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occupant, ad interim, for the ministry de-critical, with the provinces in a state so signed for M. Pozzo, and an opportunity of unsettled. executing his purpose was not slow to pre- “ You will not long have the trouble," sent itself.

answered Talleyrand. “I will only ask M. Pasquier, now the president of the you to remain in the Ministry of the InteChamber of Peers, was, so early as the pe- rior until the arrival of the Emperor of riod we refer to, a person of high political Russia, with whom I want to have a per. consideration. He came from Paris to the sonal conference ; for we must make some chateau of Arnouville, where Louis XVIII. concession to him.” was waiting, preparatory to his entry into The same evening the ministry was comthe capital, to offer his advice against any pleted. violent reactionary measures, and in favor The practical effects of the counsels of of a prudent deference to public opinion on Talleyrand, and the influence he exercised the part of the king. As he was leaving over the mind and conduct of Louis XVIII., the royal chamber, Talleyrand followed in spite of the aversion with which that him, and seized the opportunity of a con- monarch regarded him, are now matter of versation. “I will take you in my car- history. The proclamation of Cambria, in riage, M. Pasquier,” said he, “I wish to which the faults of 1814 were acknowhave some conversation with you. I am ledged, and pledges given to repair them, going to the Duke of Wellington, to make was of his dictation. He suggested also the final arrangements for the formation of the ordonnance issued the same day, in the cabinet, and for the public entry of the which the charter was liberalized ; the age king into the capital. I reckon upon you at which a candidate became eligible to the as one of the cabinet. You shall choose representative chamber was reduced from your office. Our principles are-unity of forty to twenty-five; the number of depupolitical views—the most honorable peace ties, previously limited to two hundred and which can be effected—the evacuation of sixty-two, was increased to three hundred the French territory by the allied armies, and eighty-five; the initiative of laws was giving them an indemnity-no reaction-conceded to the chamber, which before was nd other reference to the past, except to confined to the crown; members of the allow the regulated course of justice with Legion of Honor were admitted to the regard to the most prominent actors dur- Electoral Colleges, and the age, qualifying ing the Hundred Days. I must not con- an elector to vote, was reduced to twentyceal from you that Fouché is to enter the one. While he thus gave a more democabinet. He is necessary.”

cratic character to the representative cham- . M. Pasquier answered, “ I know the ser- ber, he required that the peerage should be vices that Fouché has rendered, and the hereditary, with the view of securing more motives of gratitude which the Royalists effectually its independence. must feel towards him, for all that has But this revival of the liberal spirit, and passed within the last three months ; but the concession of the ideas of the revolunever forget that he, whose office it is to tion, were not destined to be permanent. watch others, will require to be most care- Louis XVIII. had not long resumed his fully watched himself.”

place on the throne, when the party of the Talleyrand replied, “The matter is emigration threw off their temporary dissettled. The Duke of Wellington has guise of moderation and compromise. Talmade a formal demand to that effect to the Teyrand was also decided in his estimate of king, and we cannot now retrace our steps. the generosity and disinterestedness of the But for yourself; choose your office ; you foreign powers, which had now, for a second are indispensable for us, and the king de- time, cantoned their troops in the capital, sires your services.”

planted their cannon on the quays and M. Pasquier named the Ministry of Jus- bridges, and bivouacked in the Champs tice.

Elysées. They professed to have come, “Very well,” promptly replied Talley- not to make war on France or its people, rand, “ it is agreed; but it is indispensa- but to expel the military dictator who was ble that for the present you should fill the placed over the country by the army. Once Ministry of the Interior also.”

in possession of the capital, these promises M. Pasquier remonstrated at the double were broken, and these generous professions responsibility, especially at a moment so forgotten. The works of art were taken

out of the Louvre, and sent back to the ration of the territory to its rightful owner. places from whence they had been obtained Now, the allied powers treated the late by former conquests. It was demanded by enterprise of Bonaparte as an act of usura diplomatic note, dated 20th September, pation, and regarded Louis XVIII, as the 1815, that the territory, which had been real sovereign of France. They have made ceded to France the preceding year, should war in support of his rights, and they are, be now surrendered ; that the King of the therefore, bound to respect them. They Netherlands should resume the territory have recognised this obligation in the declathat formerly belonged to Belgium ; that ration which they issued on the 13th, and Savoy should be surrendered to the King the treaty which they signed on the 25th of Sardinia ; that France should surrender March, in which they have recognised Louis the forts of Condé, Philippeville, Marien- XVIII. as an ally, leagued with them against burg, Givet, Charleroi, Sanelouis, and Lan- a common enemy. If conquest be inadmisdau; that the fortifications of Huningen sible against a friendly power, it is à fortiori should be razed ; that France should pay a impossible against an allied sovereign.” contribution of thirty-two millions sterling, * We live,” added Talleyrand, “ at an of which eight millions were to be applied epoch, when, more than at any former to the construction of forts in the territory period, it is important to confirm the world lying adjacent to the French frontiers; in its confidence in the word of kings. The that, moreover, she should pay thirty mil- sacrifices now demanded from his most lions sterling, as an indemnity for the losses Christian Majesty would weaken that faith, occasioned by the various wars of invasion after the declaration in which the allied she had carried on in Europe since the powers announced that they took arms only Revolution; and, finally, that a foreign against Bonaparte and his adherents; after army of a hundred and fifty thousand men, the treaty, in which they pledged themmaintained at the expense of France, should selves to maintain, in their full integrity, occupy the northern part of the kingdom the stipulations of the treaty of the 30th for a period of seven years.

