Oxford, Somers, to his infinite credit in war, and the clamor for peace brought in that corrupt age, remained a steady sup- the Tories, Somers went into opposition, porter of government.

and continued so till Queen Anne's death. During this period, Somers acted as one During the last years of her reign, his health of the Commissioners appointed respec- and mental faculties became gradually untively by the Parliaments of England and dermined ; and, though he took a part, as Scotland, to arrange the terms of an union a privy councillor, in welcoming George I., between the two countries. It is said, and he was no longer fit for public life. For there seems no reason to doubt it, that the some time before his death he was reduced negotiation was chiefly conducted by him, to a melancholy state of torpor and letharand that to his prudence and sagacity it gy, which was terminated by a fit of apomainly owed its success.

plexy on the 26th April, 1716, in the 55th In the autumn of 1708, a change was year of his age. made in the position of Lord Somers, by The character of Lord Somers has been the death of Prince George of Denmark. drawn by so many skilful hands, that it The prince, for some reason unknown, would seem equally needless and presumpseems to have taken a dislike to Somers; tuous to enlarge upon it here. Its distinand in spite of that abstinence from poli- guishing property was dignity, -a dignity tical interference which is commonly looked arising from self-respect, and inspiring upon as the prince's chief virtue, his feel respect in others,-a dignity which made ing was so far manifested as to keep Lord him shun, as beneath himself, the applauses Somers out of office during his lifetime. of men who could not appreciate him,Upon his death, the latter was made Pre- which kept him clear of every action and sident of the Council. During the short thought that was dishonorable,-guarded period of his holding this post, the Whigs him alike from precipitancy in forming or were in their most flourishing state, Marl- announcing his convictions, and from lightborough's victories having given a lustre to ness in abandoning them; and held him their administration, which for awhile com- forth to his contemporaries, in an age when pelled the queen to dissemble her partiality public virtue was rare indeed, a spectacle for their adversaries. According to the of pure unsullied integrity. To this he Duchess of Marlborough, Anne was pre-joined all the amenities which gain pervailed upon by Harley or Bolingbroke to sonal friends, and make the happiness of play upon Somers's ambition, with the hope, private life. Neither the cares of law nor apparently, of winning him over to the statesmanship could extinguish his taste Tories.

for elegant literature and the fine arts. He “I remember,” says the duchess, “to have was a liberal and a discerning patron. It been at several of Lord Son rs' conversatio is to him that Addison owed the leisure and with Queen Anne, to fill out their tea, and wash competency which enabled him to write the their cups. 'Tis certain that as soon as he got “Spectator,” and to pronounce that postinto his post, to obtain which I so often urged the humous eulogy of his benefactor, which Queen, he made his court to Abigail [Mrs. Ma will preserve his memory as long as the sham), and very seldom came to me, and it is true that Lord Oxford and St. John used to laugh English language shall exist, and in the in their cups—which came out by Lord Devon words of which we may here conclude: shire that they had instructed the Queen to be. have so as to make Lord Somers think he should “ He had worn bimself out in his application be her chief minister. She could act a part very to such studies as made him useful or ornamental well when her lesson was given her; and in a to the world, in concerting schemes for the wellittle time it appeared very plain to the Duke of fare of his country, and in prosecuting such meaMarlborough and Lord Godolphin, that Somers sures as were necessary for making those schemes thought of nothing so much as to flatter the Queen, effectual; but all this was done with a view to and went to her personally in private.”—Camp., p. the public good that should arise of these generous 203.

endeavors, and not of the fame that should accrue

to himself. Let the reputation of the action fall But any expectation of detaching Somers where it would, so his country reaped the benefit from the Whigs must have been founded on of it, he was satisfied. As this tumn of mind an ignorance of his character. He adhered threw off, in a great measure, the oppositions of to his opinions through many vicissitudes envy and competition, it enabled him to gain the

most vain and impracticable into his designs, and of fortune, with a constancy which no mo- to bring about several great events for the safety tives of personal ambition or interest could and advantage of the public which must have died shake. When the people grew tired of lin the birth had he been as desirous of appearing

