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territories were constantly added by war to the llamas to carry their burdens—they the dominions of the sovereign, yet at once passed through and over mountain passes shared in all the beneficent administration which Roman engineering would hardly of the predominant people : where even re- have attempted to surmount. Chasms ligious bigotry conquered without persecu- were crossed by suspension bridges, at tion. Throughout their growing empire which even the heads of our Brunels and the Incas established their own superstition, Stephensons might turn giddy, and made but, like the Romans, they awarded to the of materials on which, with all their boldcaptive gods of the vanquished nations a ness and ingenuity, they would hardly, with place in the great Pantheon of Cuzco, and the fear of coroners' juries before them, allowed the minds of the new tribes time to venture the lives of her Majesty's subjects. expand to the higher worship of the sun. With all this, the astronomical knowledge The Incas, too, like the Romans, subjugat- of the Peruvians was lower than that of the ed the more savage tribes by means of Aztecs ; the quipus, the cords by which their more polished language. The Qui- alone they kept accounts and registered chua was established in the provinces as events—their only art of writing and pubthe language of law and public administra- lic press—were many degrees below the tion.
picture hieroglyphics of Mexico. One The nature of the country in which arose thing will perhaps astonish the modern this singular social system makes it, if pos- reader more than all the rest : with all sible, still more extraordinary. Peru offers this advanced civilization, this progress in a curious, vague, and general resemblance to certain arts, and with the vast quantity of the Holy Land. Some districts of great the precious metals, of which they made natural fertility were environed by sandy their utensils and their ornaments, they deserts, with hardly any streams of water, were altogether ignorant of money! Gold and requiring artificial irrigation. There and silver which they obtained with some were extensive regions suited for the pas- rude and imperfect art, and wrought with ture of flocks-mountain ranges only to be considerable skill and ingenuity into their cultivated in terraces. But all was on the rings, bracelets, and vessels, were used for vast scale of South American nature. The such purposes alone. The Incas had a roymountains which were to be scarped into alty over all these treasures, but with no these hanging gardens and broad plateaus notion of coining them into a circulating were the vast Andes; the ravines which medium for trade or barter. must be bridged, in order to connect the Is all this history or romance-a Legend country by roads, were some of them so or an imaginary Utopia? We have the abrupt and profound that, according to strange alternative of accepting the acHumboldt, Vesuvius or the Puy de Dôme, count, as in its general outline at least, for placed within the chasm, would not reach historic verity, or of charging all the old the summit of the defile.
The cultivation Spanish writers with a degree of invention of the land was as artificial as the social and of creative power of which in other resystem. Our agriculturists must be inform-spects they seem entirely guiltless. We ed, that the three principal means by which must suppose them to have entered into a the Peruvians triumphed over their sterile conspiracy to elevate the character of the and ungrateful soil, were by draining, by people whom they were trampling under irrigation, and by guauo !
foot-and to place in darker relief the cruThe public works, the fortresses, the elty, the treachery, and the rapacity of roads, and the bridges, attested the care of their own countrymen, by showing the inthe government for the security and the nocent and happy polity which they deconvenience of the people. The ruins of stroyed. They were suggesting to others, fortresses still remain, astonishing from even if they closed their own eyes in obtheir solidity, considering that the use of stinate blindness, the perilous comparison iron was unknown, and that the vast masses between the effects of their own religion, and of which they were composed must, appa- what might almost seem the more holy and rently, have been transported by manual beneficent idolatry of the Peruvians. Many strength to great distances. If the great indeed of these old writers, especially the roads, in their width and extent, will bear ecclesiastics, were driven to the desperate no comparison to those by which Rome resource of attributing the whole Peruvian connected her subject provinces with the polity, with its wisdom and happiness, to spital—if they were only intended for the wicked devices of Satan, who would by this means, by thus building up a social the Spaniard. Mr. Prescott has preserved fabric of such unexceptionable excellence, it in the old Spanish ; but we think it commend the cause of heathenism. For it worth while to translate the most striking is not merely Garcilasso de la Vega, the passages. boasted descendant of the Incas, who has thus painted the Saturnian age of his fore
For many years I have earnesty desired to fathers. We can remember, indeed, the render this information to my Sovereign Lord King bewilderment, the perplexity, the involun- Philip, that most Catholic and Christian monarch,
for the relief of my soul. I, who took so great tary scepticism with which, in the days of
part in the discovery, conquest, and settlement of our youth, we explored the “Royal Com- that realm, of which we have deprived its lords mentaries,” be it confessed (the original the Incas, in order to place it under the crown of being unattainable) in the cumbrous and Spain, would have his Majesty know, that the blundering English of old Sir Paul Rycaut, sail Incas governed the land in such a manner, still doubting whether we were in the midst that there was neither robber nor vicious man, nor of Plato's Atlantis, or of the Arabian man of pleasure, nor adulteress or prostitute in
the land; that no one was allowed to live an imNights. But as Mr. Prescott justly ob
moral life; that all the people had their honest serves, Garcilasso has added but little, if and industrious callings; that the mountains and anything, to the accounts of the earliest mines, the pastures, the chases, and the woods, writers, some of whom, as Acosta and Blas were governed and distributed so that each bad de Valera, he cites as his authorities; and his own without hindrance or law-suit; that the Mr. Prescott has added to the mass of evi- wars, though frequent, did not interrupt the comdence that of two remarkable, and it should merce of the land, nor the commerce the tillage of seem peculiarly trustworthy testimonies. the soil; that all, from the highest to the lowest, Juan de Sarmiento was president of the obeyed as men of consummate wisdom and excel.
