted a soothing plan, which prevented all this time by the bedside of her father. further violence, and effectually kept the What a sight! When Lord Ferrers retired fated murderer within the reach of justice. to bed, measures were taken to remove his
Mr. Kirkland found Johnson in extreme victim from Staunton Flarold. The sufferanguish. There seemed no possibility of er entreated, “that, for God's sake, they extracting the ball, which had entered the would take him away.” As they conferred, abdomen, but the earl was assured, that the voice of the murderer, calling to his even were a serious injury done to that vital pointer, alarmed them; but Lord Ferrers part, there was a chance of recovery. Lord Closed his bedroom door, and all was silent. Ferrers then expressed his opinion, that Then, in the dead of night, Johnson was Johnson was more frightened than hurt.” conveyed to his home-to die. He was
I intended,” he said, " to have shot him conveyed in an easy chair, borne by stout dead, but finding that he did not fall at the country fellows, on poles. This removal first shot, I was going to fire a second, only was, no doubt, fatal to Johnson; but there the pain he complained of made me forbear. was no alternative, for his nerves were weak, Then nature prevailed over the resolution and it was believed, that had he remained I had formed. I desire you will take care at Staunton Harold he would have died of of him, for it would be cruel not to give fear; even in his own house he begged to him ease now I have spared his life !” A change his room, lest Lord Ferrers might strange mode of expression. Yet Lord find out where he was, and shoot at him Ferrers repeatedly declared that he did not through the window. He was gratified; but repent of his act" for Johnson is a villain, the deed was done-Johnson was then sinkand deserves death."
ing, his extremities were cold, and at nine Mr. Johnson appeared to revive, and the o'clock the next morning he expired. earl and the surgeon went down to supper It remained to apprehend the murderer. together. The repast was presided over by On the following day a multitude thronged Mrs. Clifford. Wine was brought, and round the parties in authority, and proceeddrunk freely; but the conversation, in spite ed to the Hall. They soon perceived Lord of every effort on the part of Lord Ferrers Ferrers going to the stable, his dress in great to appear unconcerned, perpetually reverted disorder. He stopped short, and asked what to Johnson. He told the surgeon, that a they wanted. The mission was disclosed, bill due to him should be discharged in and the earl instantly fled into the house. part, if he would set the affair in such a Two hours afterwards he appeared at a garlight that he should not be seized. Mr. ret window. He called to a man named Kirkland still maintained his prudent de- Springthorpe, who headed the party, and meanor, and replied, " that he did not asked how Johnson was? He was told that want money, and that his lordship could the steward was dead. At first, he pretendsettle bis account whenever it suited him.” ed not to believe it: afterwards, he said he Late at night the surgeon, accompanied by should surrender ; yet he again disappeared, Lord Ferrers, went again to see Johnson. but was taken two hours afterwards by a By this time the nobleman was inflamed man named Curtis, a collier. Lord Forrers with wine, and the presence of the man then made a formidable appearance. He whom he hated produced the utmost exas- I had taken advantage of the interval to arm