May, 1814, which cannot be maintained if the M. Talleyrand remonstrated in the most integrity of the French territory is violated; indignant spirit against these conditions, and after the proclamations of their genéwhich ke pronounced to be oppressive and rals-in-chief, in which the like assurances insulting-an unworthy abuse of the advan- are given.” tages gained by measures, in which the king He entreated them to reflect that France and his friends were induced to accept the would never cease to seek the recovery of aid of the allies, and in which Talleyrand that of which she must always believe herhimself co-operated, on the faith of the self to have been unjustly deprived; that assurance, that the war was against Napo- she would impute as a crime to Louis leon, and not against France. He de- XVIII. those cessions of territory which nounced such proposals, therefore, as a would be regarded as the price paid by him flagrant breach of faith on the part of the for foreign aid ; that they would operate as allies--as an act of unparalleled and un- a continual obstacle to the re-establishment justifiable oppression towards France—an of the government of the Restoration ; and unworthy and unwise manifestation of a finally, that they would destroy that Eurovindictive spirit on the part of Europe. In pean equilibrium, to establish which had his diplomatic note of the 21st September, cost so many efforts, by the extent of terrihe demonstrated, that such terms could tory which France ought to possess, only be imposed in virtue of the rights of cessity of which could not then be denied, conquest, and that these rights, by the since it had been admitted in the territorial confession of the allies themselves, had no arrangements made the year before. existence in the present case.“ Conquest," This appeal to the public law of Europe said Talleyrand, can only be made where and the faith of engagements, as well as to war has been waged against the possessor of considerations of high policy, availed noa territory—that is to say, over its sove- thing against the excited passions, and the reign, the right of possession and sovereignty irrepressible thirst for vengeance which prebeing identical. But when war is waged vailed at that moment. In 1814, the claims against one who has unlawfully usurped a and remonstrances of Talleyrand were susthrone, with the view of restoring this tained by the Emperor Alexander. The country to its legitimate sovereign, there opposition and personal hostility of that can be no conquest—there is only the resto- sovereign were, however, now raised to a

the ne

high pitch by the success of Talleyrand in four powers, now more closely allied than thwarting his ambitious designs at Vienna, ever, and that no resource remained but to and still more at the Treaty of the 5th have recourse to the friendly aid of the January, concocted by Talleyrand between Emperor Alexander. “ Are you, then, England, Austria, and France, against gentlemen," continued the king, “ in a conRussia and Prussia.

dition to adopt such a course with any prosFour days after receiving the note, de- pect of a favorable result?” Talleyrand, claring the demands of the allied powers, easily perceiving the drift of this question, and three days after he had sent the answer answered without hesitation, that neither above quoted, Talleyrand resigned. He himself nor his colleagues were personally was driven from office by the intemperate agreeable to the Czar, and that such a proexcesses of the party of the Restoration, ceeding as that proposed by his majesty and the unbridled exactions of the invading would be attended with great difficulties on powers. He quitted the government be- their parts. This answer seemed to give cause, instead of enlarging and consolidat- great relief to the king, who did not dising the liberties of the people, it gave way semble his satisfaction, and addedto an immoderate spirit of reaction ; be- “ I can easily believe, gentlemen, what cause, instead of maintaining the integrity you tell me. The Emperor of Russia has of France, as settled in 1814, it permitted not concealed from me the fact, that if I unresistingly its dismemberment; because, had intrusted the direction of my governinstead of delivering the country from the ment to other hands, the most favorable presence of the invader, a permanent for-conditions would have been granted to me, eign garrison was established in it. He and that he would himself have protected quitted power, in a word, because he would the interests of France in the councils of not consent to promote the violence of the the allies, especially against the exactions counter-revolutionary party, nor to sign of Prussia, which was most pressing in her treaties which he regarded as an humilia- demands." tion to his country. He resigned office on “In that case,” Talleyrand promptly the 24th of September, 1815, two months answered, “I entreat your majesty to albefore the final signature and ratification of low me to withdraw from your councils, a treaty which cost France eighty millions that your majesty may be free to place your sterling, and deprived her of more territory confidence in more worthy hands." than she had gained in 1814.