kept their place and order; that the Incas were council of the Indies. He visited Peru at lene government, as well as all their rulers and the time when the administration of Gasca captains.” had estabished peace by the discomfiture and death of the last of the Pizarros. He The testator goes on to lament bitterly professed to have gathered the materials of the effect of the evil example set to this his work from the best instructed of the blameless people by his countrymen :Inca race who had survived the conquest. The Relacion of Sarmiento is still among “ That whereas the Indian, if he had a hundred the unpublished treasures of the Escurial. thousand pounds of gold or silver in his house, A second authority is that of an eminent would leave his door open, or only fastened with a jurist, Polo de Ondegardo, who resided at
stick or a peg of wood, to show that the master Lima about the same period: he appears to or of touching the property; but when these Indians
was absent, and no one would think of entering, have been a wise and good man, to have saw that we put up strong doors with locks, they acquired deserved popularity among the thought it was for fear of our lives, lest they Indians, and to have given excellent advice should kill us—they could not believe that it was as well as valuable information to successive against robbery and for the protection of property. viceroys; as a magistrate he had the best When they found that there were thieves amongst opportunities of studying the institutions us, and seducers of their women, they began to
hold us in contempt. But the natives have unof the country. Ondegardo's work was
happily been so ruined by our bad example that consulted by Herrera, but has not been there is hardly a virtuous woman left." printed. For his MS. copies both of it and Sarmiento, Mr. Prescott was indebted The good old soldier, the last, he says, to Mr. O. Rich. The most singular testi- of the conquerors, earnestly entreats the mony, however, to the social condition of King to interfere for the relief of his conthe Peruvians, is the preamble to the will science; and humbly implores pardon of of Mancio Sierra Lejesama, the last sur God for his share in these iniquities. vivor of the early Spanish conquerors, Mr. Prescott could not but be struck printed in the Appendix of Mr. Prescott. with the contrast between these ancient It is a death-bed confession, partly, no institutions of South America and those of doubt, intended to expiate the soldier's his own country. In the former case there sins, but partly, we hope, drawn up under seems to have been the least possible freea feeling of genuine compassion for the dom, and that freedom among the least people whose mild and parental government possible number of the people; and yet, if he had contributed to overthrow, in order human happiness consist in security of life to subjugate them to the iron tyranny of and property, in the certainty of subsistence and clothing, in order and in peace, a foundling, and a priest,"_Pizarro, Almathe great Benthamite test, of the greatest gro, and De Luque, having heard some happiness of the greatest number," seems to vague and doubtful rumors of a great emhave been more nearly approached than in pire, equal in extent and superior in wealth countries of much higher civilization. In to that of Mexico, which had already fallen the latter, in the United States, the great. under the arms of Cortez, enter into a soexperiment of allowing the least possible lemn compact for the conquest and partipower to the government, and the most ab- tion of this unknown El Dorado. After solute individual freedom, is the basis of difficulties which might have broken the the social system. Mr. Prescott would spirits of less than Spanish adventurers, willingly hold the balance with a steady which would bave quelled any motives but hand; and even he, as is shown by a few that strange confederacy of chivalrous paspregnant words at the close of our next ex- sion for adventure, with avarice and relitract, cannot contemplate without some awe gious zeal; after disasters and sufferings the solution of this mighty problem, of before which many shrank back, and it is which our children may see the issue :- only surprising that any held on their stern “ A philosopher of a later time, warmed by ahe midst of this vast and organized empire,
Pizarro throws himself into the
course, contemplation of the picture, which his own fancy whose sovereign might easily have mustered had colored, of public prosperity and private happiness under the rule of the Incas, pronounces a hundred thousand warriors with less than * the moral man in Peru far superior to the Euro- two hundred men, worn out with fatigue pean. Yet such results are scarcely reconcilable and disaster, imperfectly armed—including with the theory of the government I have attempt in his force only three arquebussiers, less ed to analyse. Where there is no free agency than twenty cross-bow men, and at most there can be no morality. Where there is no temptation there can be little claim to virtue. sixty-seven horsemen-and 'with ab utter Where the routine is rigorously prescribed by law, impossibility of retreat and Pizarro bethe law, and not the man, must have the credit of comes master of Peru! the conduct. If that government is the best which The history of this conquest is wanting, is felt the least, which encroaches on the natural indeed, in the perils, the vicissitudes, the liberty of the subject only so far as is essential to incredible feats of valor, the more incredible civil subordination, then of all governments de command displayed by Cortez over the vised by man the Peruvian has the least real claim
minds of his own countrymen; as when to our admiration.
