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As to " Cato," Schlosser, as usual, wan- such as his utter perversion of what Mandeders in the shadow of ancient night. The ville said about Addison (viz. by suppressEnglish “people,” it seems, so “extrava- ing one word, and misapprehending all the gantly applauded” this wretched drama, rest). Such, again, as his point-blank misthat
you might suppose them to have“ alto- statement of Addison's infirmity in his offigether changed their nature," and to have cial character, which was not that “he forgotten Shakspeare. That man must have could not prepare despatches in a good forgotten Shakspeare, indeed, and from ra- style,” but diametrically the opposite case mollissement of the brain, who could admire that he insisted too much on style, to the 56 Cato."
says Schlosser, “it was serious retardation of public business. But only a 'fashion ;' and the English soon re- all these things are as nothing to what pented.” The English could not repent of Schlosser says elsewhere. He actually dea crime which they had never committed. scribes Addison, on the whole, as a
dull Cato was not popular for a moment, nor prosaist,” and the patron of pedantry! tolerated for a moment, upon any literary Addison, the man of all that ever lived ground, or as a work of art. It was an ap- most hostile even to what was good in peple of temptation and strife thrown by the dantry, to its tendencies towards the progoddess of faction between two infuriated found in erudition and the non-popular; parties. “ Cato," coming from a man Addison, the champion of all that is easy, without Parliamentary connexions, would natural, superficial, a pedant and a master have dropped lifeless to the ground. The of pedantry! Get down, Schlosser, this Whigs have always affected a special love moment ; or let me get out. and favor for popular counsels : they have never ceased to give themselves the best of
English Post-OFFICE STATISTICS.— The following characters as regards public freedom. The details are extracted from a Parliamentary return Tories, as contra-distinguished to the Jaco-issued on the 14th of June :-The gross revenue of bites, knowing that without their aid the the Post-office, arising from every source whatsoever, Revolution could not have been carried, 007 15s. id. Deduct estimated amount of foreign most justly contended that the national lib- and colonial postage for the same year, based on ac. erties had been at least as much indebted to counts kept in the months of September, October, themselves. When, therefore, the Whigsmated gross revenue of the Post-office within the
and November last, £624.788 12s. 3d. The estiput forth their man Cato to mouthe speeches United Kingdom for the year ending 5th of January; about liberty, as exclusively their pet, and 1847, was therefore £1,379, 219 2s. 10d. Estimated about patriotism and all that sort of thing, amount of gross revenue derived from transit postage saying insultingly to the Tories, “ How do upon letters from beyond seas, during the year you like that? Does that sting?” “ Sting, months of May and June last, was £37,503. The indeed !” replied the Tories ; not at all; total number of letters to and from all places beyond it's quite refreshing to us, that the Whigs seas, taken at London, Liverpool, Hull, Dover
, have not utterly disowned such sentiments, is estimated at 8,640,456; the total number of news which, by their public acts, we really papers, ditto, ditto, at 2,698,376 ;, and the total thought they had." And, accordingly, as amount of postage for the same is estimated at £624,the popular anecdote tells us, a Tory leader, 788 12s. 3d. The costs incurred, and sums paid to Lord Bolingbroke, sent for Booth who per- posts, and foot runners and messengers, within the formed Cato, and presented him (populo United Kingdom, was £379,888 6s. Od., including spectante) with fifty guineas “for defending £22,961 7s. 3d., paid for tolls. The costs incurso well the cause of the people against a red for the distribution of letters in the metropolis perpetual dictator." In which words, ob- and other large towns of the United Kingdom, was
£76,654 6s. 4d. The gross revenue derived from serve, Lord Bolingbroke at once asserted postage and all letters from parts beyond seas, was the cause of his own party, and launched a £301,640 13s. 100. sarcasm against a great individual oppo- ENGLISH ABSENTEES IN France.-From a return nent, viz. Marlborough. Now, Mr. which has just been published by the Minister of the Schlosser, I have mended your harness; Interior al Paris, of the number of foreigners in all right ahead: so drive on once more.