The Duke de Dalberg and Baron Louis The last interview of Louis XVIII. with also tendered their resignations. Talleyrand and his colleagues, which led to The King resumed—“ You see how I the resignation of the cabinet, is too charac- am constrained by circumstances. I thank teristic of the subject of this notice to be you for your zeal. You are all free from omitted here. When Talleyrand perceived blame, and nothing, prevents you from rein the manner of the king, and the move- maining unmolested in Paris.” ments within the chateau, that a secret in- The indignation of Talleyrand was extrigue was in progress, directed against him, cited to an unusual pitch by the last exin the royal cabinet, he decided at once pression, proceeding from one who had been that he would bring the matter to a crisis. raised by his personal zeal and abilities to With this view, he caused a new diplomatic the throne of one of the greatest nations of note, and ultimatum, to be prepared by his the globe. He replied with a warmth secretary, M. Labernardière, designed to which seldom marked his words or gesbe transmitted to the plenipotentiaries of turesthe allied powers, in case it should receive “I have had the good fortune to render the royal sanction. He presented himself, your majesty such services as are not likely accompanied by the principal ministers, his to be forgotten, and I know not what should colleagues, with this note to the king. Af- render it necessary for me to leave Paris. ter the note had been read by Talleyrand, I will remain here, and shall be only too Louis XVIII., without commenting upon it, happy if your majesty's advisers may not much less proceeding to correct or alter it, follow a course which may compromise your as was his invariable habit, commenced a dynasty, and peril the country.” general conversation on the state of the ne- The king affected not to attend to these gotiation, and the mutual relations of the words, and uttering some common-places allied powers.

He observed that he was of royal courtesy, brought the audience to aware of the impossibility of disuniting the a close.

out of the Louvre, and sent back to the ration of the territory to its rightful owner. places from whence they had been obtained Now, the allied powers treated the late by former conquests. It was demanded by enterprise of Bonaparte as an act of usura diplomatic note, dated 20th September, pation, and regarded Louis XVIII. as the 1815, that the territory, which had been real sovereign of France. They have made ceded to France the preceding year, should war in support of his rights, and they are, be now surrendered ; that the King of the therefore, bound to respect them. They Netherlands should resume the territory have recognised this obligation in the declathat formerly belonged to Belgium; that ration which they issued on the 13th, and Savoy should be surrendered to the King the treaty which they signed on the 25th of Sardinia ; that France should surrender March, in which they have recognised Louis the forts of Condé, Philippeville, Marien- XVIII. as an ally, leagued with them against burg, Givet, Charleroi, Sanelouis, and Lan-, a common enemy. If conquest be inadmisdau; that the fortifications of Huningen sible against a friendly power, it is à fortiori should be razed ; that France should pay a impossible against an allied sovereign.' contribution of thirty-two millions sterling, is We live," added Talleyrand," at an of which eight millions were to be applied epoch, when, more than at any former to the construction of forts in the territory period, it is important to confirm the world lying adjacent to the French frontiers; in its confidence in the word of kings. The that, moreover, she should pay thirty mil- sacrifices now demanded from his most lions sterling, as an indemnity for the losses Christian Majesty would weaken that faith, occasioned by the various wars of invasion after the declaration in which the allied she had carried on in Europe since the powers announced that they took arms only Revolution ; and, finally, that a foreign against Bonaparte and his adherents; after army of a hundred and fifty thousand men, the treaty, in which they pledged themmaintained at the expense of France, should selves to maintain, in their full integrity, occupy the northern part of the kingdom the stipulations of the treaty of the 30th for a period of seven years.

May, 1814,which cannot be maintained if the M. Talleyrand remonstrated in the most integrity of the French territory is violated; indignant spirit against these conditions, and after the proclamations of their genéwhich ke pronounced to be oppressive and rals-in-chief, in which the like assurances insulting-an unworthy abuse of the advan- are given.tages gained by measures, in which the king He entreated them to reflect that France and his friends were induced to accept the would never cease to seek the recovery of aid of the allies, and in which Talleyrand that of which she must always believe herhimself co-operated, on the faith of the self to have been unjustly deprived ; that assurance, that the war was against Napo- she would impute as a crime to Louis leon, and not against France. He de- XVIII. those cessions of territory which nounced such proposals, therefore, as a would be regarded as the price paid by him flagrant breach of faith on the part of the for foreign aid ; that they would operate as allies--as an act of unparalleled and un- a continual obstacle to the re-establishment justifiable oppression towards France-an of the government of the Restoration ; and unworthy and unwise manifestation of a finally, that they would destroy that Eurovindictive spirit on the part of Europe. In pean equilibrium, to establish which had his diplomatic note of the 21st September, cost so many efforts, by the extent of terrihe demonstrated, that such terms could tory which France ought to possess, the neonly be imposed'in virtue of the rights of cessity of which could not then be denied, conquest, and that these rights, by the since it had been admitted in the territorial confession of the allies themselves, had no arrangements made the year before. existence in the present case.“ Conquest,” This appeal to the public law of Europe said Talleyrand," can only be made where and the faith of engagements, as well as to war has been waged against the possessor of considerations of high policy, availed noa territory--that is to say, over its sove- thing against the excited passions, and the reign, the right of possession and sovereignty irrepressible thirst for vengeance which prebeing identical. But when war is waged vailed at that moment. In 1814, the claims against one who has unlawfully usurped a and remonstrances of Talleyrand were susthrone, with the view of restoring this tained by the Emperor Alexander. The country to its legitimate sovereign, there opposition and personal hostility of that can be no conquest—there is only the resto- sovereign were, however, now raised to a