" It is not easy to comprehend the genius and he boldly confronts a superior officer, the full import of institutions so opposite to those a Spaniard of name and rank, with a of a free republic, where every man, however royal commission, who had come to dehumble his condition, may aspire to the bighest prive himn of all the fruits of his valor, honors of the state—may select his own career, and marches off at the head of his rival's and carve out his fortune in his own way; where army to achieve his own work. There is trated on a chosen few, is shed abroad" like the nothing of that desperate fighting along the light of day, and suffered to fall equally on the causeways, the paval battles on the lake, poor and the rich; where the collision of man the great temple soaring above the bloody with man wakens a generous emulation that calls tumult, and displaying before the Spanout latent talent and tasks the energies to the ut iards the offering of their captive brothers most; where consciousness of independence gives upoe the altar. All in Pera, after the trea feeling of self-reliance unknown to the timid mendous passage of the Cordillera, is subjects of a despotism ; where, in short, the go- achieved by one audacious act of the most vernment is made for man-not as in Peru, where man seemed to be made only for the government.
consummate treachery, by one unresisted The New World is the theatre on which these massacre, followed by the barbarous executwo political systems, 9o opposite in their charac- tion, out of disappointed or unglutted avater, have been carried into operation. The empire rice, of the last of the Incas. In comparison of the Incas has passed away and left no trace. with Cortez, Pizarro, with all his inconThe other great experiment is still going on---the ceivable daring, is but a treaeherous and experiment which is to solve the problem, so long vulgar ruffian; nor does the same melancontested in the Old World, of the capacity of man choly and protraeted interest which dwelt for self-government. should fail !"_vol. i., pp. 157, 158.
on the fate of the gentle Montezuma attach
to the less blameless, legs generous AtahuTo the romance of the Peruvian civil po- allpa. The division of the kingdom,—the lity succeeds the romance of the conquest. rivalry between Huascar, the legitimate heir, “A bastard (in the words of Robertson), and Atahuallpa, the son of a concubine invested irregularly by his father's favorit- “ Elevated high above his vassals came the ism with the dominion of one-half of it Inca Atahuallpa, borne on a sedan or open litter, with the civil war between the brothers, on which was a sort of throne made of massive smoothed the way, no doubt, for the Euro- gold of inestimable value. The palanquin was pean conquest : but after all, on the one birds, and studded with shining plates of gold and
lined with the richly colored plumes of tropical act, the seizure of Atahuallpa, who had silver. Round his neck was suspended a collar ultimately prevailed over Huascar, turned of emeralds, of uncommon size and brilliancy. the whole destiny of the empire. And it His short hair was decorated with golden ornais the highest praise of Mr. Prescott, that, ments, and the imperial borla encircled his temby his skilful arrangement and disposition ples. The bearing of the Inca was sedate and of incidents, by his tried dramatic power, down on the multitudes below with an air of com
dignified; and from his lofty station he looked he has thrown an interest hardly less ex
posure, like one accustomed to command. citing over this less lofty and moving story “ As the leading files of the procession entered than over the fall of Mexico. He has even the great square, larger, says an old chronicler, prolonged the interest after the fall of the than any square in Spain, they opened to the right empire, and related so well the civil wars and left for the royal retinue to pass
. Everything among the Spaniards, the furious strife of was conducted with admirable order. The monarch the wild beasts for their prey-has
was permitted to traverse the plaza in silence, and repre
When some five
not a Spaniard was to be seen. sented so justly, and judged so equably, the or six thousand of his people had entered the conduct of all the contending parties—the place, Atahuallpa halted, and, turning round' with strife of Pizarro and Almagro, the fate of an inquiring look, demanded, “Where are the the whole race of Pizarro, until the finals strangers ?" settlement by the wise and politie Gasca- “ At this moment Fray Vicente de Valverde, a that we can most conscientiously recom- Dominican friar, Pizarro's chaplain, and afterwards mend to our readers this present work as
Bishop of Cuzco, came forward with his breviary, indispensable to complete that long and and a crucifix in the other, and, approaching the