France on the last of August instant, it appears that But, oh Castor and Pollux, whither--in of the country.
there are 75,000 English residents in different parts
Ai Paris and environs there are what direction is it, that the man is driving 35,000; at Boulogne, 7000; Calais and Basse us? Positively, Schlosser, you must stop Ville, 4000, &c.—the average annual expenditure of and let me get out. I'll go no further with whom amounts to nearly £5,000,000 sterling. This such a drunken coachman. Many another land, Italy, and the Mediterranean, Egypt, lodia, &c.,
does not include transitory tourists to Paris, Switzerabsurd thing I was going to have noticed, I via Marseilles.
From the North British Review.
HISTORY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINA.
1. A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to each of the Consular Cities of China, in
behalf of the Church Missionary Society, in the years 1844-5-6. By the Rev. George
Smith, M. A. of Magdalen Hall, Oxford London, 1847. 2. Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China. By Thomas TAYLOR
Meadows, Interpreter to Her Britannic Majesty's Consulate at Canton. London,
1847. 3. Three Years' Wanderings in China. By ROBERT FORTUNE, Botanical Collector for
the London Horticultural Society. London, 1847. 4. China and the Chinese Mission. By the Rev. James Hamilton, National Scotch
Church, Regent Square. London, 1847.
China is undoubtedly the most singular -it has opened up this vast empire to the country in the world. Possessing a popu- intercourse, and influence, and example of lation amounting to at least a third of the other races, and other modes of civilization. whole human race, and occupying a vast if it be not good for man to live alone, yet continuous and well defined porţion neither is it for nations; for we find that of the globe, it has existed as a peculiar the same narrow, contracted, and selfish and entirely secluded kingdom for a longer notions, which arise in the solitary and period of time than any other nation on the secluded individual, are no less apt to take face of the earth. While migrations and possession of the whole community Hence wars and foreign conquests were making the exclusive jealousy of strangers, the vain vast changes on the rest of the world—while boasting, and ignorance of the manners and nations were rising up from barbarism, history of all other nations, so conspicuous flourishing for a season, and then sinking in the Chinese. into insignificance, the Chinese held on in Hitherto our information regarding the one uniform tenor—with the same arts, the actual state of China has been derived from same government, the same laws, unchanged the basty survey of ambassadors quickly and uninterrupted, except by casual out- passing through it, or the casual reports of breaks and tumults within themselves, a few missionaries who had been permitted, which were soon calmed and smoothed under many restrictions, to enter the coun
While many mighty nations of the try. But now that five of the largest mawestern world were still in a state of com- ritime cities have been opened up by treaty parative barbarism, the Chinese had their to the trade and free intercourse of all navarious arts to embellish domestic life, — tions, we begin to have the accounts of they were clothed in their silks and cottons travellers who have made themselves ac—were expert in the culture of the soil - quainted with the language, and whose knew something of the nature of the mag- opportunities of observation have been more netic compass-of gunpowder, and various extensive and more unreserved than those other inventions still unheard of in Eu- of any of their predecessors. Of the works rope.