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beneficial to mankind as of being so. His life strength of reason. By approving the sentiments was in every part of it set off with that graceful of a person with whom he conversed, in such parmodesty and reserve, which made his virtues more ticulars as were just, he won him over from those beautiful ihe more they were cast in such agree- points in which he was mistaken ; and had so able shades. His great humanity appeared in the agreeable a way of conveying knowledge, that minutest circumstances of his conversation ; you whoever conferred with him grew the wiser, found it in the benevolence of his aspect, the com- without perceiving that he had been instructed. placency of his behavior, and the tone of bis His principles were founded in reason and supvoice. His great application to the severer studies ported by virtue, and, therefore, did not lie at the of the law had not infected his temper with any mercy of ambition, avarice, or resentment. His thing positive or litigious; he did not know what notions were no less steady and unshaken, than it was to wrangle on indifferent points, to triumph just and upright. In a word, he concluded his in the superiority of his understanding, or to be course among the same well-chosen friendships and supercilious on the side of truth. He joined the alliances with which he began it.”_" Freeholder,” greatest delicacy of good breeding to the greatest No. 39.

From the Dublin University Magazine.



Soon after the elevation of Louis Philippe nomination as contrary to the policy which to the throne of France, that sagacious he considered it the interest of France to sovereign, desiring to draw closer the bonds adopt. M. Bignon concurred with the of national amity with Britain ; and feel- other ministers in disapproving such an aping, moreover, that France, emerging from pointment. Finding such to be the unania great internal political convulsion, with a mous opinion of the cabinet, the king put throne unsupported by the traditions of the an end to the conference. past or the right of legitimacy, had need of The following day Talleyrand dined with support from foreign alliance, and could M. Lafitte. " I thank you," said he, to look nowhere at that moment for such aid the minister, “for the compliments you and countenance so naturally as to Britain, paid me yesterday at the chateau. I know the first of the European States which ac- all: the king has related it to me.” “ You knowledged the Revolution of the Barri- are aware, then,” replied Lafitte, “ of the cades, ardently wished to send to London, terms in which I spoke of your capacity.” as his representative, a diplomatist distin- "Let that pass,” rejoined Talleyrand. guished at once by great ability, by a pre-“I added," continued Lafitte, “that I disposition to the British alliance, and by believed you to be incapable of violating the respect which illustrious descent is so your word.' “That," resumed Talleysure to obtain from the British aristocracy. rand," is what I meant to thank you for.With these views his choice fell on Talley-" It is quite true, however," observed Larand. On the 4th September, 1830, he fitte, “ that I also spoke of your unpopuaccordingly submitted to the council of his larity.” Talleyrand smiled, and was siministers, assembled in the Tuileries, the lent. In a few hours afterwards Lafitte question of nominating his highness the learned from the mouth of the king that Prince Talleyrand to the embassy at Lon- Talleyrand was ambassador to the Court of don. This proposition instantly met seri- St. James. ous opposition in the cabinet: M. Lafitte This was one of the earliest cases in declared that such a choice would, in his which Louis Philippe showed that determiopinion, be attended with considerable dan- nation to interfere personally in the affairs ger, inasmuch as it would be extremely un- of the state, which has since rendered his popular. This opinion was still more reign so remarkable, and excited such lively warmly espoused by M. Dupont (de remonstrances on the part of the advocates l'Eure). Count Molė, who is well known for constitutional government, who regard to have always leaned to a Russian rather the Royal irresponsibility, and the abstithan an English alliance, opposed such al nence of the sovereign from personal interference in the administration of the politi-i menacing the northern frontier of France. cal business of the state, as correlative This object being attained, M. de Talleyprinciples.

rand finished his mission, and consummated The announcement of the appointment of his work by signing the treaty of quadruple Talleyrand to the embassy produced a live-alliance, which united France, England, ly sensation in England; and his known Spain, and Portugal, in a common league inclinations in favor of an alliance between in favor of peninsular civilization, and opEngland and France, gave rise to the most posed the league of the west to that of the favorable anticipations among the commer- north, in the interest of the cause of concial interests, as well as among those who stitutional government on the Continent of looked forward to the inestimable advanta- Europe. ges of the continuance of the general peace. He then finally retired from public life.