or, as other accounts say, a Bible, in one hand, expanding line of English histories which is inca, told him that he came by order of his comgradually appropriating to itself, as far as mander to expound to him the doctrines of the true English readers are concerned, the annals faith, for which purpose the Spaniards had come of most nations and of the mơst important from a great distance to his country. The friar events in the chronicles of mankind. then explained, as clearly as he could, the mysleIn order to justify this praise, and in con
rious doctrine of the Trinity, and, ascending in his fidence that the reader will not content him account, began with the creation of man, thence self with a few broken passages from a book Jesus Christ, to the crucifixion, and the ascension,
passed to his fall, to bis subsequent redemption by of which the great charm is the continuity when the Savior left the Apostle Peter as his Viceof the story, we shall copy at length his gerent upon earth. This power had been transdescription of the fatal visit which the sove-mitted to the successors of the Apostle, good and reign, after much hesitation, consented to wise men, who, under the title of Popes, held make to these strangers, whom he had authority over all powers and potentates on earth. received, if with some secret jealousy and the Spanish emperor, the most mighty monarch
One of the last of these Popes had commissioned mistrust, yet with all outward courtesy and world, to conquer and convert the natives in this hospitality The city in which Pizarro had western hemisphere ; and bis general, Francisco quartered himself was Caxamalca.
Pizarro, had now come to execute this important
mission. The friar concluded with beseeching the “ It was not long before sunset when the van Peruvian monarch to receive him kindly; to abjure of the royal procession entered the gates of the the errors of his own faith, and embrace that of city. First came some hundreds of the menjals, the Christians now proffered to him, the only one employed to clear the path from every obstacle, by which he could hope for salvation ; and, fur. and singing songs of Triumph as they came, thermore, to acknowledge himself a tributary of • which, in our ears,' says one of the conquerors, the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who, in that event,
sounded like the songs of hell! Then followed would aid and protect him as his loyal vassal. other bodies of different ranks, and dressed in dif- " Whether Atahuallpa possessed himself of ferent liveries. Some wore a showy stuff
, check every link in the curious chain of argument by ered white and red, like the squares of a chess which the monk connected Pizarro with St. Peter, board ; others were clad in pure white, bearing may be doubted. It is certain, however, that he hammers or maces of silver or copper; and the must have had very incorrect notions of the Trini. guards, together with those in immediate attend-ty, if, as Garcilasso states, the interpreter Felipillo ance on the prince, were distinguished by a rich explained it by saying, that the Christians beazure livery, and a profusion of gay ornaments, lieved in three Gods and one God, and that made while the large pendants attached to the ears indi- fonr.' But there is no doubt he perfectly undercated the Peruvian noble.
stood that the drift of the discourse was to per
suade him to resign his sceptre and acknowledge | vivors under the terrible pressure of their assail- the supremacy of another.
ants, that a large body of Indians, by their con“ The eyes of the Indian monarch flashed fire, vulsive struggles, bursi through the wall of stone and his dark brow grew darker, as he replied, 'I and dried clay which formed part of the boundary will be no man's tributary! I am greater than of the plaza? It fell, leaving an opening of more any prince upon earth. Your emperor may be a than a hundred paces, through which multitudes great prince ; I do not doubt it, when I see he has now found their way into tħe country, still hotly sent his subjects so far across the waters; and I pursued by the cavalry, who, leaping the fallen am willing to hold him as a brother. As for the rubbish, hung on the rear of the fugitives, striking Pope of whom you speak, he must be crazy to them down in all directions. talk of giving away conntries which do not be- “ Meanwhile the fight, or rather massacre, conlong to him. For my faith,' he continued, “Itinued hot around the Inca, whose person was the will not change it. Your own God, as you say, great object of the assault. His faithful nobles, was put to death by the very men whom he creat- rallying about him, threw themselves in the way ed. But mine," he concluded, pointing to his de- of the assailants, and strove, by tearing them from ity,—then, alas! sinking in glory behind the their saddles, or, at least, by offering their own mountains,— my God still lives in the heavens, bosoms as a mark for their vengeance, to shield and looks down on his children.'