more recently published on this subject, we The extreme caution of their natures, a have selected a volume by the Rev. George certain timid and exclusive policy, which Smith, of the Church Missionary Society; has all along characterized their intercourse another volume by a Diplomatist, resident with surrounding nations, as much, perhaps, in Canton ; and a third by a scientific traas their self-conceit, which made them look veller ;-all of whom have spent from two down upon all others as barbarians, had to three years in China, and have acquired the effect of keeping them for so long a a knowledge of the language. It is true time in such a state of singular seclusion. that the range of these travellers has been At last, however, the spell has been broken; limited to the maritime cities and surroundan almost unavoidable war of aggression ing districts, and has not extended into the has done to them, what wars and conquests central parts of the empire, or even to the seem to have been the chief agents in per- capital, Pekin; but when it is considered forming among all the nations of the world that such a uniformity and sameness nera vade the whole empire--that the people is no permanent or hereditary nobility and institutions of any one province are so among this people. There are many old like to those of any other-it may be pre- families who are held in estimation, but the sumed that we glean from their partial ob- two great distinctions of the people are into servations a pretty accurate conception of the literary class and the plebeian. Adthe average condition of the whole empire. mission into the literary class is open to
The population of China, both from every individual of the empire, however native statements and the calculations of poor or unknown; and from this class alone foreigners, has been estimated at not less are selected all government officials, from than 360 millions. Immense as this amount the lowest clerk up to the greatest mandaof human beings appears, it is perhaps not rin. Candidates for admission are subjectan over-estimate. The city of Canton is ed to a strict and generally an impartial said to contain a million of inhabitants; examination. After having passed this that of Foo-chow 600,000; and the other first examination, they undergo a second cities visited are reported to be generally and more searching one before they can swarming with inhabitants. But even sup- become eligible for office ; and a third is posing the estimate above given to be necessary for those who aim at the highest correct, the whole area of China proper posts. The candidates for these literary contains 1,300,000 square miles, so that honors are always very numerous, and an we have to each square mile 277 human intense interest is shown at the periods of beings. Now, if we compare this rate of examination, both by the individuals thempopulation with that of England, as afforded selves and their relatives. A great many by the last census of 1841, we shall find are of course rejected, but these return that in it there are 297 persons to every again and again to their studies, and make square mile. We must not then be de- repeated attempts to pass the ordeal. ceived by exaggerated conceptions of the Once accepted, they are almost sure to sucextreme density of the population of China. ceed in time to some government employWith a comparatively level and arable ment, and the highest appointments are country, a rich soil, that in many localities open to all. So highly is admission into bears two crops a year, and an industrious this literary class prized by the people, that and frugal people, the average density of a successful aspirant sheds a lustre on his the population comes considerably short of family, and even ennobles his more humble that of England.
parents. With an extent of surface, and an amount The same government and laws extend of population equal to twenty-five Eng- over the whole of the empire, and each lands, this vast empire is ruled by the province has its full complement of Governdespotic sway of one individual. The ment officials. If we call to mind that each genius of a people most frequently moulds province is in extent equal to an ordinary their government. The mild and submis- European kingdom, we need not be surprised sive, and generally unimpassioned character at the number of these officials. There are, of the Chinese, peculiarly fits them for im- in the first place, three grand orders of plicit subjection. Their leading mental mandarins : 1st, the civil; 2d, the literary, characteristic is plain homely common sense who superintend the examinations for de--they have not the imaginative qualities grees and admission into the literary class ; or passionate enthusiasm of other Oriental 3d, the military. Each of these orders nations, neither have they the profound, ex- may again be subdivided into other three, cursive, and restless intellects of the nations so that there are in all nine mandarins, or of the west. Filial respect and veneration higher officers, in each province--all these is their most prominent instinct-their being distinguished by the quality and conotions of rule are patriarchal. From their lor of the buttons on the top of their caps. fathers and kindred their respect extends to A simple enumeration of the different detheir rulers and their Emperor, who again, nominations of the several officers of the on their parts, take care to foster and en- province of Kwang-tung, will so far indicourage such feelings, and not to outrage cate the nature of their duties, and afford a them. Public opinion exists and prevails general idea of the officials of the other to such an extent as to keep a check on provinces. There is first the Tsung-tu or bad government, or outrageously corrupt Governor-General, whose power not unfreadministration; but there is neither the quently extends over more than one prodesire nor energy to carry it further. There I vince.' Then a Governor, Superintendent
of Finance, Provincial Judge, Collector of | A governor of a province gets, nominally, Salt Duties, Grain Collector, Intendant of £50, and makes it up to £4333.