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high pitch by the success of Talleyrand in four powers, now more closely allied than thwarting his ambitious designs at Vienna, ever, and that no resource remained but to and still more at the Treaty of the 5th have recourse to the friendly aid of the January, concocted by Talleyrand between Emperor Alexander. “ Are you, then, England, Austria, and France, against gentlemen,” continued the king, “ in a conRussia and Prussia.

dition to adopt such a course with any prosFour days after receiving the note, de- pect of a favorable result ?” Talleyrand, claring the demands of the allied powers, easily perceiving the drift of this question, and three days after he had sent the answer answered without hesitation, that neither above quoted, Talleyrand resigned. He himself nor his colleagues were personally was driven from office by the intemperate agreeable to the Czar, and that such a proexcesses of the party of the Restoration, ceeding as that proposed by his majesty and the unbridled exactions of the invading would be attended with great difficulties on powers. He quitted the government be- their parts. This answer seemed to give cause, instead of enlarging and consolidat- great relief to the king, who did not dising the liberties of the people, it gave way semble his satisfaction, and addedto an immoderate spirit of reaction ; be- “I can easily believe, gentlemen, what cause, instead of maintaining the integrity you tell me. The Emperor of Russia has of France, as settled in 1814, it permitted not concealed from me the fact, that if I unresistingly its dismemberment; because, had intrusted the direction of my governinstead of delivering the country from the ment to other hands, the most favorable presence of the invader, a permanent for-conditions would have been granted to me, eign garrison was established in it. He and that he would himself have protected quitted power, in a word, because he would the interests of France in the councils of not consent to promote the violence of the the allies, especially against the exactions counter-revolutionary party, nor to sign of Prussia, which was most pressing in her treaties which he regarded as an humilia- demands.' tion to his country. He resigned office on “ In that case,” Talleyrand promptly the 24th of September, 1815, two months answered, “I entreat your majesty to albefore the final signature and ratification of low me to withdraw from your councils, a treaty which cost France eighty millions that your majesty may be free to place your sterling, and deprived her of more territory confidence in more worthy hands.” than she had gained in 1814.

The Duke de Dalberg and Baron Louis The last interview of Louis XVIII. with also tendered their resignations. Talleyrand and his colleagues, which led to The King resumed—“You see how I the resignation of the cabinet, is too charac- am constrained by circumstances. I thank teristic of the subject of this notice to be you for your zeal. You are all free from omitted here. When Talleyrand perceived blame, and nothing prevents you from rein the manner of the king, and the move- maining unmolested in Paris.” ments within the chateau, that a secret in- The indignation of Talleyrand was extrigue was in progress, directed against him, cited to an unusual pitch by the last exin the royal cabinet, he decided at once pression, proceeding from one who had been that he would bring the matter to a crisis. raised by his personal zeal and abilities to With this view, he caused a new diplomatic the throne of one of the greatest nations of note, and ultimatum, to be prepared by his the globe. He replied with a warmth secretary, M. Labernardière, designed to which seldom marked his words or gesbe transmitted to the plenipotentiaries of turesthe allied powers, in case it should receive “ I have had the good fortune to render the royal sanction. He presented himself, your majesty such services as are not likely accompanied by the principal ministers, his to be forgotten, and I know not what should colleagues, with this note to the king. Af- render it necessary for me to leave Paris. ter the note had been read by Talleyrand, I will remain here, and shall be only too Louis XVIII., without commenting upon it, happy if your majesty's advisers may not much less proceeding to correct or alter it, follow a course which may compromise your as was his invariable habit, commenced a dynasty, and peril the country.” general conversation on the state of the ne- The king affected not to attend to these gotiation, and the mutual relations of the words, and uttering some common-places allied powers.

He observed that he was of royal courtesy, brought the audience to aware of the impossibility of disuniting the a close.

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