On being presented at the Court of St. He desired that between this world and the James, Talleyrand delivered an address to next a short season for reflection and repose the following effect:

should intervene. Nevertheless, one event

was destined to draw him again from his “SiRE–Of all the vicissitudes to which my retirement. The flame which was sinking great age has exposed me-of all the various situ, in the socket was still to give an expiring ations into which the last forty years, so fruitful

flicker. His friend and contemporary, the in extraordinary events, have seen me thrown, none have so entirely satisfied my wishes as that learned thaugh unobtrusive Count Reinhart, appointment which has brought me once more to preceded him to the tomb, at an advanced this happy country. Common principles age. They had often met and co-operated draw more and more closely together these iwo in their long and eventful career. They great nations England, like France, repudiates the had witnessed the same political convulprinciple of intervention in the internal concerns of sions, the same succession of revolutions ; other nations ; and as the ambassador of a royalty and the departure of the one from the stage unanimously elected by a great people, I feel myself at ease upon a land of freedom,

near a descend- of life was a knell which foreboded the ant of the illustrious house of Brunswick.” speedy exit of the other. Both were dis

tinguished members of the Academy of His first efforts in his new.capacity were Moral and Political Sciences. It is the directed to reproduce and realize the de- custom of that body, on the decease of any signs which, under less auspicious circum- of its more eminent members, to cause an stances, he had urged upon the British éloge to be delivered by some one, selected Government in 1792. More successful at the for the purpose, among the survivors. Talclose than in the opening of his long career, leyrand conceived a wish to offer this tribute he succeeded in bringing into a friendly al- of respect to the memory of his deceased liance two nations which rival pretensions friend, and the Academy hailed with unhad so long separated, but which he con- mingled pleasure the opportunity of heartended analogous institutions and common ing for the last time that voice which had foreign interests ought to combine. The so often persuaded sovereigns, and of beholdcabinets of Europe, seeing this aged and ing that venerable visage, the indications profound diplomatist, whose 'sagacity, en- of whose lineaments so often harbingered larged by vast experience, and whose unva- the fate of nations. The aged diplomate rying moderation, they so well knew, ap- himself was also moved to this proceeding pointed to represent the Revolution at one from the desire to bring to a final close, in of the most distinguished of the old courts, the peaceful sanctuary of science, an existfelt a stronger faith in the stability of its ence which had been chequered by events so results, and a more favorable disposition to extraordinary, and agitated by revolutions be reconciled to the existing state of things, for which history affords no parallel. and to treat on practicable terms with the On Saturday, the 3d March, 1838, the new government. Placed by the ascenden- meeting of the Academy was held, at which cy of his renown and his talent at the head it had been announced that M. de Talleyof the conference of London, M. de Talley- rand would personally deliver the academic rand succeeded in reconciling the powers to éloge on his deceased friend, M. de Reinthe dissolution of that union between Bel-hart. It was known that this would be the gium and Holland, which they had estab- last public appearance of the venerable lished in 1814, and in procuring the acknow-statesman and diplomatist. Nothing could ledgment of the independence of Belgium, exceed the excitement among all the more which thenceforth would cover, instead of elevated and enlightened classes which this


event produced. The meeting 'assumed all manner of the most complete abandon. He must the external appearances of a solemnity. display his ability even in the selection of his Long before the appointed hour, the hali amusements. His conversation must be simple and

varied : his remarks unexpected, but still natural was completely filled. Every space where