A judge Circuit, Prefect of Department and three has £43 of salary, and makes up £2000. Sub-Prefects, District Magistrate and As- The collectors of taxes from £1500 to sistants, Township Magistrate and Assist- £1000. Even a subordinate officer, with a ants, Inspector of Police, Inspector of nominal salary of £10 or £12, ekes it out, River Police, Secretary, Treasurer, Prison by various means, to £200 and £300. Master, Superintendent of Customs. The The yamun is a large building, where the Government salaries of these officials are courts of justice, prisons, and offices and very small; the highest, that of the Gover- houses of the mandarins, and other officials, nor-General, amounting only to £60 of are situated. It consists of four divisions. English money, and the lowest ranging The outermost contains the gaols, and from £12 to £20. The consequence is that places of confinement for short periods, as their incomes are made up by extortion and also the dwellings of the inferior officers. bribes, levied on the community. This, The second contains a hall of justice for the like the arrangements of some of our Euro- formal trial of causes and criminals, as also pean Governments (the Russian, for ex- apartments for public records, treasury, &c. ample), is a most unfortunate one, and The third includes the office of the mandaleads to endless abuse of justice. The vast rin himself, and rooms for the public recepextent of the empire, too, and the impossi- tion of visitors; while the innermost divibility of the most vigilant central Govern-sion comprises the private residence of the ment taking due cognisance of the whole, mandarin and his family. Attached to tends greatly to peculation and abuse of each of these establishments are the Shi Ye, authority, and to that feebleness of the the judicial advisers, and private secretaexecutive
power which prevails throughout ries of the mandarin. These men are the China.
only people in China who devote them
selves solely to the study of the law, and “ I have found it impossible,” says Mr. Mea in so far they resemble our advocates, dows, " 10 learn, with any degree of certainty, barristers, and sergeants-at-law; but they what the real incomes of the mandarins, as increased by illegal fees and special bribes, may amount are scarcely ever made mandarins (judges), to. They vary with the harvests, which, accord and none of them act as counsel for either ing as they are good or bad, render it easy or diffi- of the litigating parties in an action at cult to collect the land-tax-a proceeding in con law; their sole business is to protect the nexion with which much extortion is carried on interests of the mandarin their employer, to They vary also with the number of law-suits, and the wealih of the litigating parties ; and, lastly, point out to him the proper way of conthey vary with the characters of the individuai ducting his judicial examinations, and to mandarins. The legal incomes of the lower man.
see that the decisions he pronounces are in darins are, indeed, so notoriously insufficient, that strict accordance with the laws, so as that they have little hesitation in speaking, even to a he may not incur any of the penalties laid foreigner, of their other gains in a general way; down in the code of the Board of Civil but they have many reasons for not entering into Office, and thus be subjected to degradation particulars. Under these circumstances it is little better than a guess when I assume the highest man- nised as official servants of Government,
or dismissal. These lawyers are not recogdarins to get about ten times, the lowest about fifty times the amount of their legal incomes. One of those but are in the private employment of the in the receipt of about £22 legal income, once com- mandarins. Certain of these devote their plained feelingly to me about his poverty, and on attention to the criminal, and others to the my binting that his post was after all not a bad civil law. Besides these, there are a set of one, he protested, with some earnestness, that his nondescript retainers, who hang about the whole income did not exceed 7000 taels (£2333), mandarin, and are the negotiators of all the of which he had, he said, to give a great deal special bribes, and other illegal gains of away.”—P. 100.
their master, and a number of inferior Mr. Meadows exhibits a table of the Government clerks, who keep accounts of Government salaries of the State officials, the revenue, and make copies of all law and the actual incomes which they derive papers, and other Government business. by extortion, and other means, deduced | The judges alone investigate and decide in from the best information he could obtain. all causes and trials; there are no counsel for Thus, a governor-general receives from the prisoner, and of course nothing corresGovernment £60 per annum, but he con- ponding to juries. Threats and torture, trives to make his actual income £8333. I too, are of daily occurrence.
of a yamun is said to present a very strange levied in Amoy, and perhaps in other cities and bustling scene.