their beloved master. It is said by some authori. “ He then demanded of Valverde by what au- ties that they carried weapons concealed under thority he had said these things. The friar point- clothes. If so, it availed them little, as it is not ed to the book which he held as his authority. pretended that they used them. But the most Atahuallpa, taking it, turned over the pages a mo- iimid animal will defend itself when at bay. ment, then, as the insult he had received probably That they did not so in the present instance, is flashed across his mind, he threw it down with proof that they had no weapons to use. Yet they vehemence, and exclaimed, • Tell your comrades still continued to force back the cavaliers, clingthat they shall give me an accoant of their doings ing to their horses with dying grasp, and, as one in my land. I will not go from here till they have was cut down, another taking the place of his made me full satisfaction for all the wrongs they fallen comrade with a loyalty truly affecting. have committed.'
“ The Indian monarch, stunned and bewildered, “The friar, greatly scandalized by the indignity saw bis faithful subjects falling round him without offered to the sacred volume, stayed only to pick hardly comprehending his situation. The litter it up, and, hastening to Pizarro, informed him of on which he rode heaved to and fro, as the mighty what had been done, exclaiming at the same time, press swayed backwards and forwards: and he • Do you not see, that, while we stand here wast- gazed on the overwhelming ruin, like some foring our breath in talking with this dog, full of lorn mariner, who, tossed about in his bark by pride as he is, the fields are filling with Indians ? the furious elements, sees the lightning's flash and Set on at once; I absolve your.' Pizarro saw hears the thunder bursting around him, with the that the hour had come. He waved a white scarf consciousness that he can do nothing 10 avert his in the air, the appointed signal. The fatal gun fate. At length, weary with the work of destrucwas fired from the fortress. Then springing into tion, the Spaniards, as the shades of evening grew the square, the Spanish captain and his followers deeper, felt afraid that the royal prize might, after shouted the old war-cry of St. Jago and at al, elude them; and some of the cavaliers made them! It was answered by the baitle-cry of a desperate attempt to end the affray at once by every Spaniard in the city, as, rushing from the taking Atahuallpa's life. But Pizarro, who was avenues of the great halls in which they were nearest his person, called out with stentorian voice, concealed, they poured into the plaza, horse and • Let no one, who values. his life, strike at the foot, each in his own dark column, and threw Inca ;' and, stretching out his arm to shield him, themselves in the midst of the Indian crowd. received a wound oir the hand from one of his The latter, taken by surprise, stanned by the re- own menthe only wound received by a Spaniard port of artillery and muskets, the echoes of which in the action. zeverberated like thunder from the surrounding 6. The struggle now became fiercer than ever buildings, and blinded by the smoke which rolled round the royal litter. It reeled more and more, in sulphureous volumes along the square, were and at length several of the nobles who supported seized with panic. They knew not whither to it having been slain, it was overturned, and the Ay for refuge from the coming ruin. Nobles and Indian prince would have come with violence to commoners-all were trampled under the fierce the gronnd, had not his fall been broken by the charge of the cavalry, who dealt their blows right efforts of Pizarro and some other of the cavaliers; and left, without sparing; while their swords, who canght him in their arms. The imperial Aashing through the thick gloom, carried dismay borla was instantly snatched from his temples by into the hearts of the wretched natives, who now, a soldier named Estete, and the unhappy monarch, for the first time, saw the horse and his rider in strongly secured, was removed to a neighboring all their terrors. They made no resistance,-as, building, where he was carefully guarded. indeed, they had no weapons with which to make “All attempt at resistance now ceased. The it. Every avenue to escape was closed, for the fate of the Inca soon spread over town and counentrance to the square was choked up with the try. The charm which might have held the Perudead bodies of who had perished in ef- vians together was dissolved. Every man thought forts to fly; and such was the agony of the sus. only of his own safety. Even the soldiery en