and naïve. In a word, he must not allow himself, an individual could stand or sit was oc- for one moment,

day or night, to forget that he is cupied. The élite of the high and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. gifted were there. The most elevated offi- “ Nevertheless, all these qualities, however cial functionaries, those most renowned in rare they may be, can avail nothing, if good faith literature, science, and the arts ; the nota- do not give them the support of which they stand bilities of foreign countries, the most emi- in need. I desire to insist the more on this, in ornent of the diplomatic corps, were all as- No! Diplomacy is not a science of duplicity. If

der to remove a prejudice which generally prevails, sembled, expressing in their countenances good faith be necessary anywhere, it is eminently intense interest. Among this multitude so in political transactions, because it alone can our eye successively rested on the well render them solid and durable. Stratagem is often known features of MM. Royer Collard, confounded with reserve.

Good faith can never Guizot, Thiers, Cousin, Villemain, Quatre- permit the one, but it fully warrants the other. mère de Quincy, de Bassano, Lemercier, Reserve is even to be the more recommended, beFauriel, Molé, de Montalivet,' de St. Au? cause instead of destroying, it augments confidence.

“Ruled by the honor and interest of his country, laire, de Barante, de Jaucourt, de Flahault, and by the honor and interest of his sovereign-by Bertin de Vaux, de Noailles, de Valençay, the love of that liberty which is founded on order Princes Esterhazy and d’Aremberg, &c. and on the rights of all-a Minister of Foreign

When the chair was taken by the Presi- Affairs, who is thus qualified to fill his office, is dent, the old wreck of all the Revolutions placed in the finest position 10 which an elevated entered, leaning on the arm of M. Mignet, mind can aspire.” the Perpetual Secretary of the Academy At the conclusion of this discourse, M. He took a seat which had been prepared for Droz, the President, expressed to M. de him, facing the President. He was costum- Talleyrand with much dignity and grace ed and coiffed as a high noble of the ancien the thanks of the Academy, and the octogerégime, exhibiting to the attentive eyes of narian retired loaded with the felicitations the numerous auditory that impassible se- of the most eminent individuals of his audirenity of look that no catastrophe was ever tory. able to discompose. With a firm and clear Notwithstanding his advanced age, such voice, and perfect articulation, he read an was the vigor of his faculties, and the brilelegant discourse, in which he noticed the liancy of his wit, that his friends had no various public functions which his late apprehension of the near approach of his friend had fulfilled, and the eminent abili- departure from this world. It was about ties he displayed. This gave occasion for two months after this memorable meeting general reflections on the qualities necessary of the Academy, that he felt the sudden atto a minister of foreign affairs, and every tack of the malady which was destined to order and class of diplomatist, from a con- bring his mortal life to a speedy close. · He sul upwards. M. Reinhart had in early bore, with a tranquil resignation and firm life, like M. de Talleyrand himself, studied courage, which never deserted him, the agotheology. This afforded an occasion for ny of several cruelly painful operations. some curious reflections on the benefit which During this illness, which was destined a statesman and diplomatist must derive to close his mortal career, the mind of the from the early discipline of an ecclesiastical great statesman and diplomate continually education. In illustration of these views, reverted to the past, and his tenacious mehe adduced the examples of Cardinal Chan- mory evolved before him the several events cellor Duprat, Cardinal d'Ossat, Cardinal which he had witnessed, and in most of de Polignac, and M. de Lyonne.

which he had borde a distinguished part. Observing on the qualities displayed by His nights, often sleepless from bodily sufM. de Reinhart, when he was Minister of Fo- fering, were occupied with these meditareign Affairs, M. de Talleyrand said, tions.