throughout the kingdom, the collector of
which is called the king of the beggars." “ The almost unceasing flail-like sounds of The tax is partly optional with the payers, beating with the bamboo, either as a punishment and is indirectly under the cognisance of for ascertained guilt, or to extort confessions and evidence- the cries of the sufferers-the voices of the Government. “ The king,” who is the examining mandarins questioning, bullying, duly elected from among the number of the and wheedling--the voices of the porters stationed beggars, calls on each householder at the at the doors, between the first and second and the beginning of the year, and ascertains the second and third divisions, transmitting, in a loud monthly subscription which he is willing to singing tone, orders for different officers to repair give, in order to be free from the annoyto certain places where they are wanted—she constant running bither and thither of some of the in ance of their visits for alms, and the clatter mates of the place, and the frequent appearance of of the sticks by which they implore relief. criminals and witnesses being escorted to and from For the sum of five or six hundred cash* a the prisons and rooms for examination-are sounds month, he gives a red piece of paper, inand sights that bewilder and agitate those who scribed with three copies of the characters have not been accustomed to them, and serve to for “great good luck,” inclosed within an heighten that dread which all Chinese entertain of outline of a jar or vase ; this is affixed to entering a yamun.”— Meadows, p. 115.
the door-post as a sign of immunity, and is The yamun of a district magistrate thus renewed at the commencement of every comprises within itself what may be called year. Any beggar overlooking this bill of the general police station on a great scale exemption, and entering a shop for relief, -the county gaol, as it were, for the cus- may be seized by the householder, and be tody of debtors and of criminals, awaiting beaten on the spot. "The king,” after trial or execution—the place where quarter- giving a certain proportion to the mandasessions and assizes are held—the offices of rins, and appropriating a certain fund for all the subordinate officers of these courts, the support of the incorporated society of and the office and residence of the chief beggars, contrives to appropriate the remandarin, who is at once judge, sheriff, mainder to his own use, and to become a coroner, and commissioner of taxes.
The beggars are covered with populous district such a building is calcu- tattered rags, wear long dishevelled hair, lated to contain from 300 to 500 indi- and are not very particular in the mode of viduals, and in a less populous place about satisfying their hunger. 200. The Chinese, however, in their domiciles, contrive to pack into amazingly beggars pass the shop of a confectioner, and
“ I observed,” says Mr. Smith, “one of these little room, so that their buildings do not stealthily slip a cake into his hand, and throw it at first view appear so extensive.
into his sleeve. One of the partners who saw the In general, the habits of the Chinese theft, ran out and followed the thief, caught him population, especially in the country dis- by the hair, made him restore the cake from the tricts, are peaceful and submissive. In the folds of the sleeve, and then, by a species of lynchlarge towns, however, especially in Canton, law very common in a country where ordinary there are frequent tumultuous ebullitions
law is expensive, and bribes must precede justice, of the mob. Their contempt and hatred gave the beggar a severe beating, and let him de
part, amid the applause of the crowd, the good of foreigners cannot be easily restrained, humor of the tradesman himself
, and a remarkable and the appellation “ Fanquee,” or “ for- nonchalance on the part of the offender.” eign devil,” is a term of common reproach. Canton, however, affords not a favorable
The Chinese cities have a general resemspecimen of Chinese manners.
In the more blance to each other. They are irregularly northern cities, and in the country districts, built, crowded within a small space—have a stranger may safely mingle with the peo- a dirty appearance, have few large or fine ple, without any other inconvenience than streets, but innumerable narrow lanes, and that arising from their excessive curiosity. are generally traversed by canals in all They are almost uniformly kind, hospita- directions, and are surrounded by walls ble, and good-humored.
and ramparts. There are few public buildA great proportion of the lower orders of ings which make any show, with the excepthe community fare but poorly, and have tion of pagodas and temples, which are great difficulty in making out their daily common both within the walls and in the bread, while hosts of beggars are to be
• A hundred cosh are worth fourpence half-penny found in all the cities. For these a tax is l of our money.