A paper was found on his table one

morning, on which he had written, by the “ A Minister of Foreign Affairs ought to be en light of the lamp, such lines as these :dowed with a sort of instinct which shall warn

" Behold eighty-three years past away

y ! him against compromising himself before serious discussion. He must have the faculty of appearing

What cares !--what agitation !- what anxfrank and open when he is really impenetrable ; of ieties !—what ill-will :—what sad complicamaintaining the most absolute reserve with the tions !--and all without other result, ex


cept great fatigue of body and mind, and a than equivalent to an oath formally taken profound sentiment of discouragement with before any earthly tribunal. Talleyrand regard to the future, and disgust with re- directed a few of his most confidential friends gard to the past !"

to be called round his bed, and in their preFor three months, he had been in con- sence, and that of his domestic attendants, stant communication with the Abbé Dupan- solemnly signed two documents, which he loup, with whom he conversed daily on the had previously written. One was a declasubject of religion. This was not a move- ration of the principles which had guided ment of the mom

ment, prompted by the ap- him in his political career; and the other proach of death, or induced by the feeble- a letter to the pope, declaring his faith in ness of age and the prostration of bodily in the Roman Catholic religion, and expressdisposition—it was a step he had long con- ing repentance for certain acts of his pubtemplated. On the occasion of delivering lic life, in regard to the Catholic Church. his éloge of Count Reinhart, he was heard This declaration of his principles was to say, as he left the hall," I have still also annexed to his will, in which it was one duty to perform, and I will do it.” expressly directed that it should be read in (J'ai quelque chose à faire et je le ferai.”) the presence of his family. The following That duty was his re-establishment in the is a summary of this declaration : communion of the Christian Church. He That in all his public conduct he was decided on doing this in such a manner, at guided by a preference of the interests of such a moment, and surrounded by such France to all other things, and to all percircumstances of solemnity as would, he sonal considerations. imagined, render it impossible for any one That he maintained invariably that the to question its sincerity and good faith, or Bourbons were restored to the throne, not to ascribe it to any other motive than a pro- by any acknowledgment of any hereditary found conviction of the truth and efficacy right, but because it was deemed the arof the doctrine to which he gave so solemn rangement which, in the circumstances then an assent.

existing, was most beneficial for France ;It has been said, but without any suffi- that he had declared this to Louis XVII. cient grounds, that the attention of Talley, and to his family, and had earnestly counrand to religious subjects was first awaken- selled them to adopt a system of liberal ed by the spectacle of the daughter of his policy in accordance with such a principle; niece, the Duchesse de Dino, a child to that he denies ever having betrayed Napowhom he was most tenderly attached, go- leon; he abandoned him only when he saw ing to her first communion-an occasion that it was impossible that he could be which, among Roman Catholics, is always at once attached to him and to France ; regarded as one of peculiar solemnity. It and that even then he did not leave him is not improbable that, in the state of mind without the most lively grief, seeing that he likely to precede his departure from this owed to him almost his whole fortune. He life, he may have been more touched with enjoined his heirs never to forget this; to such an object, than if it had passed before repeat it to their children, and their chilhim amidst the active and busy scenes in dren's children, and to let it go down from which he had been habitually engaged. generation to generation—that if ever one But that such an incident could produce, in of the name of Talleyrand witnessed one of a mind like that of Talleyrand's, the effects the name of Bonaparte in need, they must ascribed to it, is a supposition the absurdity regard it as a sacred duty to give assistof which is so conspicuous, that it is difficult ance to them. to imagine how it could be entertained by To those who reproach him with having any serious writer.

successively served all governments, he reIn accordance with the determination plies that he had no scruple in doing so; which he had taken, and to which he alluded that he acted so because he considered, on the occasion of his last visit to the Insti- that in whatever situation the country tute, he waited until he became sensible of might be placed, it was always his duty to the near approach of the moment of his depar- render it his services to the utmost extent ture from this life-a moment at which, ac- of his power, and that, according to his cording to the universal sentiments of man- judgment, such was the duty of every citizen. kind, a declaration of any kind is to be regard- The letter to the pope was an explicit ed as assuming the most solemn charac- acceptation of the Roman Catholic faith, ter, and however made, as being more in which he was prepared to die.

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